definition of psychological constructs such as spirituality tends to vary across cultures (Stifoss-Hanssen, 1995; William, Feldt,&Amelang, 1997; Wink&Dillon, 2002), and that this tendency is more evident when the cultures share few historical and ideological traditions (Takahashi & Bordia, 2000). Most theoretical discussions and empirical studies so far, however, have been carried out in the U.S.
and Western Europe with a strong Judeo-Christian focus (e.g., Zinnbauer et al., 1997). The concept of spirituality, therefore, warrants a cross-cultural investigation of implicit theories in order to provide a broader and more inclusive framework (Richards & Bergin, 1999).
@Takahashi, M., & Ide, S. (2003). Implicit Theories of Spirituality Across Three Generations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison in the U.S. and Japan. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 15(4), 15-38
Cultural psychologists have focused attention on between-society differences in the likelihood of focusing on the "me" versus the "us" aspects of the self (Markus & Oyserman, 1989; Oyserman, 1993; Triandis, 1 989). For example, Americans are described as more likely than East Asians to take a "me" perspective (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).
Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
127). New York: Springer-Verlag
Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 993-1009.
Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological
Review, 96, 506-520.
Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion,
and motivation. Psychological Review, 20, 568-579
In contrast, social identity researchers demonstrate that whether one takes a "me" or an "us" perspective is not fixed by culture but influenced by context (Brewer, 1991; Brewer & Gardner, 1996; Hogg, 2003, 2006). More situated approaches demonstrate empirically that small shifts in contexts influence whether anyone, American or East Asian, takes on "me" or "us" perspectives (for reviews,see Oyserman, 2007, in press; Oyserman & Lee, 2008a, 2008b; Oyserman & Sorensen,
2009). Taking on a "me" or an "us" perspective influences perception and mental procedures more generally, as we discuss in the section on self-concept.
Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1 7, 475-482.
Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this "we"?: Levels of collective identity and
self representations. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93.
Hogg, M. A. (2003). Social identity. In M. R. Leary & ]. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of
self and identity (pp. 462-479). New York: Guilford Press.
Hogg, M. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. ]. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological
theories (pp. 1 1 1-136). Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.
Oyserman, D. (2007). Social identity and selfregulation. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins
(Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 432-453). New York: Guilford Press.
Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008a). Does culture influence what and how we think?: Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3 1 1-342.
Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008b). A situated cognition perspective on culture: Effects
of priming cultural syndromes on cognition and motivation. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 237-265). New York: Elsevier.
Oyserman, D., & Sorensen, N. (2009}. Understanding cultural syndrome effects on what and how we think: A situated cognition model. In R. Wyer, Y.-Y. Hong, & C .-Y. Chiu (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 25-52). New York: Psychology Press.
@Self, Self-Concept, and Identity by Daphna Oyserman, Kristen Elmore, George Smith
Handbook of Self and Identity, Edited by Mark R. Leary, June Price Tangney