Sunday, June 17, 2018

Theory of self-transcendence
 Reed (2008) developed a midrange nursing theory of self-transcendence. She described self-transcendence as an inherent process that was a gradual, nonlinear expansion of conceptual boundaries, that is, one’s personal limits or internal rules and expectations of oneself, others, and the world. Expansion of boundaries transpired within four dimensions. Expansion of intrapersonal boundaries involved a greater awareness of one’s own philosophy, values, and dreams. Interpersonal boundaries related to interactions with others and with the environment. Temporal boundaries expanded to allow integration of one’s past and future to make sense of the present. Expansion of transpersonal boundaries related to a connection with dimensions beyond the here and now One’s perspective was intrinsically different from midlife; transcendent individuals were able to tolerate greater ambiguity and uncertainty (Reed, 2008).
Reed argued that although self-transcendence was an inherent process of maturation and development, self-transcendence could also be achieved by individuals of any age when faced with a loss, trauma, or illness that created a sense of vulnerability and awareness of mortality. The outcome of self-transcendence was well-being, marked by life satisfaction, positive self-concept, hopefulness, and a sense of meaning in life (Reed, 2009). Reed suggested factors that might promote  development of self-transcendence, including altruism, generativity, introspection, spirituality, lifelong learning, group therapy, creativity, journaling, meditation, and sharing wisdom with others.

Overall, a change from a relatively compact, concentrated, self-centred ego to a

more open, fluid, blurred self. "The change in the perception of objects can include an elimination of the borders between "you" and "me", and between "us" and "them". An impression of being «one all together» becomes dominant. As a consequence, the degree of self-centeredness will diminish. To a certain extent the enclosed self is disaggregated and substituted with a cosmic self."; Progression from egocentricity toward awareness of a dimension greater than the self and a sense of being an integral part of the universe; characterized by Broadened personal boundaries within interpersonal, intrapersonal, transpersonal, and temporal dimensions (Reed, 2008, 2009).

Reed, P. G. (2008). The theory of self-transcendence. In P. R. Smith & M. J. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (2nd ed., pp. 105-130). New York, NY: Springer.

Reed, P. G. (2009). Demystifying self-transcendence for mental health nursing practice and research. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 397-400.

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