Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Hierarchical theories of cognitive development

1.agree with Piaget in viewing development in terms of a hierarchical stage sequence
2.propose advanced stages of conceptual thought beyond formal operations

Richards and Commons
  • Postformal operations are qualitatively distinct and higher stages of cognition than formal operations. Postformal operations have four stages. 
  1. In the first stage (systematic), systems supplant propositions as the object of cognitive operation (systems of relations). 
  2. In the second stage (meta-systematic), the thinker constructs relationship between systems (super-system/relations among systems). 
  3. In the third stage (paradigmatic), relations between systems are recognized as a unified paradigm (fields/systems of supersystems). 
  4. In the fourth stage (cross-paradigmatic), different paradigms are comprehended and related (relations between fields). 

Fischer, Kenny, Pipp

  • the emergence of qualitatively distinct (cognitive) skill levels is age dependent 
  • level of skill complexity; skill structures can be hierarchically ordered in terms of complexity, falling within three major tiers: sensorimotor, concrete representation, abstraction
  • four distinct levels within the tier of abstraction: abstract skill, abstraction skill
  1. age 10-12: onset of formal operations (formal operations begin)
  2. age 14-16: full competence in formal operations
  3. abstract system (about 20): postformal, relate components of one abstraction to those of another
  4. systems of abstract systems (about 25): integrates two or more abstract systems in terms of some general theory or framework

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