Bianchi (1987) uncovered retrospective evidence of a transformation of earlier religious and
ethical interest into a less moralistic and more personalized spirituality by midlife
Bianchi, E. (1987). Aging as a spiritual journey (2nd ed.).NewYork: Crossroad.
Jung, C. G. (1964). Man and his symbols. New York: Laurel.
Chinen, A. B. (1989). In the ever after: Fairy tales and the second half of life.Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications
Roof, W. C. (1993). A generation of seekers. The spiritual journeys of the baby boom generation. San Francisco: Harper & Row
Wuthnow (1998), for example, drawing on a long tradition in religious formation (e.g., dating back to
Saints Ignatius and Benedict), emphasizes a practice oriented spirituality, one that is based on performance of intentional activities aimed at relating to the sacred.
Atchley, R. (1997). Everyday mysticism: Spiritual development in later adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 4, 123–134.
Neuman, M. (1982). The religious structure of a spirituality. American Benedictine Review, 33, 115–148.
spirituality is the product of the maturational process that occurs in the course of adult life (Alexander et al., 1990; Sinnott, 1994).
Alexander C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C., Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme- Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of consciousness:
Maharishi’s Vedic psychology of human development. In C. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth (pp. 286–341). New York: Oxford University Press
Sinnott, J. (1994). Development and yearning: Cognitive aspects of spiritual development. Journal of Adult Development, 1, 91–99.
middle aged and older adults tend to go beyond the linear and strictly logical modes of apprehending
reality described by Piaget’s model of early cognitive development (e.g., Piaget & Inhelder, 1969).---Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002).
Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books. (Originally published in 1966)
Burke (1999) suggests that the adverse social conditions and discontinuities experienced by African Americans may explain why Black women interviewed in her study tended to be more spiritual than White women.
Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer
McFadden (1996a) proposes that spirituality may be especially meaningful in old age because
of the many losses and difficulties encountered in late life.
McFadden, S. (1996a). Religion and spirituality. In Encyclopedia of Gerontology (Vol. 2, pp. 387–397). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
McFadden, S. (1996b). Religion, spirituality, and aging. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (pp. 162–177). San Diego,CA: Academic Press
Tornstam (1994, 1999) found retrospective evidence for a self-perceived shift toward gerotranscendence (i.e., a move away from a materialistic and pragmatic view of the world toward a more cosmic and transcendent one) among older adults.
Tornstam, L. (1994). Gero-transcendence: A theoretical and empirical exploration. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the religious dimension (pp. 203–225).Westport,CT: Auburn House
Tornstam, L. (1999). Late-life transcendence: A new developmental perspective on aging. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 178–202). New York: Springer. Tornstam, 1999)
In a cross-sectional study, Fowler (1981) reported a positive relation between age and higher
stages of faith development characterized by a sense of unity and personal transcendence. Support for an association between age and changes in modes of knowing that are conducive to spiritual development was provided by Labouvie-Vief, DeVoe, and Bulka (1989), who found a positive relation between age and the ability to integrate cognitive and emotional perspectives, including a greater comfort with metaphor and subjectivity.
Labouvie-Vief,G., DeVoe, M.,&Bulka,D. (1989). Speaking about feelings: Conceptions of emotion across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 3, 425–437
The development of spirituality has also been associated with individual differences in personality, including greater individualism (Roof, 1993, 1999) and a stronger need for independence (Zinnbauer et al., 1997).
Roof, W. C. (1993). A generation of seekers. The spiritual journeys of the baby boom generation. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Roof, W. C. (1999). Spiritual marketplace: Baby boomers and the remaking of American religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Shulik (1988) argues for the presence of a positive relation between spiritual, ego, and moral development association between spiritual and cognitive development (Sinnott, 1994) raises
questions about the role of intelligence in the process
of spiritual growth.
Shulik, R. (1988). Faith development in older adults. Educational Gerontology, 14, 291–301.
Gardner (1993) does not include spirituality in his multifaceted model of intelligence.
Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
Emmons (1999), however, favors the notion of a spiritual intelligence because he argues that spirituality has the capacity to enhance an individual’s level of adaptive functioning
Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns. New York: Guilford Press.
If spiritual growth is associated with cognitive (e.g., Sinnott, 1994), and ego and moral (Shulik, 1988) development