Tornstam (1994) identified eight characteristics of gerotranscendence comprising two factors.
Atchley (1999) presented a much shortened and rephrased version of Tornstam’s (1994) scale. He concluded that gerotranscendence was centrally expressed by three items: 1) “Death is less frightening”; 2) “I take more enjoyment from my inner life”; and 3) “I feel greater connection
with the universe” (Atchley, 1999, p. 143)
Atchley, R. C. (1999). Continuity and adaptation in aging. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Reed, P. G. (1991). Self-transcendence and mental health in oldest-old adults. Nursing Research, 40, 5-11.
Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality?
Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 67, 985-1013.
Cloninger et al. (1993)
Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model
of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975-99
Levenson, M., Jennings, P., Aldwin, C., & Shiraishi, R. (2005). Self-Transcendence: Conceptualization and Measurement
The International Journal of Aging and Human Development · March 2005