Flood’s (2006) theory of successful aging among various older adult populations was explored in a series of three descriptive cross-sectional surveys (McCarthy, 2009, 2011; McCarthy et al, 2012).
Flood, M. (2006). A mid-range theory of successful aging. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 9(2), 35-39.
McCarthy, V. L. (2011). A new look at successful aging: Exploring a mid-range nursing theory among older adults. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 15(1), 17-21
Tornstam (1994) developed a 10-item, three-dimensional Gerotranscendence Scale.
Tornstam, L. (1994). Gerotranscendence: A theoretical and empirical exploration. In I. E. Thomas & S. A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the religious dimension (pp. 203-225). Westport, CT: Auburn House.
A number of studies were conducted by Tornstam (1997b, 2000, 2003) and others, mostly with Scandinavian samples (Braam, Bramsen, van Tilburg, van der Ploeg, & Deeg, 2006; Wadensten & Carlsson, 2003, 2005; Wadensten & Hägglund, 2006).
Tornstam, L. (1997b). Gerotranscendence in a broad cross-sectional perspective. Journal of Aging and Identity, 2(1), 17-36.
Tornstam, L. (2000). Transcendence in later life. Generations, 23(4), 10-14.
Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from http://www.soc.uu.se/sv/publikationer/publikationer-pa-institutionen/ovrigapublikationer/
(Online publication from The Social Gerontology Group, Uppsala, Sweden)
Braam, A. W., Bramsen, I., van Tilburg, T. G., van der Ploeg, H. M., & Deeg, D. (2006). Cosmic transcendence and framework of meaning in life: Patterns among older adults in The Netherlands. Journal of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, S121-S128
Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2003). Nursing theory views on how to support the process of ageing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42, 118-124.
Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2005). Theory-driven guidelines for practical care of older people, based on the theory of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41, 462-470.
Wadensten, B., & Hägglund, D. (2006). Older people’s experience of participating in a reminiscence group with a gerotranscendental perspective: Reminiscence group with a gerotranscendental perspective in practice. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 1, 159-167.
Self-Transcendence Scale, developed by Reed (1989b) among samples of older adults and adults facing end-of-life issues, consisted of 15 items that measured perceptions of the degree or level of transcendence. Items included the following: “sharing my wisdom and experience with others,” “helping others in some way,” and “finding meaning in my past experiences.”
Reed. P. G. (1989b). Self-transcendence in aging scale: Mental health of older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 11, 161-163.