Maddi (1970) has reported that failure to find meaning leads to existential sickness. However,
unlike Frankl who believes that there is an ultimate meaning to be discovered, Maddi emphasizes
that individuals must create their own meanings through symbolism, imagination and judgement. Symbolism is an active cognitive process that organizes the welter of personal experiences
into coherent categories.
Imagination is the creative process of generating alternative representations of real experience. Judgement is an evaluative process, having to do with value/moral decisions. Together, these three
mental processes afford satisfaction to one's deep-rooted need for meaning and coherence.
Klinger (1977) conceptualizes that personal meaning derives from the pursuit of socially endorsed
incentive objects. It is through commitment to valuable incentives that one experiences meaning in life.