Wednesday, July 04, 2018

sociology, religion, spirituality

Max Weber’s early twentieth-century studies of the great world religions focused on the distinctive ideas of those religious systems, to be sure, but he was also interested in their social psychology
and ethos, that is, the patterns of life they engendered (Weber 1922 [1946]). The “Protestant Ethic” is not just Calvinist beliefs about salvation, it is also the everyday habits of discipline and humility those beliefs encouraged (Weber 1958).
Weber said Protestants have distinct  economic behaviors

Weber, Max. 1922 [1946]. “The Social Psychology of the World Religions.” In From Max
Weber, edited by H. Gerth, and C.W. Mills, 267–301.
———. 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, translated by T. Parsons.
New York: Scribner. Original edition, 1930.

***
Emile Durkheim’s focus was on social solidarity, but he pointed in vivid detail to the lived experience of ritual participation—what he called “collective effervescence” (Durkheim 1964).
Durkheim said religious group membership is linked to social solidarity

Durkheim, Emile. 1898 (1975). “Individualism and the Intellectuals.” In Durkheim on
Religion, edited byW. S. F. Pickering, 59–73. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
———. 1964. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, translated by J.W. Swain. New York:
Free Press

Sociological attention to the study of “spirituality” increased significantly with the cultural
shifts of the 1960s (Albanese 2001; Wuthnow 1976). Studies of seekers (Roof 1993;
Wuthnow 1998) and the “spiritual marketplace” (Roof 1999)

Berger’s (1969) classic exposition of secularization and privatization
“secularization theory” has argued that religion could survive the modern world as
a certain form of individual consciousness (Berger 1969). This was Luckmann’s
“Invisible Religion” (Luckmann 1967), and it is essentially where Durkheim ends
up in his essay on “Individualism and the Intellectuals” (Durkheim 1898 [1975]).
Luckmann and the functionalists solve the problem of modern religion by positing
“meaning” and “worldview” as quasi-religious human universals carried in individual
consciousness (Parsons 1964).

Berger, Peter L. 1969. The Sacred Canopy. Garden City, NY: Anchor Doubleday.
——— 1999. “The Desecularization of the World: A Global Overview.” In The
Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics, edited by P. L. Berger,
1–18. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Luckmann, Thomas. 1967. The Invisible Religion. New York: Macmillan

Durkheim, Emile. 1898 (1975). “Individualism and the Intellectuals.” In Durkheim on
Religion, edited byW. S. F. Pickering, 59–73. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
———. 1964. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, translated by J.W. Swain. New York:
Free Press.

Parsons, Talcott. 1964. “Religion and Modern Industrial Society.” In Religion, Culture, and
Society, edited by L. Schneider, 273–98. New York:Wiley

Secularization theories predicted that religion would
become a remote and forgotten abstraction, and for much of our field, that
remains pragmatically the case (Ecklund and Scheitle 2007).

worldwide resurgence (or rediscovery) of
religious vitality that emerged in the 1960s and beyond (Berger 1999)

to Bellah and colleagues’ Habits
of the Heart (1985), the discipline has been guided by the notion that the differentiation of
modern societies has shrunk the domain of religion to sectarian “sheltering enclaves” and to
individual consciousness, an argument that echoes Durkheim’s ([1898] 1975) observations from
earlier in 20th century. In Europe, where the declines in religious belief and participation are
far more dramatic than in the United States (Davie 2000), sociologists of religion have increasingly
turned their attention to the new and revived spiritualities that are present in the wake
of Christianity’s apparent demise (Flanagan and Jupp 2007). Heelas and Woodhead (2004), for
example, document a “holistic milieu” including yoga classes, Reiki practitioners, and more,
speculating that spiritual loyalties are being transferred from old institutions (churches) to new
ones.


Albanese, Catherine L. 1990. Nature religion in America: From the Algonkian Indians to the new age. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
———, ed. 2001. American spiritualities: A reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Wuthnow, Robert. 1976. The consciousness reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Berger, Peter L. 1969. The sacred canopy. Garden City, NY: Anchor Doubleday.
———. 1970. A rumor of angels: Modern society and the rediscovery of the supernatural. Garden City, NY: Anchor.

Bellah, Robert N., Richard Madsen,William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton. 1985. Habits of the heart.
Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chaves, Mark. 2011. American religion: Contemporary trends. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Davie, Grace. 2000. Religion in modern Europe: A memory mutates. New York: Oxford University Press

Durkheim, Emile. [1898] 1975. Individualism and the intellectuals. In Durkheim on religion, edited by William S. F.
Pickering, pp. 59–73. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
———.[1912] 1964. The elementary forms of the religious life. Translated by JosephWard Swain, New York: Free Press

Flanagan, Kieran and Peter C. Jupp, eds. 2007. A sociology of spirituality. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Hammond, Phillip E. 1992. Religion and personal autonomy: The third disestablishment in America.Columbia: University
of South Carolina Press.

Heelas, Paul and Linda Woodhead. 2004. The spiritual revolution: Why religion is giving way to spirituality. Malden,
MA: Blackwell.

Hoge, Dean R., Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens. 1994. Vanishing boundaries: The religion of mainline Protestant
baby boomers. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox.

Roof, Wade Clark. 1993. A generation of seekers. San Francisco: Harper.
———. 1999. Spiritual marketplace: Baby boomers and the remaking of American religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
———. 2003. Religion and spirituality: Toward an integrated analysis. In Handbook of the sociology of religion, edited by Michele Dillon, pp. 137–48. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schmidt, Leigh Eric. 2005. Restless souls: The making of American spirituality. San Francisco: Harper.

Seligman, Adam. 2000. Modernity’s wager: Authority, the self, and transcendence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Smith, Christian. 2009. Souls in transition: The religious and spiritual lives of emerging adults. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sutcliffe, Steven. 2003. Children of the new age: A history of spiritual practices. New York: Routledge.

Taylor, Charles. 2007. A secular age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Weber, Max. [1922] 1963. The sociology of religion. Boston: Beacon

Weber, Max. [1922] 1963. The sociology of religion. Boston: Beacon.

Wuthnow, Robert. 1976. The consciousness reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———. 1998. After heaven: Spirituality in America since the 1950s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———. 2001. Creative spirituality: The way of the artist. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Zinnbauer, Brian J., Kenneth I. Pargament, Brenda Cole, Mark S. Rye, Eric M. Butter, Timothy G. Belavich, Kathleen M. Hipp, Allie B. Scott, and Jill L. Kadar. 1997. Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36(4):549–64.

Zinnbauer, Brian J., Kenneth I. Pargament, and Allie B. Scott. 1999. The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality 67(6):889–919.



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