Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Meaning in life scale, Personal Meaning Scale

Sources of Meaning
McDonald, M., Wong, P., & T. Gingras, D. (2012). Meaning-in-Life Measures and Development of a Brief Version of the Personal Meaning Profile.

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Reker, G. (2000). "Theoretical Perspective, Dimensions, and Measurement of Existential Meaning".
provides a reveiw of literaure/measuresment

McDonald, M., Wong, P., & T. Gingras, D. (2012). Meaning-in-Life Measures and Development of a Brief Version of the Personal Meaning Profile.

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Van Ranst and Marcoen (1997) examined the factorial validity and invariance of the Life Regard Index (LRI: Battista & Almond, 1973) across samples of young and older adults. The LRI is a 28-item, 5-point multidimensional measure divided into two subscales, Framework and Fulfillment. Age invariance was tested separately for each subscale using individual items as indicators. The factor loadings of the Framework items were found to be age invariant, but the loadings of the Fulfillment items were not. The authors concluded that the measurement and the structure of the LRI are not equivalent across young and older adults and urge researchers to exercise caution when using the LRI to study age differences in meaning in life.

Van Ranst, N., & Marcoen, A. (1997). Meaning in life of young and elderly adults: An examination of the factorial validity and invariance of the life regard index. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 877–884.

Battista, J., & Almond, R. (1973). The development of meaning in life. Psychiatry, 36, 409–427.
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Reker and Fry (2003) examined the factor structure and factorial invariance of six self-report measures of personal meaning across samples of younger and older adults. Invariance, however, was only tested at the scale level using item parcels as indicators. All six measures were found to be structurally invariant across age for first-order factor loadings, but some scales were shown to be more resistant to sources of noninvariance compared to others.

Reker, G. T., & Fry, P. S. (2003). Factor structure and invariance of personal meaning measures in cohorts of younger and older adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 977–993.

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One of the measures of personal meaning that appears to be more resistant to noninvariance is
the Personal Meaning Index (PMI), a 16-item measure of the existential belief that life is
meaningful (Reker, 1992). The PMI is a composite of the Purpose and Coherence subscales of the
multidimensional Life Attitude Profile-Revised (LAP-R: Reker, 1992).

Reker, G. T. (1992). The life attitude profile- revised (LAP-R). Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

Reker, G. T., & Peacock, E. J. (1981). The life attitude profile (LAP): A multidimensional instrument for assessing attitudes toward life. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 13, 264–273.

The original Life Attitude Profile (LAP) was developed by Reker and Peacock (1981) as a self-rating questionnaire consisting of 56 items. Each item was rated on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.” Subsequent modifications to the original form were made, while a number of refinements based on a combination of theoretical and factor analytic procedures resulted in a 48-item instrument entitled the Life Attitude Profile-Revised (LAP-R) (Reker, 1992).

Six dimensions are measured by the LAP-R:

  1. Purpose (PU; 8 items) that refers to having life goals, having a mission in life, and a sense of direction in one’s life (e.g., “I have a mission in life that gives me a sense of direction,” “In my life I have very clear goals and aims,” “I have discovered a satisfying life purpose”);
  2. Coherence (CO; 8 items) that refers to having a consistent understanding of self, others, and life (e.g., “I have a clear understanding of the ultimate meaning of life,” “In thinking of my life, I see a reason for my being here”)
  3. Choice/Responsibleness (CR; 8 items) characterized by the perception of having personal agency in directing one’s life (e.g., “My life is in my hands and I am in control of it,” “I determine what happens in my life,” “When it comes to important life matters, I make my own decisions”)
  4. Death Acceptance (DA; 8 items) where a person has achieved death transcendence (e.g., “Some people are very frightened of death, but I am not,” “Since death is a natural aspect of life, there is no sense worrying about it”)
  5. Existential Vacuum (EV; 8 items) that refers to having a lack of meaning, goals, and direction in life (“I find myself withdrawing from life with an ‘I don’t care’ attitude,” “I feel the lack of and a need to find a real meaning and purpose in my life”)
  6. Goal Seeking (GS; 8 items) characterized by the search for new and different experiences and an eagerness to get more out of life (e.g., “I hope for something exciting in the future,” “I am determined to achieve new goals in the future”)
Two composite scales have also been developed:
  1. the Personal Meaning Index (PMI) derived by summing the PU and CO dimensions;Personal Meaning Index (PMI), a measure of the existential belief that life is meaningful; Personal Meaning Index (PMI), a measure derived from the Life Attitude Profile-Revised (LAP-R: Reker, 1992). The Personal Meaning Index (PMI) is a 16-item, 7-point Likert scale (strongly agree. . .strongly disagree) derived by summing the Purpose and Coherence dimensions of the 48-item multidimensional Life Attitude Profile-Revised (LAP-R: Reker, 1992).
     
  2. Existential Transcendence (ET) derived by summing the scores on the PU, CO, CR, and DA and subtracting the scores on EV and GS. 
Instructions for the LAP-R ask respondents to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with each statement that describes opinions and feelings about themselves and life in general.

Although originally developed for use with elderly populations, the PMI has been applied to all ages ranging from adolescence to older adulthood (e.g., Bearsley & Cummins, 1999; Fry, 2000; Reker et al., 1987).

Bearsley, C., & Cummins, R. A. (1999). No place called home: Life quality and purpose of homeless youths. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 8, 207–226

Cross-sectional studies across the life span from late adolescence to the old–old have consistently found that personal meaning, as measured by the PMI, increases with age (Reker, 1992; Reker et al., 1987). Gender differences on the PMI, favouring females, have also been reported (Fry, 2001; Reker, 1992; VandeCreek, 1991). Furthermore, the PMI has been shown to have very favourable psychometric properties (Reker, 1992; Reker & Fry, 2003).

Reker, G. T. (1992). Manual of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised. Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

Reker, G. T., Peacock, E. J., & Wong, P. T. P. (1987). Meaning and purpose in life and well-being: A life-span perspective. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 44–49.

Fry, P. S. (2001). The unique contribution of key existential factors to the prediction of psychological well-being of older adults following spousal loss. The Gerontologist, 41, 1–13.

VandeCreek, L. (1991). Identifying the spiritually needy patient: The role of demographics. The Caregiver Journal, 8, 38–47.

Reker, G. T., & Fry, P. S. (2003). Factor structure and invariance of personal meaning measures in cohorts of younger and older adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 977–993.

Purpose in Life test (PIL: Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1969); the Life Regard Index (LRI: Battista & Almond, 1973), and the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987).

Chamberlain, K., & Zika, S. (1988). Measuring meaning in life: An examination of three scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 589–596.

Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1969). Manual of instruction for the purpose in life test. Munster, IN: Psychometric Affiliate.

Battista, J., & Almond, R. (1973). The development of meaning in life. Psychiatry, 36, 409–427.

Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unravelling the mystery of health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

@ Reker, G. T. (2005). Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: factorial validity, age, and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 38(1), 71-85. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.03.010

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Meaning in Life

A comprehensive definition of meaning in life can be conceived in terms of PURE: purpose, understanding, responsible action, and enjoyment/evaluation (Wong, 2010, 2011).

A proper understanding of the relationship between meaning in life and well-being needs to distinguish between specific meaning and global meaning (Park & Folkman, 1997) and situational
meaning and ultimate meaning (Frankl, 1985). In this entry, meaning in life is used interchangeably
with meaning of life, encompassing both types of meaning.

Wong (1998) defines personal meaning as a socially and individually constructed system, which endows life with personal significance; this system includes affective, motivational, cognitive,
relational, and personal dimensions. According to Steger (2012), meaning in life consists of
cognitive (comprehension) and motivational (purpose) components

Structure and Functions of Meaning
A comprehensive definition of meaning is in terms of PURE: purpose, understanding, responsible action, and enjoyment/evaluation (Wong, 2010, 2011). Life would not be meaningful in the absence of any of these ingredients. Functionally, these components entail the four major psychological processes for the good life: motivational (purpose, life goals, and needs), cognitive (understanding, making sense of life), social/moral (responsibility, accountability, and commitment), and affective (enjoyment/evaluation, positive emotions).

Measures of Meaning in Life
The purpose dimension of meaning has been measured by purpose in life scale (PIL; Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1969). The understanding dimension can be measured by the sense of coherence scale (SOC; Antonovsky, 1983). The personal meaning profile (PMP; Wong, 1998) measures the overall level of meaning in life as well as major sources of meaning. The Life Regard Index (LRI; Battista &
Almond, 1973) consists of two subscales: The framework scale measures whether an individual
has the framework for developing life goals. The fulfillment scale indicates the extent to which
these goals are fulfilled. The meaning in life questionnaire (MLQ; Steger, Frazier, Oishi, &
Kaler, 2006) measures both the presence of meaning and the search for meaning.

@Wong, P. T. P. (2014). Meaning in Life. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 3894-3898). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
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Th e Purpose in Life (PIL) Test was developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick (1964) and inspired by Frankl’s logotherapy. It is a 20-item, 7-point attitude scale that assesses the degree to which an individual experiences a sense of meaning or purpose in life. Although it has been widely used, it has been criticized for blending a few distinct factors (Dyck, 1987; Yalom, 1980).

Th e Seeking of Noetic Goals (SONG; Crumbaugh, 1977) and the Life Attitude Profi le (LAP; e.g., Reker & Peacock, 1981; Reker, Peacock, & Wong, 1987) were also designed to measure meaning in life. Th e SONG is a 20-item attitude scale that focuses on the motivation to fi nd meaning in life. Th e LAP is a 49-item multidimensional measure of life attitudes, assessing both the presence and absence of positive meaning and purpose. Both instruments are based on Frankl’s conceptions of will to meaning and the existential vacuum.

Th e Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale was developed by Antonovsky (1983), a medical sociologist who challenged the pathogenic orientation (i.e., the disease model) and advocated the salutogenic orientation. Th e SOC is a 29-item, 7-point Likert scale consisting of three subscales: Comprehensibility, Manageability, and Meaningfulness. Sense of coherence as measured by these
three subscales has been shown to be important in predicting health and well-being (Korotkov, 1998). Th e SOC focuses on the cognitive component of meaning.

Th e Life Regard Index (LRI) was developed by Battista and Almond (1973). Th e LRI is a 28-item Likert scale designed as a measure of personal meaning independent of a priori conceptions of the “true nature” of personal meaning. Battista and Almond take the relativistic perspective that everyone has his or her own beliefs regarding what is meaningful. Th e LRI consists of two subscales: Th e Framework subscale measures whether an individual has the framework for developing a personal meaning system or a set of life goals. Th e Fulfi llment subscale indicates the extent to which these goals are fulfi lled; this scale may, however, be confounded with the outcome measure of life satisfaction.

Multidimensional Life Meaning Scale

The Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire

Spiritual Meaning Scale

The Meaning in Life Questionnaire

The Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation

Meaningful Life Measure

@McDonald, M., Wong, P., & T. Gingras, D. (2012). Meaning-in-Life Measures and Development of a Brief Version of the Personal Meaning Profile.--- this paper provides a list of useful meaning in life measurements






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