Monday, March 12, 2018

gender, spirituality

 Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion

Black, H. K., & Hannum, S. M. (2015). Aging, Spirituality, and Time: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 27(2-3), 145-165. doi: 10.1080/15528030.2014.1003274

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological Well-Being in Adult Life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(4), 99-104

Because women tend to be more religious than men and also show higher rates of social
and community participation (Putnam 2000; Rossi 2001),
Putnam, R. 2000. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster
Rossi, A. 2001. Caring and doing for others. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Fletcher, J. (1994b). Castrating the female advantage: Feminist standpoint research and Management
Science. Journal of Management Inquiry, 3, 74–82.

Miller, J. B. (1991). The development of women’s sense of self. In J. V. Jordan, A. G. Kaplan,
J. B. Miller, I. P. Stiver, & J. L. Surrey (Eds.), Women’s growth in connection. New York:
The Guilford Press

Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial Development of Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3), 125-151.

Rossi, A. S. Life-span theories and women's lives. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1980,6, 4- 32.

Ryff, C. D., & Baltes, P. B. Value transitions and adult development in women: The instrumentality-terminality sequence hypothesis. Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 567-568.

Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial Development of Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3),

Puglisi, J. Thomas and Dorothy W. Jackson. 1980-81. "Sex Role Identity and Self Esteem in Adulthood." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 12:129-138.
Women describe themselves more in terms of gender and family and personal relationships, but less in terms of larger social groups, such as veteran, than do men
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, J. P. T. (1988). Age, Personality, and the Spontaneous Self-Concept. Journal of Gerontology, 43(6), S177-S185.

women have long been seen as more developed in interpersonal relatedness (Bakan, 1966).
Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Boston: Beacon Press.

Chevron, E. S., Quinlan, D. M., & Blatt, S. J. (1978). Sex roles and gender differences in the experience of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87, 680-683

Miller, J. B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon Press.

Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Guisinger, S., & J. Blatt, S. (1994). Individuality and Relatedness: Evolution of a Fundamental Dialectic (Vol. 49).
Jordan et al. (1991) and Gilligan et al. (1991) argued that a woman's sense of self is organized around being able to attain and maintain affiliation and relationships. This self-in-relation theory marks a major departure from phallocentric developmental perspectives. In traditional views of psychological
development that focus on separation, women's concern with relationships is often viewed as a weakness or even as pathological.

Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, L. P., & Stiver, J. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford Press.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, C, Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

J. Dollinger, S., Ann Preston, L., Pagany O'Brien, S., & Dilalla, D. (1997). Individuality and Relatedness of the Self: An Autophotographic Study (Vol. 71).

Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender in the Life Course, Gisela Labouvie-Vief

Diehl, M., Owen, S., & Youngblade, L. (2004). Agency and communion attributes in adults’ spontaneous self-representations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(1), 1-15.

Ego development in adult women
Martha Sturm White, Cahfornia School of Professional
Psychology, Berkeley, CA

Cohn, L.D. 1991---sex differences in the course of personality development: a meta-analysis, Journal of personality and social psychology, 109: 252-266

Incorporating Others into the Self (83-84)
@Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, self-concept, and identity. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 69-104). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cross, S. E., & Madson, L . (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological
Bulletin, 1 2 2 , 5-37.

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
127). New York: Springer-Verlag

Schwadel, P. (2010). Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on U.S. Religious Service Attendance: The Declining Impact of Sex, Southern Residence, and Catholic Affiliation*. Sociology of Religion, 71(1), 2-24. doi: 10.1093/socrel/srq005

Stolzenberg RM, Blair-Loy M, Waite LJ (1995) Religious participation in early adulthood: age and family life cycle effects on church membership. Am Sociol Rev 60:84–103

Button, T. M. M., Stallings, M. C., Rhee, S. H., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2011). The Etiology of Stability and Change in Religious Values and Religious Attendance. Behavior genetics, 41(2), 201-210.

Gender differences in religious practices, spiritual experiences and health: results from the US General Social Survey. Maselko J1, Kubzansky LD.
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jun;62(11):2848-60.

Wink, P. (1991). Self- and object-directedness in adult women. Journal of Personality,
59, 769-791.

women have a greater involvement than do men in organized religious activities (Hout &
Greeley, 1987; McFadden, 1996b; Stolzenberg et al.,1995)
Hout, M., & Greeley, A. (1987). The center doesn’t hold: Church attendance in the United States, 1940–1984. American Sociological Review, 52, 325–345.
McFadden, S. (1996b). Religion, spirituality, and aging. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (pp. 162–177). San Diego,CA: Academic Press.
Stolzenberg, R., Blair-Loy, M., & Waite, L. (1995). Religious participation in early adulthood: Age and family life cycle effects on church membership. American Sociological Review, 60, 84–103.

Women’s greater participation in organized religion may provide a stepping stone toward spiritual growth (Burke, 1999; Stokes, 1990; but see Zinnbauer et al., 1997, who found that spiritual individuals tended to report having being hurt by clergy).
Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer
Stokes, K. (1990). Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7, 167–184.
Stokes, K. (1990). Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7, 167–184.
Zinnbauer, B., Pargament, K., Cole, B., Rye, M., Butter, E., Belavich, T., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzing the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 549–564.

gender inequality in family, work, and other social relations may cause women to experience more
of the discontinuities and decentering experiences that are associated with personal growth in general
(Riegel, 1976) and spiritual development in particular (Atchley, 1997; Burke, 1999).
Riegel, K. (1976). The dialectics of human development. American Psychologist, 31, 689–699

Atchley, R. (1997). Everyday mysticism: Spiritual development in later adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 4, 123–134.

Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002). Spiritual Development Across the Adult Life Course: Findings from a Longitudinal Study. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 79-94.

Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. ( 1974). Cohort analysis of church attendance, 1939-1969. Social Forces, 55, 324-331.

Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. (1971). Age, Aging, and Church Attendance. The Gerontologist, 11(4_Part_1), 356-358.

Van Lange, P. A. M., De Bruin, E. M. N., Otten, W., & Joireman, J. A. (1997). Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations: Theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 (4), 733-746.

Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K., & Gentile, B. (2012). Generational Increases in Agentic Self-evaluations among American College Students, 1966–2009. Self and Identity, 11(4), 409-427.

Black, H. K. (1995). ‘Wasted lives’ and the hero grown old: Personal perspectives of spirituality by aging men. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–48.
The only scale that showed significant sex differences was Positive Relations With Others,  with women again scoring higher than men

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.
Peacock, J. R., & Poloma, M. M. (1999). Religiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course. Social Indicators Research, 48(3), 321-345.
DeVaus, D. and I. McAllister: 1987, ‘Gender differences in religion: A test of the structural location theory’, American Sociological Review 52(4), pp. 472– 481.
men and women go through different religious developmental stages at different times (Cornwall, 1989)

Cornwall, M.: 1989, ‘Faith development of men and women over the life span’, in S. Bahr and E. T. Peterson (eds.), Aging and the Family (Lexington Press), pp. 115–139.

Cornwall (1989), who explored gender differences in faith development. She found that men’s attitudes seem to vary more over time than do women’s. However, she reported that a consistent pattern of religiosity over time has not emerged. With such inconsistencies in the literature, much space is left open for interpretation and deliberation.

Stokes, K. (1991). Faith Development in the Adult Life Cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7(1-2), 167-184

Prager, E. (1998b). Men and meaning in later life. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 4,

Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43-52

Harker, L., & Solomon, M. (1996). Change in goals and values of men and women from early to mature adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 3, 133‐143.

James, J. B., Lewkowicz, C., Libhaber, J., & Lachman, M. (1995). Rethinking the gender identity crossover hypothesis: A test of a new model. Sex Roles, 32, 185‐207

Sharp, K. C., Candy, S. G., & Troll, L. E. (1980). Gender and Generation Effects on Person Perception. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 11(4), 307-318

P. S. Rosenkrantz, S. R. Vogel, H. Bee, I. Broverman and D. Broverman, Sex-Role Stereotypes and Self-concepts in College Students, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, pp. 287-295, 1968.

L. Beach and H. Wertheimer, A Free Response Approach to the Study of of Person Cognition, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, pp. 367-374, 1961.

 R. Carlson, Sex Differences in Ego Functioning: Exploratory Studies of Agency and Communion, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37,  pp. 267-277, 1971.

Gilligan, C., Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. J. (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49, 104-111.

Relationships between meaning in life and gender have yielded contradictory results in previous research. Some reported higher meaning scores for men (e.g. Crumbaugh, 1968; Orbach et al.,
1987); others did not find any differences (e.g. Debats, 1999; Harlow et al., 1986; Scannell et al., 2002; Steger et al., 2006). In the present sample, no gender differences were found for crisis of meaning. For meaningfulness, a significant, but negligible correlation showed slightly higher scores in women.

Crumbaugh, J.C. (1968). Cross-validation of purpose-in-life test based on Frankl’s concepts. Journal of Individual Psychology, 24, 74–81.

Orbach, I., Illuz, A., & Rosenheim, E. (1987). Value systems and commitment to goals as a function of age, integration and personality, and fear of death. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 10, 225–239.

Debats, D.L. (1999). Sources of meaning: An investigation of significant commitments in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39, 30–57.

Harlow, L.L., Newcomb, M.D., & Bentler, P.M. (1986). Depression, self-derogation, substance use, and suicide ideation: Lack of purpose in life as a mediational factor. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 5–21.

Steger, M.F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 53, 80–93.

Scannell, E.D., Allen, F.C.L., & Burton, J. (2002). Meaning in life and positive and negative well-being. North American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 93–112.

Women attribute slightly more importance to vertical selftranscendence, as is also reported by many studies in the psychology of religion (cf. Hood, Spilka, Hunsberger, & Gorsuch, 2003).
More than men, women value well-being and relatedness. For men, self-actualization has a slightly
stronger relevance than for women. Thus, the longstanding distinction of female communion and
male agency (Bakan, 1966) can still be glimpsed in (post-)modern time

Hood, R.W., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R.L. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford

Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.

@Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to demographics and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483-499
Ploch, D. R., & Hastings, D. W. (1994). Graphic Presentations of Church Attendance Using General Social Survey Data. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33(1), 16-33

Ramsey, J. L., & Blieszner, R. (1999). Spiritual resiliency in older women: Models of
strength for challenges through the life span. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Black, H. K. (1995). “Wasted lives” and the hero grown old: Personal perspectives of
spirituality by aging men. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–4
women of all ages are more religious than men,both in terms of religious participation and religious practice (Koenig, Kvale, & Ferrel).
Koenig, H. G., Kvale, J. N., & Ferrel, C. (1988). Religion and well-being in later life. The
Gerontologist, 28, 18-28.
Markides, K. S. (1983). Aging, Religiosity, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis1. Journal of Gerontology, 38(5), 621-625

Gerhard Lenski, "Social Correlates of Religious Interest," American Sociological Review, 18 (October 1953),

Harold L. Orbach, "Aging and Religion: Church Attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan Area,"

Lazerwitz, B. (1961). Some Factors Associated with Variations in Church Attendance*. Social Forces, 39(4), 301-309.

Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., Larson, D. B., George, L. K., Cohen, H. J., McCullough, M. E., . . . Blazer, D. G. (1999). Does Religious Attendance Prolong Survival? A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of 3,968 Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 54(7), M370-M376

Erskine, H. G. (1965). The Polls: Personal Religion. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(1), 145-157.

Bultena, L. (1949). Church Membership and Church Attendance in Madison, Wisconsin. American Sociological Review, 14(3), 384-389.

Fukuyama, Y. (1961). The Major Dimensions of Church Membership. Review of Religious Research, 2(4), 154-161
Fichter, J. H. (1952). The Profile of Catholic Religious Life. American Journal of Sociology, 58(2), 145-149.
The women were significantly more religious than men in activities (about .7 higher on the religious activity subscale, t-test significant at .02 level), and in attitudes (about .3 higher on the religious attitudes subscale, t-test significant at .05 level). This supports the general finding that women tend
to be more religious than men (Orbach, 1961; Riley&Foner, 1968).
#Orbach, H. L. Age and religion: A study of church attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan area. Geriatrics, 1961, 76, 530-540.
#Riley, M. W., & Foner, A. Aging and society. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1968.

Blazer, D., & Palmore, E. (1976). Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel1. The Gerontologist, 16(1_Part_1), 82-85
Cox, H., & Hammonds, A. (1989). Religiosity, Aging, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Religion & Aging, 5(1-2), 1-21

Reker, G. T., & Peacock, E. J. (1981). The Life Attitude Profile (LAP): A multidimensional instrument for assessing attitudes toward life. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 13(3), 264-273.

Reker, G., J Peacock, E., & Wong, P. (1987). Meaning and Purpose in Life and Well-being: a Life-span Perspective. Journal of Gerontology: SOCIAL SCIENCES, 42, 44-49
For the Israeli as well as Australian women participation in personal relationships was the most important source of meaning in all age categories
#Prager, E., Bar-Tur, L., & Abramowici, I. (1997). The Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP) with Aged Subjects Exhibiting Depressive Symptomatology. Clinical Gerontologist, 17(3), 25-39.
Sex differences at the .01 level were found for mean PIL, Anti-hedonism, and Religion-puritanism scores, in favour of males. Females had less purpose in life than males, but were more religious. They were also more anti-hedonistic and idealistic.
@Pearson, P. R., & Sheffield, B. F. (1975). Purpose in life and social attitudes in psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(2), 330-332.
purose in life scores---sex differences in PIL scores
#SHKFFIELBD. , F. and PEAKSOPN. ,1 1. Purpose-in-Life in a sample of British psychiatric outpatients.J. din. Psycho/., in press
#Crumbaugh, J. C. Cross-validation of purpose-in-life test based on Frankl's concepts. J. invid. psychol. 1968, 24: 74-81

Hardcastle, B. (1985). Midlife Themes of Invisible Citizens:An Exploration into How Ordinary People Make Sense of Their Lives. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(2), 45-63.

Meier, A., & Edwards, H. (1974). Purpose‐in‐Life Test: Age and sex differences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30(3), 384-386.

Chodorow, N. (1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In: M. Z. Rosaldo, & L. Lamphere (Eds.), Woman, culture and society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s development. London: Harvard University Press.

men and women may take quite different paths toward integrated and mature styles of coping and defending
#Diehl, M., Coyle, N., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1996). Age and sex differences in strategies of coping and defense across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 11, 127–139.

differences in personality dispositions (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Gilligan, 1982)
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Trait psychology comes of age. In: T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraskasymposium on motivation, vol: 39 ( pp. 169–204). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

emotional experiences and personal relationships (Brody & Hall, 1993)
Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In: M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions ( pp. 447–460). New York: Guilford Press

cognitive performance (Halpern, 1997)
Halpern, D. F. (1997). Sex difference in intelligence: implications for education. American  Psychologist, 52, 1091–1102.

Moore, D. (1998). Gender identities and social actions. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34, 5–29.

being with animals was more important for men overall than for women.
#Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001).

@Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001). Sources of meaning in life for young and old Israeli Jews and Arabs. Journal of Aging Studies, 15(3), 253-269

gender and four sources of meaning: meeting basic needs, being of service to others, preservation of culture and traditions, and financial security. All favored women respondents.

men and women in Canada differed on five of the 12 meaning sources: creative activities, personal relationships, service to others, preservation of values and ideals, and religious activities. All favored women. At least in one earlier study investigating college men’s and women’s rankings of sources of meaning (De Vogler and Ebersole 1980), no significant sex differences were found. Were this similarity between the sexes to be substantiated in additional SOMP-based studies, utilizing a more gender-controlled sample, it would support the theoretical position that, when taken as a whole, the four basic needs for meaning represented in the SOMP-purpose, value, efficacy, and self-worth (Baumeister 199 I)-are of similar if not equal importance to men and women, of all ages.
#DeVogler, K. L. and P. Ebersole. (1980) “Categorization of College Students’ Meaning of Lie.”
Psychological Records 46: 387-390.
#Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of Life. New York: The Guilford Press.

@Prager, E. (1996). Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: Another look at the Sources Of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10(2), 117-136

gender differences in the sources of meaning "personal relationships", in which women scored significantly higher than men
@  Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources of Personal Meaning in a Sample of Young-Old and Old-Old Israelis. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 21(2), 59-75
personal relationships play a relatively subordinate role for adult men as compared with women,
here are consistent with virtually all studies known to the authors (see, for example Valliant, 1977; Levinson, 1978; Gilligan, 1982; Field and Minkler, 1988);
# Valiant, G.E. (1977). Adaptation to Life. Boston: Little, Brown.
#Levinson, D.J., Darrow, C., and Kline, E. (1978). The Seasons of a Man k Life.
New York: Knopf
#Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice. Boston: Harvard University Press.
#Field, D. And Minkler, M. (1988). Continuity and change in social support between
young-old and very old. Journal of Gemntologv, 43, 100-1 06.

Thumer, M. 1975. “Continuities and Discontinuities in Value Orientation.” In Four Stages of
Life: A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transitions, edited by M. F.
Lowenthal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
leisure activities contributed to males’ meaning in life more than females, and deriving meaning from life in general was more important for females.
when considering how different sources of meaning contributed to well-being according to gender, the results showed that meaning from personal growth and life in general predicted well-being for
females. The gender difference found for meaning from personal growth contributing to well-being is consistent with research which has found that personal growth (but not meaning derived from it) was more predictive of well-being for females than males (Robitschek, 1999).
The tendency for life in general to be more meaningful for females may suggest that women take
a broader perspective when considering meaning, and consider the degree to which their whole life is imbued with a sense of meaning.

Robitschek, C. (1999). Further validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 31, 197–210.

@Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.
interpersonal relationships are more valued by females than males (Debats, 1999; Wong, 1998). Other
research has revealed that well-being and relatedness are more important for females and self-actualisation is more important for males (Schnell, 2009).
interpersonal relationships appear to be universally meaningful to people, research has revealed this source to be more important for females (Debats, 1999; Wong, 1998).
#Debats, D. L. (1999). Sources of meaning: An investigation of significant commitments in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39(4), 30–57. doi:10.1177/0022167899394003
#Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Furthermore, religiosity/ spirituality is more valued by females (Wong, 1998), as are well-being and
relatedness; self-actualisation seems to be a central source for males, and this difference is thought to reflect the female/communion and male/agency associations (Schnell, 2009). Another study revealed work, love/marriage, independent pursuits, and leisure as centrally important for males, and birth
of children, love/marriage, and work as most meaningful for females (Baum & Stewart, 1990).
#Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
#Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of meaning and meaning in life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to
demographics and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483–499.
#Baum, S. K., & Stewart, R. B. (1990). Sources of meaning through the lifespan. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 3–14. doi:10.2466/PR0.67.5.3-14

Feminist Spirituality

Feminist Spirituality as Lived Religion: How UK Feminists Forge Religio-spiritual Lives
Kristin Aune; Gender & Society
Vol 29, Issue 1, pp. 122 - 145

book: Gender and the Life Course

Carol Gilligan's psychology of women

Helson & Pals, 2000
Pals, 1999
Marcia 1966; 1980
Carol Gilligan 1982

McDonald, M., Wong, P., & T. Gingras, D. (2012). Meaning-in-Life Measures and Development of a Brief Version of the Personal Meaning Profile.

Psychology of women quarterly

Gender differences on the PMI, favouring females, have also been reported (Fry, 2001; Reker, 1992; VandeCreek, 1991).

Fry, P. S. (2001). The unique contribution of key existential factors to the prediction of psychological well-being of older adults following spousal loss. The Gerontologist, 41, 1–13.

Reker, G. T. (1992). Manual of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised. Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

VandeCreek, L. (1991). Identifying the spiritually needy patient: The role of demographics. The Caregiver Journal, 8, 38–47.

females experience higher levels of personal meaning compared to males (Reker, 2005).

@Reker, G. T. (2005). Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: factorial validity, age, and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 38(1), 71-85
Ethics of care

 Gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. She developed an alternative theory of moral reasoning based on the ethics of caring.

Gilligan, Carol (1982). "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and Morality". Harvard Educational Review. 47 (4).

Yates, G. G. (1983). Spirituality and the American feminist experience. Journal of
Women in Culture and Society, 9, 59-79.

Wuthnow, R. J. (1988). Sociology of religi

Lefkowitz, J. (1994). Sex-related differences in job attitudes and dispositional variables: Now you see them . . .Academy of Management Journal, 37, 323–349.

Lyons, S., Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C. (2005b). Are gender differences in basic human values a generational phenomenon? Sex Roles, 53, 763–778.

Eller, C. (1991). Relativizing the patriarchy: The sacred history of the feminist spirituality
movement. History of Religions, 30, 279-295.

Elizur, D. (1994). Gender and work values: A comparative analysis. Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 201–212.

Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women’s
ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development
(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Wood, J. T. (1994). Who cares? Women, care, and culture. Carbondale, IL: Southern
Illinois University Press.

Beutell, N. J.,&Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 28, 29–41.

Mason, S. E. (1994). Work values: A gender comparison and implications for practice. Psychological Reports, 74, 415–418.

Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from

Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the Functions of Reminiscence (Vol. 4).

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Jacqueline Jacobs Caster
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 37, 2: pp. 353-361.

The Global Dynamics of Gender and Philanthropy in Membership Associations
A Study of Charitable Giving by Lions Clubs International Members
Xiaonan Kou1, Amir Daniel Hayat1, Debra J. Mesch1, Una Okonkwo Osili1
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Philanthropy in a Different Voice: The Women's Funds
Marsha Shapiro Rose
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Debra J. Mesch Patrick M. Rooney Kathryn S. Steinberg Brian Denton
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Book Review: Women and the gift: Beyond the given and all-giving, by M. Joy (Ed.)
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Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning/development was critiqued by Gilligan (1982), so questions have been raised about whether Faith Development Theory applies equally to men and women.
Slee (2004) has pointed to empirical studies which have shown that women score less highly on Faith Development Interviews than men and that women proceed to the more ‘advanced’ stages of faith development at later ages.
Fowler (1992) himself has conceded an element of under-scoring for women and overscoring
for men and has suggested the inclusion of ‘relational knowing’ (reflecting Gilligan, 1982) in the fourth stage (Fowler, 2000)
Slee (2004, p. 32) concluded that ‘women’s distinctive patterns of faith may not adequately be accounted for by his stages’, highlighting particularly the middle stages with their general pattern of movement towards separation and autonomy, which does not reflect the emphasis on relationality that has (perhaps overly) characterized work on women’s development since Gilligan.
Some feminist work on faith development has
used the notion of stages as fluid, dynamic, non-hierarchical phases or steps shaped by emotion, imagination and relationship as well as by cognition (for example, see Harris, 1989) or has eschewed stages altogether (as in Slee’s, 2004, model).

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fowler, J. W. (1995). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest
for meaning. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row.

Slee, N. (2004). Women’s faith development: Patterns and processes. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Fowler, J. W. (2001). Faith development theory and the postmodern challenges. International
Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 159-172.

Harris, M. (1989). Dance of the Spirit: The seven steps of women’s spirituality. New York:
Fowler’s scheme fits male development better than that of females (see Slee, 1996, pp. 88–92), a view that parallels Carol Gilligan’s critique of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development (Gilligan, 1980, 1982). A number of studies of women’s faith development argue that Fowler’s account of Stage 4 is particularly inadequate.
Karen DeNicola writes that ‘persons who fail to blend reason and feeling – specifically persons who rely solely on rational certainty – can too easily be scored at Stage 4’ (Moseley, Jarvis & Fowler, 1993, Appendix H). The work of Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule (1986, ch. 6) distinguishes two ways in which females may move into what they call ‘procedural knowing’ (which is akin to Stage 4): a ‘separate’ style involving distancing and objective reasoning, and a ‘connected’ style that majors on reflection through participation and dialogue. Fowler admits (in Astley & Francis, 1992, pp. xii–xiii) that females – and some males – who tread this second path may be underscored in his analysis. Fowler also accepts that any claims to cultural universality for his faith development sequence, as opposed to his claim about the universality of human faith as such, would require the support of much more evidence from cross-cultural studies (see Slee, 1996, pp. 86–88).

Astley, J. & Francis, L. J. (Eds) (1992). Christian perspectives on faith development. Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans.

Belenky, M., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R. & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, C. (1980). Justice and responsibility: Thinking about real dilemmas of moral conflict and choice. In J. W. Fowler & A. Vergote (Eds), Toward moral and religious maturity (pp. 223–249). Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Slee, N. (1996). Further on from Fowler. In L. J. Francis, W. K. Kay & W. S. Campbell (Eds), Research in religious education (pp. 73–96). Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys.

Moseley, R. M., Jarvis, D. & J. W. Fowler (1986; 1993). Manual for faith development research. Atlanta, Georgia: Emory University Center for Faith Development. (Amended by K. DeNicola, 1993.)

Dell, M. L. (2000). She grows in wisdom, stature, and favor with God: Female development from infancy through menarche. In J. Stevenson-Moessner (Ed.), In her own time (pp. 117–143). Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.

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