2.propose advanced stages of conceptual thought beyond formal operations
Richards and Commons
- Postformal operations are qualitatively distinct and higher stages of cognition than formal operations. Postformal operations have four stages.
- In the first stage (systematic), systems supplant propositions as the object of cognitive operation (systems of relations).
- In the second stage (meta-systematic), the thinker constructs relationship between systems (super-system/relations among systems).
- In the third stage (paradigmatic), relations between systems are recognized as a unified paradigm (fields/systems of supersystems).
- In the fourth stage (cross-paradigmatic), different paradigms are comprehended and related (relations between fields).
Fischer, Kenny, Pipp
- the emergence of qualitatively distinct (cognitive) skill levels is age dependent
- level of skill complexity; skill structures can be hierarchically ordered in terms of complexity, falling within three major tiers: sensorimotor, concrete representation, abstraction
- four distinct levels within the tier of abstraction: abstract skill, abstraction skill
- age 10-12: onset of formal operations (formal operations begin)
- age 14-16: full competence in formal operations
- abstract system (about 20): postformal, relate components of one abstraction to those of another
- systems of abstract systems (about 25): integrates two or more abstract systems in terms of some general theory or framework