Saturday, April 28, 2018

Flood’s (2006) theory of successful aging among various older adult populations was explored in a series of three descriptive cross-sectional surveys (McCarthy, 2009, 2011; McCarthy et al, 2012).

Flood, M. (2006). A mid-range theory of successful aging. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 9(2), 35-39.

McCarthy, V. L. (2011). A new look at successful aging: Exploring a mid-range nursing theory among older adults. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 15(1), 17-21

Tornstam (1994) developed a 10-item, three-dimensional Gerotranscendence Scale.
Tornstam, L. (1994). Gerotranscendence: A theoretical and empirical exploration. In I. E. Thomas & S. A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the religious dimension (pp. 203-225). Westport, CT: Auburn House.

A number of studies were conducted by Tornstam (1997b, 2000, 2003) and others, mostly with Scandinavian samples (Braam, Bramsen, van Tilburg, van der Ploeg, & Deeg, 2006; Wadensten & Carlsson, 2003, 2005; Wadensten & Hägglund, 2006).

Tornstam, L. (1997b). Gerotranscendence in a broad cross-sectional perspective. Journal of Aging and Identity, 2(1), 17-36.
Tornstam, L. (2000). Transcendence in later life. Generations, 23(4), 10-14.
Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from
(Online publication from The Social Gerontology Group, Uppsala, Sweden)

Braam, A. W., Bramsen, I., van Tilburg, T. G., van der Ploeg, H. M., & Deeg, D. (2006). Cosmic transcendence and framework of meaning in life: Patterns among older adults in The Netherlands. Journal of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61, S121-S128

Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2003). Nursing theory views on how to support the process of ageing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42, 118-124.

Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2005). Theory-driven guidelines for practical care of older people, based on the theory of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41, 462-470.

Wadensten, B., & Hägglund, D. (2006). Older people’s experience of participating in a reminiscence group with a gerotranscendental perspective: Reminiscence group with a gerotranscendental perspective in practice. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 1, 159-167.

Self-Transcendence Scale, developed by Reed (1989b) among samples of older adults and adults facing end-of-life issues, consisted of 15 items that measured perceptions of the degree or level of transcendence. Items included the following: “sharing my wisdom and experience with others,” “helping others in some way,” and “finding meaning in my past experiences.”

Reed. P. G. (1989b). Self-transcendence in aging scale: Mental health of older adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 11, 161-163.

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