Saturday, April 28, 2018

culture, spirituality

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal
Cross Cultural Management
Cross cultural Research
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management
Culture and Religion
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion
Sociology of Religion
Culture and Religion

Zhang, Y., Straub, C., & Kusyk, S. (2007). Making a life or making a living? Cross-cultural comparisons of business students’ work and life values in Canada and France. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 174–195.

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Journal of international business studies, 14, 61–73.

Murphy, E.F. Jr, Gordon, J.D., and Anderson, T., 2004. An examination of cross-cultural age or
generation-based value differences between the United States and Japan. Journal of applied
management and entrepreneurship, 9 (1), 21–4

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Psychological Measurement, 67, 154–168.

Yang, Fenggang. 2014. “What about China? Religious Vitality in the Most Secular and
Rapidly Modernizing Society.” Sociology of Religion 75:564–78.

Leamaster, Reid J., and Anning Hu. 2014. “Popular Buddhists: The Relationship between
Popular Religious Involvement and Buddhist Identity in Contemporary China.”
Sociology of Religion 75:234–59.

***
Robert Hefner’s Market Culture: Society and Morality in the New Asian Capitalisms (1998)

Thomas Metzger’s A Cloud Across the Pacific (2006)

both explore the role of more traditional religions reemerging in China—an important dimension of
a particular modernity which embraces religion, yet it does so without interaction with “supernatural beings.”
***

Struch, N., Schwartz, S. H., & van der Kloot, W. A. (2002). Meanings of basic values for women and men: A crosscultural analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 16–28.

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measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 519–542.

Hill JS (2007) Religion and the shaping of East Asian management styles: A conceptual examination.
Journal of Asia-Pacific Business 8(2): 59–88.

Piedmont, R. L. and M. M. Leach: 2002, ‘Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale in India: Spirituality as a Universal Aspect of Human Experience’, American Behavioral Scientist 45, 1888–1901.

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Human Resource Development International 12, 459-468

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Perspectives on psychological science, 5 (4), 420–430. doi:10.1177/1745691610375557

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Scientist 45(12): 1888–902

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**
cultural values promoted within a specific world location relate to individuals values about work (Elizur, Borg, Hunt, & Beck, 1991; Ralston, Holt, Terpstra, & KaiCheng, 1997; Schwartz, 1999).

Elizur, D., Borg, I., Hunt, R., & Beck, I. M. (1991). The structure of work values: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 21-38.

Ralston D. A., Holt D. H., Terpstra R. H., & KaiCheng, Y. (1997). The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. Journal of International Business Studies, 28, 177-207.

Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23-47.

**

Schwartz, S.H. 1999. A theory of cultural values and some implications for work.

Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23–47.

Ralston, D.A., Holt, D.H., Terpstra, R.H. and KaiCheng, Y. 1997. The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. Journal of International Business Studies, 28, 177–207.

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Relations, Vol. 52 No. 7, pp. 855-867

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motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.

use key word search in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

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***
representativeness of a sample collected on the Internet.
Recent studies have reviewed the literature and concluded that these samples are just
as representative as college undergraduate samples, and possibly more representative

(Srivastava et al., in press; Robins et al., 2002; Williams, Cheung, & Choi, 2000).
Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6
check this paper for survey collection method --- races vs residence
***
self-conceptualization varies across international boundaries. Much of this research focuses on differences stemming from collectivistic versus individualistic cultures.

ethnic differences in narcissism somewhat similar to those in self-esteem. These differences
remained even after reported income level and age were controlled. We also found evidence that narcissism varies across world region, with Americans reporting the highest levels of narcissism, followed by Europeans, Canadians, Asians, and Middle Easterners.

Oyserman et al. (2002) reported consistent differences in collectivistic and individualistic orientations when comparing Americans with Europeans, Asians, Africans, and Middle-Easterners.

Kitayama, Markus, and Matsumoto (1997) examined how collectivistic and individualistic culture shapes situational perceptions. American participants were more likely to identify situations where self-esteem enhancement was likely whereas Japanese participants were more likely to identify situations where self-criticism was the likely outcome.

people from individualistic cultures, in comparison to people from collectivistic cultures, agree more strongly with self-relevant positive emotions (Lee, Jones, & Mineyama, 2002), are less modest (Kurman & Sriram, 2002), are more likely to project their own feelings onto others and recall personal situations from their own perspective as opposed to the perspective of others (Cohen
&Gunz, 2002), are more likely to engage in agentic self-enhancement (Kurman, 2001), and tend to report well-being as more closely associated with emotions that are interpersonally distancing (e.g., pride) (Kitayama, Markus, & Kurokawa, 2000).

individualism encourages greater focus on the self whereas collectivism promotes greater focus on the group. Thus, individualistic promotion of self-focus over other-focus should be reflected in greater narcissism being expressed in people from more individualistic cultures.

Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6
check this paper for survey collection method --- races vs residence

***
Fukunishi et al. (1996) found that the Chinese are more narcissistic than Americans, but the Japanese are less narcissistic than Americans
Fukunishi, I., Nakagawa, T., Nakamura, H., Li, K., Hua, Z. Q., & Kratz, T. S. (1996). Relationships
between Type A behavior, narcissism, and maternal closeness for college students in Japan, the United States of America, and the People s Republic of China. Psychological Reports, 78, 939–944.


Robins, Trzniewski, Tracy, Gosling, and Potter (2002) collected self-esteem reports from a worldwide sample of participants. Another set of researchers used the Internet to collect self-report personality questionnaires from a large set of respondents representing different ages (Srivastava, John, Gosling, & Potter, in press).
Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6


people and countries that are wealthier are more likely to champion autonomy and self-sufficiency and to focus on the realization of individual goal (e.g., Hofstede, 1980; Inglehart & Baker, 2000).


Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65, 19–51


***


individually oriented people and countries tend to be more narcissistic than those that are more collectively

focused (Foster, Campbell, & Twenge, 2003).
**
culture strongly influences our personalities and views of self (e.g., Heine & Lehman, 1997; Markus & Kitayama, 
1991).

Heine, S. J., & Lehman, D. R. (1997). The cultural construction of self-enhancement: An examination of

group-serving biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1268–1283

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and

motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
**

Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism:

Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.


Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6


Hung, K. H.,Gu, F. F.,&Yim, C. K. (2007).A social institutional approach to identifying generational cohorts in China with a comparison with American consumers. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 836–853.


Xiang Yi, Barbara Ribbens, Caryn N. Morgan. 2010. Generational differences in China: career implications. Career Development International 15:6, 601-620. 

Zhou and Hou (1999) who
studied the effects of the “send down” policy that occurred during the Cultural
Revolution in China, which resulted in a massive movement of educated urban
youth to rural areas to work. Zhou and Hou examined how this large-scale social
policy aimed at social redistribution was carried out and what factors influenced
who was sent down and who was allowed to return and how state policy shaped
and altered individual life courses. In some ways, this policy backfired because
the cohorts who experienced the send down policy (some 17 million young
people over a 12-year period) produced a Generation of reformers who were
the instigators of the reform of the Chinese agricultural production system and
provided the roots of a movement toward market economies in China. What is
unique about the Zhou and Hou research is that it demonstrates Mannheim’s
(1927/1952) notion of the stratification of experience and illustrates Mannheim’s
distinction between generational location and generation in actuality.
Zhou, X., & Hou, L. (1999). Children of the cultural revolution: The state and the life course in the
People’s Republic of China. American Sociological Review, 64, 12–36.

Journal of International Business Studies
June 1999, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 415–427 | Cite as
Doing Business in the 21st Century with the New Generation of Chinese Managers: A Study of Generational Shifts in Work Values in China

Paths to Enlightenment: Constructing Buddhist Identities in Mainland China and the United States
Di Di
Sociology of Religion, sry003, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sry003

Religion and Life Satisfaction Worldwide: The Role of Government Regulation
Marta Elliott, R. David Hayward
Sociology of Religion, Volume 70, Issue 3, 1 October 2009, Pages 285–310, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srp028

Discovering a Blissful Island: Religious Involvement and Happiness in Taiwan
Eric Y. Liu, Harold G. Koenig, Dedong Wei
Sociology of Religion, Volume 73, Issue 1, 1 March 2012, Pages 46–68, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srr032

2011 Paul Hanly Furfey Lecture Is There a Crisis of Secularism in Western Europe?
Tariq Modood
Sociology of Religion, Volume 73, Issue 2, 1 June 2012, Pages 130–149, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srs028

Finding Jesus in the Holy Land and Taking Him to China: Chinese Temporary Migrant Workers in Israel Converting to Evangelical Christianity
Barak Kalir
Sociology of Religion, Volume 70, Issue 2, 1 July 2009, Pages 130–156, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srp027

Christian Values in Communist China
Fenggang Yang
Sociology of Religion, Volume 76, Issue 4, 1 December 2015, Pages 479–480, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srv048

Popular Buddhists: The Relationship between Popular Religious Involvement and Buddhist Identity in Contemporary China
Reid J. Leamaster, Anning Hu
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 2, 1 June 2014, Pages 234–259, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srt057

What about China? Religious Vitality in the Most Secular and Rapidly Modernizing Society
Fenggang Yang
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 4, 1 December 2014, Pages 564–578, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru062

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological Well-Being in Adult Life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(4), 99-104
@@
definition of psychological constructs such as spirituality tends to vary across cultures (Stifoss-Hanssen, 1995; William, Feldt,&Amelang, 1997; Wink&Dillon, 2002), and that this tendency is more evident when the cultures share few historical and ideological traditions (Takahashi & Bordia, 2000). Most theoretical discussions and empirical studies so far, however, have been carried out in the U.S.
and Western Europe with a strong Judeo-Christian focus (e.g., Zinnbauer et al., 1997). The concept of spirituality, therefore, warrants a cross-cultural investigation of implicit theories in order to provide a broader and more inclusive framework (Richards & Bergin, 1999).

@Takahashi, M., & Ide, S. (2003). Implicit Theories of Spirituality Across Three Generations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison in the U.S. and Japan. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 15(4), 15-38
**

Cultural psychologists have focused attention on between-society differences in the likelihood of focusing on the "me" versus the "us" aspects of the self (Markus & Oyserman, 1989; Oyserman, 1993; Triandis, 1 989). For example, Americans are described as more likely than East Asians to take a "me" perspective (Markus & Kitayama, 1991).

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
127). New York: Springer-Verlag

Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 993-1009.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological
Review, 96, 506-520.

Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion,
and motivation. Psychological Review, 20, 568-579

In contrast, social identity researchers demonstrate that whether one takes a "me" or an "us" perspective is not fixed by culture but influenced by context (Brewer, 1991; Brewer & Gardner, 1996; Hogg, 2003, 2006). More situated approaches demonstrate empirically that small shifts in contexts influence whether anyone, American or East Asian, takes on "me" or "us" perspectives (for reviews,see Oyserman, 2007, in press; Oyserman & Lee, 2008a, 2008b; Oyserman & Sorensen,
2009). Taking on a "me" or an "us" perspective influences perception and mental procedures more generally, as we discuss in  the section on self-concept.

Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1 7, 475-482.

Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this "we"?: Levels of collective identity and
self representations. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83-93.

Hogg, M. A. (2003). Social identity. In M. R. Leary & ]. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of
self and identity (pp. 462-479). New York: Guilford Press.

Hogg, M. A. (2006). Social identity theory. In P. ]. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary social psychological
theories (pp. 1 1 1-136). Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

Oyserman, D. (2007). Social identity and selfregulation. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins
(Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 432-453). New York: Guilford Press.

Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008a). Does culture influence what and how we think?: Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 3 1 1-342.

Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W. S. (2008b). A situated cognition perspective on culture: Effects
of priming cultural syndromes on cognition and motivation. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 237-265). New York: Elsevier.

Oyserman, D., & Sorensen, N. (2009}. Understanding cultural syndrome effects on what and how we think: A situated cognition model. In R. Wyer, Y.-Y. Hong, & C .-Y. Chiu (Eds.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 25-52). New York: Psychology Press.

@Self, Self-Concept, and Identity by Daphna Oyserman, Kristen Elmore, George Smith
Handbook of Self and Identity, Edited by Mark R. Leary, June Price Tangney

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