Monday, April 16, 2018

Bianchi, E. C. (1992). Aging as a spiritual journey. New York: Crossroad.

Bianchi, E. C. (1994). Elder wisdom Crajfting your own elderhood. New York: Crossroad.

Thomas, L. E., & Eisenhandler, S. A. (Eds.) (1994). Aging and the religious dimension. Westport, C'P. Auburn House.

Atchley, R. C. (1996). Mystical experience and aging: Diverse pathways and experience. Aging and Spirituality, 8, 1-2.

Alexander, C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C.,Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of conscioushess:
Maharishi's Vedic psychology of human development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilber, IC (1996). Eye to eye: The quest for a new paradigm (3d ed.). Boston: Shambala.

Tobin, S. S. (1991). Personhood in advanced old age. New York: Springer.

Whitbourne, S. K. (1986). The me I know: A study of adult identity. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Dwyer, J. W., & Coward, R. T. (Eds.) (1992). Gender, families, and long-term care. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.

Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. S., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1986). l, Vital involvement in old age. New York: Norton.

Kuhn, M. (1991). No stone unturned. New York: Ballantine.

Thibault, J. M. (1996). Aging as a natural monastery. Aging and Spirituality, 8, 3 and 8.

Pascual-Leone (1990), Alexander et al. (1990), and Wilber (1996) developed theories of the development of expanded awareness that described spiritual development in terms of increasingly
transcendent levels of consciousness.

Pascual-Leone's theory identified a type of transcendent cognition in which the highest self still remains part of the individual ego. He did not deal with transpersonal dimensions of transcendence.
    Pascual-Leone, J. (1990). Reflections on life-span intelligence, consciousness, and ego development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Alexander et al. (1990) focused on various levels of consciousness, particularly Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic psychology. Maharishi's teachings identify four stages of consciousness beyond Piaget's highest stage of intellectual development.
     The first is advanced ego development, which resides still within the realm of cognitive, representational consciousness and is similar to Paseual-Leone's concept of transcendent ego.
     The remaining three levels exist with a region of transcendent, transpersonal consciousness: (1) cosmic consciousness, (2) refined cosmic consciousness, and (3) unity consciousness.
     Alexander, C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C., Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of conscioushess:
Maharishi's Vedic psychology of human development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilber developed a similar map of transcendent consciousness, which was also based on
Vedantic concepts. He called the transcendental stages vision-logic, subtle, and causal levels of consciousness.


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