Wednesday, June 06, 2018

Lang and Carstensen (2002) found that when
individuals’ future time was perceived as limited, they were more likely
to choose generative actions, such as, “Leave my mark on this world”
(p. 129).


individuals
age, they focus less on themselves and more on giving back to society
and leaving a legacy (Einolf, 2014).

Grant and Wade-Benzoni (2009)
link generativity to death reflection, asserting that as individuals age,
they contemplate the meaning of their lives and reflect on how others
will see them after they have passed.

Grant, A. M., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (2009). The hot and cool of
death awareness at work: Mortality cues, aging, and self-protective
and prosocial motivations. Academy of Management Review, 34,
600–622. doi:10.5465/AMR.2009.44882929

Mor Barak (1995), in the creation
of her Meaning of Work Scale, identified generativity as one of four
factors related to the meaning of work in later life, operationalizing
generativity in work as sharing skills with younger people, teaching
and training others, using and demonstrating one’s skills and abilities,
and passing knowledge on to the next generation.

Mor Barak, M. (1995). The meaning of work and older adults seeking
employment: The generativity factor. The International Journal
of Aging and Human Development, 41, 325–344. doi:10.2190/
VGTG-EPK6-Q4BH-Q67Q

Zacher, Schmitt, and
Gielnik (2012) operationalized generativity as older entrepreneurs
having succession plans for younger family members; they found that
generativity was a powerful motivator for older German entrepreneurs,
fully mediating the positive association between age and succession
planning. The ventures that older adults begin in later life may,
as an extension of this theory, have a great deal of personal meaning to
them, enabling these entrepreneurs to leave a lasting, positive impact
on their families and society overall. Although profit would most certainly
be a motivation for many self-employed older adults, the theory
of generativity suggests that making a difference in one’s family or community
through self-employment activities may become more important
in later life than in younger years

Zacher, H., Schmitt, A., & Gielnik, M. M. (2012). Stepping into my
shoes: Generativity as a mediator of the relationship between business
owners’ age and family succession. Ageing & Society, 32, 673–
696. doi:10.1017/S0144686X11000547

relationship between age and work motivation (e.g., Bertolino, Zacher,
& Kooij, 2015; Kanfer & Ackerman, 2004; Kooij, de Lange, Jansen, &
Dikkers, 2007).

Kooij and colleagues (2007)
found that age-related factors, including chronological age, biological
age (e.g., physical health), and the sense of being “old” were negatively
associated with motivation to work.

Kooij, D., de Lange, A., Jansen, P., & Dikkers, J. (2007). Older
worker’s motivation to continue to work: Five meanings
of age. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 364–394.
doi:10.1108/02683940810869015


Ng and Feldman (2015), in a meta-analysis
of more than 400 empirical articles, reported conflicting results on the
moderating effects of age in the relationship between job autonomy
and work outcomes. Specifically, job autonomy was found to have a
stronger relationship in older workers than younger workers in relation
to job self-efficacy, self-rated job performance, and emotional exhaustion;
however, job autonomy was found to have a weaker relationship
in older workers than younger workers in relation to job satisfaction,
work engagement, job stress, and poor mental health

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2015). The moderating effects of
age in the relationships of job autonomy to work outcomes. Work,
Aging and Retirement, 1, 64–78. doi:10.1093/workar/wau003

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