Saturday, April 28, 2018

culture, spirituality

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal


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"Faith Maturity Scale" for Chinese: A Revision and Construct Validation

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Houtman, Dick, and Stef Aupers. 2007. The spiritual turn and the decline of tradition: The spread of post-Christian spirituality in 14 Western counties, 1981–2000. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 46(3):305–20.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 420–430. doi:10.1177/1745691610375557

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Schwartz, S. H., M. Ros. 1995. Values in the west: A theoretical and empirical challenge of the individualism-collectivism cultural dimension. World Psych. 1(2) 91–122

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Ralston, D. A., D. A. Holt, R. H. Terpstra, K. C. Yu. 1997. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. J. Internat. Bus. Stud. 28 177–208.

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A Social Institutional Approach to Identifying Generation Cohorts in China with a comparison with US consumers, KH Hung - ‎2007

Carolyn P. Egri, David A. Ralston, (2004) Generation Cohorts and Personal Values: A Comparison of China and the United States. Organization Science 15(2):210-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1030.0048

Yi, X., Ribbens, B., & Morgan, C. N. (2010). Generational differences in China: Career implications.

Career Development International, 15, 601–620.

Wils, T., Saba, T., Waxin, M.-F., & Labelle, C. (2011). Intergenerational and intercultural differences
in work values in quebec and the United Arab Emirates. Industrial Relations, 66,

445–469.

DiDi, 2018, Paths to Enlightenment: Constructing Buddhist Identities in Mainland China and
the United States 

Zhang, Tong, and Barry Schwartz. 1997. “Confucius and the Cultural Revolution: A Study

in Collective Memory.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 11: 189–212.

Yang, Fenggang, and Anning Hu. 2012. “Mapping Chinese Folk Religion in Mainland China

and Taiwan.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 51: 505–21.

Yang, Fenggang. 2006. “The Red, Black, and Gray Markets of Religion in China.” Sociological

Quarterly 47: 93–122

Tweed, Roger G., and Darrin R. Lehman. 2002. “Learning Considered Within a Cultural

Context: Confucian and Socratic Approaches.” American Psychologist 57: 89–99.

Stalnaker, Aaron. 2013. “Confucianism, Democracy, and the Virtue of Deference.” Dao 12:

441–59.

Singelis, Theodore M., Harry C. Triandis, Dharm P. S. Bhawuk, and Michele J. Gelfand. 1995.
“Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: A Theoretical

and Measurement Refinement.” Cross-Cultural Research 29: 240–75

Schak, David C. 2008. “Gender and Buddhism in Taiwan.” Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhist

Studies 9: 145–74.

Ralston, David A., David H. Holt, Robert H. Terpstra, and Yu Kai-Cheng. 1997. “The Impact
of National Culture and Economic Ideology on Managerial Work Values: A Study of
the United States, Russia, Japan, and China.” Journal of International Business Studies 28:

177–207.

Oyserman, Daphna, Heather M. Coon, and Markus Kemmelmeier. 2002. “Rethinking
Individualism and Collectivism: Evaluation of Theoretical Assumptions and Meta-

Analyses.” Psychological Bulletin 128: 3–72.

O’Dwyer, Shaun. 2003. “Democracy and Confucian Values.” Philosophy East and West 53:

39–63.

Leamaster, Reid J., and Anning Hu. 2014. “Popular Buddhists: The Relationship between
Popular Religious Involvement and Buddhist Identity in Contemporary China.” Sociology

of Religion 75: 234–59.

Ho, David Yau Fai, and Rainbow Tin Hung Ho. 2008. “Knowledge Is a Dangerous Thing:
Authority Relations, Ideological Conservatism, and Creativity in Confucian-Heritage 
Cultures.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38: 67–86.

Ralston, D.A., S.P. Egri, S. Stewart, RH. Terpstra and Y. Kaicheng. "Doing Business in the 21SI Century with the New Generation of Chinese Managers: A Study of Generational Shifts in Work Values in China," Journal of International Business Studies, 30:2, 1999, pp. 415-428

Edmunds, J. and Turner, B. (2005), “Global generations: social change in the twentieth century”,

The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 56 No. 4, pp. 559-77.

Hui-Chun, Y., & Miller, P. (2003). The generation gap and cultural influence: A Taiwan empirical investigation. Cross-Cultural Management, 10, 23–41. doi:10.1108/13527600310797621

Dov Cohen and Alex Gunz, 2002, AS SEEN BY THE OTHER . . . :Perspectives on the Self in the Memories and Emotional Perceptions of Easterners and Westerners

Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Construal and Well-Being between Japan and South Korea: The Role of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Relational Selves.

Park J1, Norasakkunkit V2, Kashima Y3.

Cogin, J. (2012). Are generational differences in work values fact or fiction? Multi-country evidence and implications. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(11), 2268-2294

Wong, C. and Chung, K. (2003), “Work values of Chinese food service managers”, International

Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 66-75.

Mok, C., Pine, R. and Pizam, A. (1998), “Work values of Chinese hotel managers”, Journal of
Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 1-16.

Hofstede, G. (1980), Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values,
Sage, Beverly Hills, CA

Margaret Lindorff. 2010. The personal values of tomorrow's workforce: Similarities and differences across sex and nationality. Journal of Management & Organization 16:03, 353-368

Thierry Wils, Tania Saba, Marie-France Waxin, Christiane Labelle. 2011. Intergenerational and
Intercultural Differences in Work Values in Quebec and the United Arab Emirates. Relations industrielles 66:3, 445.

Hong-kin Kwok. 2012. The Generation Y’s Working Encounter: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong
and other Chinese Cities. Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33:2, 231-249. [Crossref]


Xiang Yi, Barbara Ribbens, Linna Fu, Weibo Cheng. 2015. Variation in career and workplace attitudes by generation, gender, and culture differences in career perceptions in the United States and China. Employee Relations 37:1, 66-82.

Sven Hauff, Stefan Kirchner. 2015. Identifying work value patterns: cross-national comparison and

historical dynamics. International Journal of Manpower 36:2, 151-168. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]

YangJun, Jun Yang, YuChun-Sheng, Chun-Sheng Yu, WuJun, Jun Wu. Work values across generations in China. Chinese Management Studies,

Miller, P. and Yu, H.C. (2003), “Organisational values and generational values: a cross cultural

study”, Australasian Journal of Business & Social Enquiry, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 138-53.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution.

Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 420–430.

Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). CyberOstracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748–762. (for survey data collection)

Twenge, J. M., & Crocker, J. (2002). Race and self-esteem: Meta-analyses comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians and Comment on Gray-Little and Hafdahl (2000).

Psychological Bulletin, 128, 371–408.

Plaut, V. C., Markus, H. R., & Lachman, M. E. (2002). Place matters: Consensual features and regional variations in America well-being and self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 160–184.

Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism:

Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and

motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.

use key word search in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

Kurman, J., & Sriram, N. (2002). Interrelationships among vertical and horizontal collectivism, modesty, and self-enhancement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 71–86.

Kurman, J. (2001). Self-enhancement: Is it restricted to individualistic cultures? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1705–1716.

Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Matsumoto, H. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the
construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of

Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1245–1267

Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., & Kurokawa, M. (2000). Culture, emotion, and well-being: Good feelings in Japan and the United States. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 93–124.

Heine, S. J., & Lehman, D. R. (1997). The cultural construction of self-enhancement: An examination of group-serving biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1268–1283.

Gray-Little, B., & Hafdahl, A. R. (2000). Factors influencing racial comparisons of self-esteem:

A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 26–54.

Fukunishi, I., Nakagawa, T., Nakamura, H., Li, K., Hua, Z. Q., & Kratz, T. S. (1996). Relationships
between Type A behavior, narcissism, and maternal closeness for college students in Japan, the United States of America, and the People s Republic of China. Psychological Reports, 78, 939–944

Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.
***
representativeness of a sample collected on the Internet.
Recent studies have reviewed the literature and concluded that these samples are just
as representative as college undergraduate samples, and possibly more representative

(Srivastava et al., in press; Robins et al., 2002; Williams, Cheung, & Choi, 2000).
Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6
check this paper for survey collection method --- races vs residence
***
self-conceptualization varies across international boundaries. Much of this research focuses on differences stemming from collectivistic versus individualistic cultures.

ethnic differences in narcissism somewhat similar to those in self-esteem. These differences
remained even after reported income level and age were controlled. We also found evidence that narcissism varies across world region, with Americans reporting the highest levels of narcissism, followed by Europeans, Canadians, Asians, and Middle Easterners.

Oyserman et al. (2002) reported consistent differences in collectivistic and individualistic orientations when comparing Americans with Europeans, Asians, Africans, and Middle-Easterners.

Kitayama, Markus, and Matsumoto (1997) examined how collectivistic and individualistic culture shapes situational perceptions. American participants were more likely to identify situations where self-esteem enhancement was likely whereas Japanese participants were more likely to identify situations where self-criticism was the likely outcome.

people from individualistic cultures, in comparison to people from collectivistic cultures, agree more strongly with self-relevant positive emotions (Lee, Jones, & Mineyama, 2002), are less modest (Kurman & Sriram, 2002), are more likely to project their own feelings onto others and recall personal situations from their own perspective as opposed to the perspective of others (Cohen
&Gunz, 2002), are more likely to engage in agentic self-enhancement (Kurman, 2001), and tend to report well-being as more closely associated with emotions that are interpersonally distancing (e.g., pride) (Kitayama, Markus, & Kurokawa, 2000).

individualism encourages greater focus on the self whereas collectivism promotes greater focus on the group. Thus, individualistic promotion of self-focus over other-focus should be reflected in greater narcissism being expressed in people from more individualistic cultures.

Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6
check this paper for survey collection method --- races vs residence

***
Fukunishi et al. (1996) found that the Chinese are more narcissistic than Americans, but the Japanese are less narcissistic than Americans
Fukunishi, I., Nakagawa, T., Nakamura, H., Li, K., Hua, Z. Q., & Kratz, T. S. (1996). Relationships
between Type A behavior, narcissism, and maternal closeness for college students in Japan, the United States of America, and the People s Republic of China. Psychological Reports, 78, 939–944.


Robins, Trzniewski, Tracy, Gosling, and Potter (2002) collected self-esteem reports from a worldwide sample of participants. Another set of researchers used the Internet to collect self-report personality questionnaires from a large set of respondents representing different ages (Srivastava, John, Gosling, & Potter, in press).
Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6


people and countries that are wealthier are more likely to champion autonomy and self-sufficiency and to focus on the realization of individual goal (e.g., Hofstede, 1980; Inglehart & Baker, 2000).


Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65, 19–51


***


individually oriented people and countries tend to be more narcissistic than those that are more collectively

focused (Foster, Campbell, & Twenge, 2003).
**
culture strongly influences our personalities and views of self (e.g., Heine & Lehman, 1997; Markus & Kitayama, 
1991).

Heine, S. J., & Lehman, D. R. (1997). The cultural construction of self-enhancement: An examination of

group-serving biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1268–1283

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and

motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
**

Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism:

Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.


Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6


Hung, K. H.,Gu, F. F.,&Yim, C. K. (2007).A social institutional approach to identifying generational cohorts in China with a comparison with American consumers. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 836–853.


Xiang Yi, Barbara Ribbens, Caryn N. Morgan. 2010. Generational differences in China: career implications. Career Development International 15:6, 601-620. 

Zhou and Hou (1999) who
studied the effects of the “send down” policy that occurred during the Cultural
Revolution in China, which resulted in a massive movement of educated urban
youth to rural areas to work. Zhou and Hou examined how this large-scale social
policy aimed at social redistribution was carried out and what factors influenced
who was sent down and who was allowed to return and how state policy shaped
and altered individual life courses. In some ways, this policy backfired because
the cohorts who experienced the send down policy (some 17 million young
people over a 12-year period) produced a Generation of reformers who were
the instigators of the reform of the Chinese agricultural production system and
provided the roots of a movement toward market economies in China. What is
unique about the Zhou and Hou research is that it demonstrates Mannheim’s
(1927/1952) notion of the stratification of experience and illustrates Mannheim’s
distinction between generational location and generation in actuality.
Zhou, X., & Hou, L. (1999). Children of the cultural revolution: The state and the life course in the
People’s Republic of China. American Sociological Review, 64, 12–36.

Journal of International Business Studies
June 1999, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 415–427 | Cite as
Doing Business in the 21st Century with the New Generation of Chinese Managers: A Study of Generational Shifts in Work Values in China

Paths to Enlightenment: Constructing Buddhist Identities in Mainland China and the United States
Di Di
Sociology of Religion, sry003, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sry003

Religion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: The Role of Government Regulation
Marta Elliott, R. David Hayward
Sociology of Religion, Volume 70, Issue 3, 1 October 2009, Pages 285–310, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srp028

Discovering a Blissful Island: Religious Involvement and Happiness in Taiwan
Eric Y. Liu, Harold G. Koenig, Dedong Wei
Sociology of Religion, Volume 73, Issue 1, 1 March 2012, Pages 46–68, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srr032

2011 Paul Hanly Furfey Lecture Is There a Crisis of Secularism in Western Europe?
Tariq Modood
Sociology of Religion, Volume 73, Issue 2, 1 June 2012, Pages 130–149, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srs028

Finding Jesus in the Holy Land and Taking Him to China: Chinese Temporary Migrant Workers in Israel Converting to Evangelical Christianity
Barak Kalir
Sociology of Religion, Volume 70, Issue 2, 1 July 2009, Pages 130–156, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srp027

Christian Values in Communist China
Fenggang Yang
Sociology of Religion, Volume 76, Issue 4, 1 December 2015, Pages 479–480, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srv048

Popular Buddhists: The Relationship between Popular Religious Involvement and Buddhist Identity in Contemporary China
Reid J. Leamaster, Anning Hu
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 2, 1 June 2014, Pages 234–259, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srt057

What about China? Religious Vitality in the Most Secular and Rapidly Modernizing Society
Fenggang Yang
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 4, 1 December 2014, Pages 564–578, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru062

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological Well-Being in Adult Life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(4), 99-104
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definition of psychological constructs such as spirituality tends to vary across cultures (Stifoss-Hanssen, 1995; William, Feldt,&Amelang, 1997; Wink&Dillon, 2002), and that this tendency is more evident when the cultures share few historical and ideological traditions (Takahashi & Bordia, 2000). Most theoretical discussions and empirical studies so far, however, have been carried out in the U.S.
and Western Europe with a strong Judeo-Christian focus (e.g., Zinnbauer et al., 1997). The concept of spirituality, therefore, warrants a cross-cultural investigation of implicit theories in order to provide a broader and more inclusive framework (Richards & Bergin, 1999).

@Takahashi, M., & Ide, S. (2003). Implicit Theories of Spirituality Across Three Generations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison in the U.S. and Japan. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 15(4), 15-38
**

Cultural psychologists have focused attention on between-society differences in the likelihood of focusing on the "me" versus the "us" aspects of the self (Markus & Oyserman, 1989; Oyserman, 1993; Triandis, 1 989). For example, Americans are described as more likely than East Asians to take a "me" perspective (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
127). New York: Springer-Verlag

Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 993-1009.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological
Review, 96, 506-520.

Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion,
and motivation. Psychological Review, 20, 568-579

In contrast, social identity researchers demonstrate that whether one takes a "me" or an "us" perspective is not fixed by culture but influenced by context (Brewer, 1991; Brewer & Gardner, 1996; Hogg, 2003, 2006). More situated approaches demonstrate empirically that small shifts in contexts influence whether anyone, American or East Asian, takes on "me" or "us" perspectives (for reviews,see Oyserman, 2007, in press; Oyserman & Lee, 2008a, 2008b; Oyserman & Sorensen,
2009). Taking on a "me" or an "us" perspective influences perception and mental procedures more generally, as we discuss in  the section on self-concept.

Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1 7, 475-482.

Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this "we"?: Levels of collective identity and
self representations. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93.

Hogg, M. A. (2003). Social identity. In M. R. Leary & ]. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of
self and identity (pp. 462-479). New York: Guilford Press.

Hogg, M. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. ]. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological
theories (pp. 1 1 1-136). Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

Oyserman, D. (2007). Social identity and selfregulation. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins
(Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 432-453). New York: Guilford Press.

Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008a). Does culture influence what and how we think?: Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3 1 1-342.

Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008b). A situated cognition perspective on culture: Effects
of priming cultural syndromes on cognition and motivation. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 237-265). New York: Elsevier.

Oyserman, D., & Sorensen, N. (2009}. Understanding cultural syndrome effects on what and how we think: A situated cognition model. In R. Wyer, Y.-Y. Hong, & C .-Y. Chiu (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 25-52). New York: Psychology Press.

@Self, Self-Concept, and Identity by Daphna Oyserman, Kristen Elmore, George Smith
Handbook of Self and Identity, Edited by Mark R. Leary, June Price Tangney

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