Monday, March 12, 2018

gender, spirituality

 Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion
Gender in Management: An International Journal
 Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion
Gender Work and Organization
Gender and Society
Women in Management Review
Journal of Psychology and Theology
Sex Roles

Ng, E.S., and Sears, G.J. (2010). What women and ethnic minorities want: Work values and labor market confidence: A self-determination perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(5), 676–698

Meriac, J. P., Poling, T. L., & Woehr, D. J. (2009). Are there gender differences in work ethic?: An examination of the measurement equivalence of the multidimensional work ethic profile. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 209–213

Shields, V.R., and Dervin, B. (1 993) Sense-Making in feminist social science research: A call to enlarge the methodological options of feminist studies, Women 's Studies International Forum, 16( 1 ), 65-8 1.

West, Candace, and Don Zimmerman. 1987. “Doing Gender.” Gender & Society 1: 125–151

Frieze, I. H., Olson, J. E., & Murrell, A. J. (2006). Work values and their effect on work behaviors and work outcomes in female and male managers. Sex Roles, 54, 83-93.

Neitz, Mary Jo. 2014. “Becoming Visible: Religion and Gender in Sociology.” Sociology of
Religion 75:511–23.

Sullins, D. Paul. 2006. “Gender and Religion: Deconstructing Universality, Constructing Complexity.” American Journal of Sociology 112, no. 3:838–80.

Elizur, Dov, “Gender and Work Values: A Comparative Analysis,” Journal of Social Psychology, 134, (1994), 201-212.

Feather N.T. (1987) Gender Differences in Values: Implications of the Expectancy-Value Model. In: Halisch F., Kuhl J. (eds) Motivation, Intention, and Volition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Di Dio, L., Saragovi, C., Koestner, R., & Aubé, J. (1996). Linking personal values to gender. [journal article]. Sex Roles, 34(9), 621-636. doi: 10.1007/bf01551498

Struch, N., Schwartz, S. H., & van der Kloot, W. A. (2002). Meanings of basic values for women and men: A crosscultural analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 16–28.

Richmond-Abbott, M. (1992). Masculine & feminine: Gender roles over the life cycle. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Orenstein, P. (2000). Flux:Women on sex, work, love, kids, and life in a half-changed world. New York: Doubleday

Loo, R., & Thorpe, K. (1998). Attitudes toward women’s roles in society: A replication after 20 years. Sex Roles, 39, 903–912.

Helmreich R. L. Spence J. T. & Gibson R. H. (1982). Sex role attitudes, 1972–1980. Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1631–1644

Harris, R. J., & Firestone, J. M. (1998). Changes in predictors of gender role ideologies: A multivariate analysis. Sex Roles, 38, 239–252

Feather, N. T. (2004). Value correlates of ambivalent attitudes toward gender relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 3–12.

Feather, N. T. (1987). Gender differences in values: Implications of the expectancy-valence model. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation Intention and Volition (pp. 31–46). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Feather, N. T. (1984). Masculinity, femininity, psychological androgyny, and the structure of values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 604–620.

Eagly, A. H. (1995). The science and politics of comparing men and women. American Psychologist, 50, 145–158.

Di Dio L., Saragovi C., Koestner R., & Aube J. (1996). Linking personal values to gender. Sex Roles, 34, 621–636.

Buss, D. M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164–168.

Beutel A. M., & Marini, M. M. (1995). Gender and values. American Sociological Review, 60, 436–448.

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women are more religious than men (Beit-Hallahmi, 2004; Benson et al., 1993)

Beit-Hallahmi B (2004) Religion, religiosity, and gender. In: Ember CR and Ember M (eds)
Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World’s Cultures. New York: Springer,
117–27

Benson PL, Donahue MJ and Erickson JA (1993) The Faith Maturity Scale: Conceptualization,
measurement, and empirical validation. In: Lynn ML and Moberg DO (eds) Research in the
Social Scientific Study of Religion. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 5: 1–26.
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Several theoretical explanations exist for these differences including gender role socialization, biological influences, and individual psychological characteristics (Bradshaw and Ellison, 2009;
Francis, 1997). Ardelt (2009), however, found no evidence that women are more self-reflective
than men.

Bradshaw M and Ellison CG (2009) The nature-nurture debate is over, and both sides lost!
Implications for understanding gender differences in religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study
of Religion 48(2): 241–251

Francis LJ (1997) The psychology of gender differences in religion: A review of empirical research.
Religion 27(1): 81–96.

Ardelt M (2009) How similar are wise men and women? A comparison across two age cohorts.
Research in Human Development 6(1): 9–26.
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Becker, P.E. and H. Hofmeister: 2001, ‘Work, Family, and Religious Involvement for Men and Women’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40, 707–722. doi:10.1111/0021–8294.00086.

Pretty, G. M. H., McCarthy, M. E., & Catano, V. M. (1992). Psychological environments and burnout: Gender considerations within the corporation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 701-711.

DeVault, M. (1990), “Talking and listening from women’s standpoint: feminist strategies for
interviewing and analysis”, Social Problems, Vol. 37, pp. 96-116.

Hall, C.M. (1990), Women and Identity: Value Choices in a Changing World, Hemisphere
Publications, New York,NY.

Levin, J. S., & Taylor, R. J. (1993). Gender and Age Differences in Religiosity Among Black Americans1. The Gerontologist, 33(1), 16-23. doi: 10.1093/geront/33.1.16

Jeffrey S. Levin PhD and MPH (1998) Religious Research in Gerontology, 19801994: A Systematic
Review, Journal of Religious Gerontology, 10:3, 3-31, DOI: 10.1300/J078V10N03_02
chcek table 1 and reference list

Levin, J. S., & Taylor, R. J. (1997). Age Differences in Patterns and Correlates of the Frequency of Prayer1. The Gerontologist, 37(1), 75-88. doi: 10.1093/geront/37.1.75

Graham, M. and Welbourne, T. (1999), “Gainsharing and women’s and men’s relative pay
satisfaction”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 20 No. 7, pp. 1027-1042.

Shu, Xiaoling, and Margaret Mooney Marini. 1998. ‘‘Gender-related Change in Occupational
Aspirations.’’ Sociology of Education 71 (1): 44 68. doi:10.2307/2673221.

Lyson, Thomas A. 1984. ‘‘Sex Differences in the Choice of a Male or Female Career Line: An
Analysis of Background Characteristics and Work Values.’’ Work and Occupations 11 (2):
131 146. doi:10.1177/0730888484011002001.

Jacobs, Jerry A. 1996. ‘‘Gender Inequality and Higher Education.’’ Annual Review of
Sociology 22 (1): 153 185. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153.

Fan, Pi-Ling, and Margaret Mooney Marini. 2000. ‘‘Influences on Gender-role Attitudes
During the Transition to Adulthood.’’ Social Science Research 29 (2): 258 283. doi:10.1006/
ssre.1999.0669.

Bridges, Judith S. 1989. ‘‘Sex Differences in Occupational Values.’’ Sex Roles 20 (3 4): 205 211.
doi:10.1007/BF00287992.

Krahn, H. J., & Galambos, N. L. (2014). Work values and beliefs of ‘Generation X’ and ‘Generation Y’. Journal of Youth Studies, 17(1), 92-112. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2013.815701

Tharenou, P., Latimer, S. and Conroy, D. (1994), “How do you make it to the top? An examination
of influences on women’s and men’s managerial advancement”, Academy of Management
Journal, Vol. 37, pp. 899-931.

Sturges, J. (1999), “What it means to succeed: personal conceptions of career success held by male
and female managers at different ages”, British Journal of Management, Vol. 10 No. 3,
pp. 239-52.

Simpson, R. (2004), “Masculinity at work: the experience of men in female dominated
occupations”, Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 349-68.

Lewis, P. (2006), “The quest for invisibility: female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of
entrepreneurship”, Gender, Work and Organization, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 453-69.

Stewart, A. J., & Ostrove, J. M. (1998). Women’s personality in middle age: Gender, history, and midcourse corrections. American Psychologist, 53, 1185–1194

Del Giudice, M. (2011). Sex differences in romantic attachment: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 193–214.

Cross, S., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5–37.

Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allensworth, M., Allik, J. r., Ault, L., & Austers, I., et al. (2003). Are men universally more dismissing than women? Gender differences in romantic attachment across
62 cultural regions. Personal Relationships, 10, 307-331

Oliver, M. B., & Hyde, J. S. (1993). Gender differences in sexuality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 29-51.

Gormley, B., & Lopez, F. (2010). Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: Gender and adult attachment style differences. Journal of Homosexuality, 57, 525-538.

Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5-37.

Surrey, J. (1991). The "Self In-relation": A theory of women's development. In J. V. Jordan, A. G. Kaplan, J. B. Miller, I. P. Stiver, & J. L. Suirey (Eds.), Women's Growth in Connection (pp. 51-66). New York: Guilford Press

Snodgrass, S. E. (1992), Further effects of role versus gender on interpersonal sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 154-158

Schwalbe, M. L., & Staples, C. L. (1991). Gender differences in sources of self-esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly, 54, 158-168

Roberts, T., &. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1989). Sex differences in reactions to evaluative feedback. Sex Roles, 21, 725-747.

Roberts, T., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1994). Gender comparisons in responsiveness to others' evaluations in achievement settings. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 221-240

Moran, P. B., & Eckenrode, J. (1991). Gender differences in the costs and benefits of peer relationships during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research 6, 396-409.

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In M. Crawford & M. Hamilton (Eds.), Gender and thought (pp. 100-127). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Lykes, M. B. (1985). Gender and individualistic vs. collectivistic bases for notions about the self. In A. J. Stewart & M. B. Lykes (Eds.), Gender and personality: Current perspectives on theory and research (pp. 268-295). Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Kashima, Y., Yamaguchi, S., Kim, U., Choi, S. C, Gelfand, M. J., & Yuki, M. (1995). Culture, gender, and self: A perspective from individualismcollectivism research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 925-937

Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5-37.

Cross, S. E., Bacon, P. L., & Morris, M. L. (2000). The relational interdependent self-construal and relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 791-808

Surrey, J. (Ed.). (1991). The “self in-relation”: A theory of women’s development. New York: Guilford.

Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5-37.

Watson, P. J., Biderman, M. D., & Sawrie, S. M. (1994). Empathy, sex role orientation, and narcissism. Sex Roles, 30, 701-723.

Rueckert, L., & Naybar, N. (2008). Gender differences in empathy: The role of the right hemisphere. Brain and Cognition, 67,162-167.

Parks, J. B., & Roberton, M. A. (2005). Explaining age and gender effects on attitudes toward sexist language. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 401-411.

Oliver, M. B., & Hyde, J. S. (1993). Gender differences in sexuality:A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 29-51.

Lengua, L. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2000). Gender, gender roles, and personality: Gender differences in the prediction of coping and psychological symptoms. Sex Roles, 43, 787-820

Laurent, S. M., & Hodges, S. D. (2009). Gender roles and empathic accuracy: The role of communion in reading minds. Sex Roles, 60, 387-398.

Klein, K. J. K., & Hodges, S. D. (2001). Gender differences, motivation,and empathic accuracy: When it pays to understand. Personality Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 720-730.

Harton, H. C., & Lyons, P. C. (2003). Gender, empathy, and the choice of the psychology major. Teaching of Psychology, 30,19-24.

Cowan, G., & Khatchadourian, D. (2003). Empathy, ways of knowing, and interdependence as mediators of gender differences in attitudes toward hate speech and freedom of speech. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 300-308.

Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.

Changes in Dispositional Empathy in American College Students Over Time: A Meta-Analysis
Sara H. Konrath, Edward H. O'Brien and Courtney Hsing
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(2) 180–198
2011

Davis, M. H. (1983c). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113-126.

Sex Differences in the Development of Moral Reasoning: A Critical Review
Lawrence J. Walker
Child Development
Vol. 55, No. 3 (Jun., 1984), pp. 677-691

Strach, L. and Wicander, L., 1993. Fitting in: issues of tokenism and conformity for minority
women. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 58 (3), 22–25.

Smithson, J. and Stokoe, E.H., 2005. Discourses of work–life balance: negotiating ‘genderblind’
terms in organizations. Gender, Work and Organization, 12 (2), 147.

Simpson, R., 2006. Masculinity and management education: feminizing the MBA. Academy
of Management Learning and Education, 5, 182–193.

McGregor, J. and Tweed, D., 2001. Gender and managerial competence: support for theories
of androgyny? Women in Management Review, 16 (5/6), 279–286.

Fondas, N., 1997. Feminization unveiled: management qualities in contemporary writings.
Academy of Management Review, 22 (1), 257–282.

James E. King Jr. , Myrtle P. Bell & Ericka Lawrence (2009) Religion as an aspect of workplace diversity: an examination of the US context and a call for international research, Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 6:1, 43-57, DOI: 10.1080/14766080802648631

O’Leary, V. (1974). ‘Some attitudinal barriers to occupational aspirations in women’, Psychological Bulletin, 81,809-826

Abu-Saad, I., & Isralowitz, R. E. (1997). Gender as a determinant of work values among university students in Israel. Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 749-763.

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women to be more likely to endorse altruistic work values and also to be more spiritual (Astin et
al., 2005; Beutell & Brenner, 1986; Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007b).

Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., Lindholm, J. A., Bryant, A. N., Calderon, S.,& Szelenyi, K. (2005). The spiritual life of college students: A national study of college students’ search for meaning and purpose. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles.

Beutell, N. J., & Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 29-41.

Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2007) .The work values of first year college students: Exploring group differences. The Career Development Quarterly, 55, 359-364.

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Duffy, R. D. (2010). Spirituality, Religion, and Work Values. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 38(1), 52-61. doi: 10.1177/009164711003800105

**
Numerous studies have found differences in work values for men and women as well as differences in levels of religiousness and spirituality (e.g., Hall, 1997; McCullough, Worthington, Maxey, & Rachal, 1997; Miller & Stark, 2002; Thompson & Remmes, 2002).

Hall, T. A. (1997). Gender differences: Implications for spiritual formation and community life. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 16, 212-232.

McCullough, M. E., Worthington, E. L., Maxey, J., & Rachal, K. C. (1997). Gender in the context of supportive and challenging religious counseling interventions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44, 80–88.

Miller, A. S., & Stark, R. (2002). Gender and religiousness: Can socialization explanations be saved? American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1399-1423.

Thompson, E. H., & Remmes, K. R. (2002). Does masculinity thwart being religious? An examination of older men's religiousness. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41, 521-532.

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Authors have theorized that differences amongst these variables may be due to gender socialization (e.g. women being more relationally focused, men being more achievement focused) or differences in ways of knowing (e.g. separate vs. connected knower; Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberer, & Tarule, 1986) and how these differences relate to relationships with a religion or higher power (Simpson, Cloud, Newman, & Fuqua, 2008).

Belenky, M. E, Clinchy, B. M., Goldberer, N. R, & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.

Simpson, D. B., Cloud, D. S., Newman, .L., & Fuqua, D. R. (2008). Sex and gender differences in religiousness and spirituality. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 36, 42-52.

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men have been found to be more to likely endorse values related to prestige, risk-taking, advancement, and pay, whereas women are more likely to endorse values related to working with people and helping others (Abu-Saad & Isralowitz, 1997; Beutell & Brenner, 1986; Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007b; Post-Kammer, 1987).

Abu-Saad, I., & Isralowitz, R. E. (1997). Gender as a determinant of work values among university students in Israel. Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 749-763

Beutell, N. J., & Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 29-41

Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2007) .The work values of first year college students: Exploring group differences. The Career Development Quarterly, 55, 359-364.

Post-Kammer, P. (1987). Intrinsic and extrinsic work values and career maturity of 9th- and 1th-grade boys and girls. Journal of Counseling & Development, 65, 420-423.

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Kidwell, Jeaneen M., Robert E. Stevens and Art L. Bethke: 1987, ‘Differences in Ethical Perceptions
Between Male and Female Managers: Myth or Reality?’, Journal of Business Ethics 6, 489–493.

Allport, G. W., Gillespie, J. M., & Young, J. (1948). The Religion of the Post-War College Student. The Journal of Psychology, 25(1), 3-33. doi: 10.1080/00223980.1948.9917361

White, J. (1999). Ethical comportment in organizations: A synthesis of the feminist ethic of care and the buddhist ethic of compassion. International Journal of Value-Based Management, 12(2), 109–128.

Bullis, C. and Glaser, H. (1992), “Bureaucratic discourse and the goddess: towards a ecofeminist
critique and rearticulation”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 50-60.

Nettles, E. J., & Loevinger, J. (1983). Sex role expectations and ego level in relation to problem marriages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 676-687

Waterman, C. K., and Nevid, J. S. (1977). Sex differences in the resolution of the identity crisis. J. Youth Adoles. 6: 337-342.

Matteson, D. R. (1977). Exploration and commitment: Sex differences and methodological

problems in the use of identity status categories. J. Youth Adoles. 6: 353-374.

Grotevant, H. D., & Thorbecke, W. L. Sex differences in styles of occupational identity formation in late adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 1982, 18, 396-405

Relationship among ego identity status, field-independence, and traditional femininity
Schenkel, Susi, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 1975

Ego identity status and response to conformity pressure in college women
Toder, Nancy L.Marcia, James E.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1973

Frank, S. J., & Quinlan, D. M. (1976). Ego development and female delinquency: A cognitive-developmental approach. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 505-510.

Cohn, L. (1991). Sex differences in the course ofpersonality development: A meta-analysis. PsychologicalBulletin, 109, 252-266.

Bursik, K. (1991). Adaptation to divorce and ego development in adult women. Journal ofPersonality andSocialPsychology, 60, 300-306

The relation between ego-identity status and sex-role attitude, work-role salience, atypicality of major, and self-esteem in college women Fannin, Patricia M, Journal of Vocational Behavior 1979

White, M.S. (1985). Ego development in adult women. Journal of Personality, 53, 561–574.

Lykes, M. B. (1983). Gender and individualistic vs. collectivist bases for notions about the self. Journal of Personality, 53, 356-383

Chevron, E. S., Quinlan, D. M., & Blatt, S. J. (1978). Sex roles and gender differences in the experience of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87, 680-683
**
In the past two decades, feminist theorists have also challenged the phallocentric and individualistic bias in traditional psychological theories (Jordan et al., 1991). Miller (1976) and Gilligan (1982) pointed out that all major developmental theorists to date have used male development as the norm, including Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Kohlberg. They argued that these theories of human development misunderstand and neglect important dimensions of personality development, especially
those occurring in female development.  
Jordan et al. (1991) and Gilligan et al. (1991) argued that a woman's sense of self is organized around being able to attain and maintain affiliation and relationships. This self-in-relation theory marks a major departure from phallocentric developmental perspectives. In traditional views of psychological
development that focus on separation, women's concern with relationships is often viewed as a weakness or even as pathological.

Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, L. P., & Stiver, J. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford Press.

Miller, J. B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon Press

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, C, Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

This gender difference in perspective may arise from the different developmental tasks posed for boys and for girls in nuclear families that establish differential emphases on self-definition and relatedness in the development of men and women (Chodorow, 1978). When a little boy realizes he is not the same gender as his mother, he must differentiate himself from her, and the boy's emphasis
on individuality and identity derives partly from the developmental task of having to shift, early in life, the object of gender identification from the first object of attachment. This may lead boys to greater concerns with being separate and individual, as compared with girls, for whom such differentiation and contrast from mother is not necessary (Blatt & Shichman, 1983; Chodorow, 1978).

Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Blatt, S. J., & Shichman, S. (1983). Two primary configurations of psychopathology. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 6, 187-254.

In Western cultures women have long been seen as more developed in interpersonal relatedness (Bakan, 1966). Feminist theorists believe that relational development is primary for women and that this represents both a culturally undervalued strength and a developmental vulnerability in that women risk losing themselves in their relationships. The popularity among women of

books on codependency attests to the extent to which many women feel an inadequately developed sense of self and often sacrifice self-development to relationship development.
In typical American families in which fathers have been less involved in the care of young children,
little girls may learn to focus energy on engaging their distant fathers (and other men in later relationships). Following Chodorow (1978), we suggest that the fullest development of both boys and girls is more likely if both parents are actively engaged in parenting so that an infant can become deeply attached to both, thereby reducing the basic childhood dilemma that may lead men to be fearful of relatedness and overconcerned with issues of autonomy and women to overdevote energy to relatedness. Greater involvement by fathers in childrearing could result in a cultural shift in our indigenous psychology away from exaggerated individualism.

Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Boston: Beacon Press.
@Shan Guisinger and Sidney J. Blatt, Individuality and Relatedness: Evolution of a Fundamental Dialectic,1994 • American Psychologist

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Dollahite, D. C. (1998). Faith, fathering, and spirituality. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 7, 3–15.

Thornton, A., D. F. Alwin and D. Camburn: 1983, ‘Causes and Consequences of Sex-Role Attitudes
and Attitude Change’, American Sociological Review 48, 211–227.

McGraw, K. M. and J. Bloomfield: 1987, ‘Social Influence on Group Moral Decisions: The Interactive Effects of Moral Reasoning and Sex Role Orientation’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53, 1080–1087

Dobson, J. and J. White: 1995, ‘Toward the Feminine Firm’, Business Ethics Quarterly 5(3), 463–478.

James, David C. 1996. What Are They Saying about Masculine Spirituality? Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press.

Carol Gilligan---female moral development tends to go through three stages, selfish, care, and universal care. The circle of care and compassion expands and egocentrism declines. At first, the young girl cares mostly for herself, then she can care for others as well (family and friends), and finally, she can extend her concern and well wishes to humanity as a whole 

Relational practice: A feminist reconstruction of work
JK Fletcher - Journal of Management Inquiry, 1998

Davis, L. (1985). Female and male voices in social work. Social Work, 30(2), 106-113

As Gilligan (1982) and Randour (1987) have pointed out, the theme of autonomy seeking to balance with intimacy is not compatible with the psychological and spiritual experience of many women, who might rather emphasize a developmental theme of connectedness seeking to balance with autonomy.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Randour, M.L. (1987). Women's psyche, womens's spirit: the reality of relationships.
NY: Columbia University Press

Sands, R.G., & Nuccio, K. (1992). Postmodern feminist theory and social work. Social Work, 37(6), 489-494

Marty, M.E. (1980). Social service: Godly and Godless. Social Service Review,  54(4), 457-481.

David S. Derezotes & Kathleen E. Evans (1995) Spirituality and religiosity in practice: In‐depth interviews of social work practitioners, Social Thought, 18:1, 39-56, DOI: 10.1080/15426432.1995.9960214

Wallace, R. (2000) Women and religion: The transfonnation of leadership roles, Journal.for the Scientijic Stu& of Religion. Dec, 497-508.

Barbuto, J.E.J., Fritz, S.M., Matkin, G.S. and Marx, D.B. (2007), “Effects of gender, education, and
age upon leaders’ use of influence tactics and full range leadership behaviors”, Sex Roles,
Vol. 56, pp. 71-83

Wheeler, L., Reis, H. T, & Nezlek, J. (1983). Loneliness, social interaction, and sex roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 943-953

Wheeler, L., & Nezlek, J. (1977). Sex differences in social participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 742-754.

West, C. and Zimmerman, D.H. (1987) ‘Doing Gender’, Gender and Society 1(2):
125–51.

Meyerson, D.E. (1998) ‘Feeling Stressed and Burned Out: A Feminist Reading and Re-visioning of Stress-based Emotions within Medicine and Organization Science’, Organization Science 9(1): 103–18.

Boyle, M.V. (2002) ‘ “Sailing Twixt Scylla and Charybdis”: Negotiating Multiple Organizational Masculinities’, Women in Management Review 17(3/4): 131–41

Becker, P. and Hofmeister, H. (2001) Work, family, and religious involvement for men
and women. Journal for the Scientific Study ofReligion, 40, 707-722

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**
men more than women compete with one another for status, prestige, and dominance, and thus might be expected (more than women) to conceptualize God with respect to dimensions such as power and dominance. Results consistent with this hypothesis have been reported in both adolescents (Cox,
1967) and adults (Nelsen, Cheek, & Au, 1985).

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**
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**
Wink and Dillon (2002, 2008) collated longitudinal data evaluating the role of spirituality and religiousness across a life span of over 60 years. Drawing from a sample of more than 200 participants born in the 1920s, Wink and Dillon examined the development and expression of these numinous dimensions from young adulthood through old age. Their findings suggested that levels of
spirituality increased significantly over the course of the life span, especially from middle to late adulthood, with women evidencing a higher level of spirituality than men. Men’s spirituality, however, showed a more significant increase than women’s from early to middle adulthood. For women, a high level of spirituality in late adulthood was related to the number of negative life events experienced in middle adulthood, most notably financial strain and spousal and parental conflicts.

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002). Spiritual development across the adult life course: Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Adult Development, 9, 79–94. doi:10.1023/A:1013833419122

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2008). Religiousness, spirituality, and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood: Findings from a longitudinal study. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1, 102–115. doi:10.1037/1941-1022.S.1.102

@Age and Gender Effects on the Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) Scale: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality
2013, Vol. 5, No. 2, 90–98
***
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An Investigation of the Sociological Patterns of Prayer Frequency and Content
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religion was more important for girls than boys
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a trend similar to that found for adults
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***
males were significantly more narcissistic than females at ages. Gender socialization allowing more hostility, impulsivity, and self-centeredness in males than in females might explain this difference. Previous studies have found this gender difference using self-reports (e.g., Gabriel, Critelli, & Ee, 1994; Wright, O’Leary, & Balkin, 1989).
@Carlson, K. S., & Gjerde, P. F. (2009). Preschool personality antecedents of narcissism in adolescence and young adulthood: A 20-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality 43(4), 570-578. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.03.003
***

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Cross & Madson, 1997; for review) suggests that males conceptualize the self more in terms of independence whereas females tend to be more interdependent.

Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5–37.
***
males reported being more narcissistic than females

men are more narcissistic than women (e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1999; Farwell & Wohlwend-Lloyd, 1998; Joubert, 1998; Ladd et al., 1997). In fact, Campbell (1999) found an average correlation of .18 (males higher than females) between gender and narcissism across 20 samples with 3668 participants. Thus, our final hypothesis is that male participants in the present investigation will report more narcissism compared to female participants.

men usually report more narcissism than women (e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1999; Farwell & Wohlwend-Lloyd, 1998; Joubert, 1998; Ladd, Welsh, Vitulli, Labbe, & Law, 1997).
@ Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6
***

Donnelly, K., Twenge, J. M., Clark, M. A., Shaikh, S. K., Beiler-May,
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Charlotte Perkins Gilman drew a connection between gender and different forms
of religion (Gilman 2003). The lived religion of women, she argued, was built on
experiences of birth and growth, while the lived religion of men was built on
experiences of struggle, conflict, and death.
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Re‐Orienting Western Feminisms: Women's Diversity in a Post‐colonial World by Chilla Bulbeck
Lourdes Torres
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Theorizing Gender from Religion Cases: Agency, Feminist Activism, and Masculinity
Orit Avishai
Sociology of Religion, Volume 77, Issue 3, 1 September 2016, Pages 261–279, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srw020

The Hallmarks of Righteous Women: Gendered Background Expectations in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
J. Edward Sumerau, Ryan T. Cragun
Sociology of Religion, Volume 76, Issue 1, 1 January 2015, Pages 49–71, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru040

Incorporating Transgender Experience Toward a More Inclusive Gender Lens in the Sociology of Religion
J E Sumerau, Lain A B Mathers, Ryan T Cragun
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Becoming Visible: Religion and Gender in Sociology
Mary Jo Neitz
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 4, 1 December 2014, Pages 511–523, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru058

Dating in Light of Christ: Young Evangelicals Negotiating Gender in the Context of Religious and Secular American Culture
Courtney Ann Irby
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 2, 1 June 2014, Pages 260–283, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srt062

Goddess Pilgrims as Tourists: Inscribing the Body through Sacred Travel
Kathryn Rountree
Sociology of Religion, Volume 63, Issue 4, 1 December 2002, Pages 475–496, https://doi.org/10.2307/3712303

The Embodied Goddess: Feminist Witchcraft and Female Divinity
Wendy Griffin
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Canadian Women Religious' Negotiation of Feminism and Catholicism
Christine L. M. Gervais
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The Encounter of Scientific and Religious Values Pertinent to Man's Spiritual Nature
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Defecting in Place: Women Claiming Responsibility for Their Own Spiritual Lifes , by Miriam Therese Winter, Adair Lummis, and Allison Stokes. New York: Crossroad Publishing, 1994, xii + 312 pp. $22.95
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Political Activism and Feminist Spirituality
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Women's Spirituality Research: Doing Feminism
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Rethinking Religious Gender Differences: The Case of Elite Women
Orestes P. Hastings, D. Michael Lindsay
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Black, H. K., & Hannum, S. M. (2015). Aging, Spirituality, and Time: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 27(2-3), 145-165. doi: 10.1080/15528030.2014.1003274

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http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/gender-composition/

Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial Development of Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3), 125-151.

Rossi, A. S. Life-span theories and women's lives. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1980,6, 4- 32.

Ryff, C. D., & Baltes, P. B. Value transitions and adult development in women: The instrumentality-terminality sequence hypothesis. Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 567-568.

Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial Development of Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3),

Puglisi, J. Thomas and Dorothy W. Jackson. 1980-81. "Sex Role Identity and Self Esteem in Adulthood." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 12:129-138.
**
Women describe themselves more in terms of gender and family and personal relationships, but less in terms of larger social groups, such as veteran, than do men
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, J. P. T. (1988). Age, Personality, and the Spontaneous Self-Concept. Journal of Gerontology, 43(6), S177-S185.

***
women have long been seen as more developed in interpersonal relatedness (Bakan, 1966).
Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Boston: Beacon Press.

Chevron, E. S., Quinlan, D. M., & Blatt, S. J. (1978). Sex roles and gender differences in the experience of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87, 680-683

Miller, J. B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon Press.

Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Guisinger, S., & J. Blatt, S. (1994). Individuality and Relatedness: Evolution of a Fundamental Dialectic (Vol. 49).
***
Jordan et al. (1991) and Gilligan et al. (1991) argued that a woman's sense of self is organized around being able to attain and maintain affiliation and relationships. This self-in-relation theory marks a major departure from phallocentric developmental perspectives. In traditional views of psychological
development that focus on separation, women's concern with relationships is often viewed as a weakness or even as pathological.

Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, L. P., & Stiver, J. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford Press.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, C, Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

***
J. Dollinger, S., Ann Preston, L., Pagany O'Brien, S., & Dilalla, D. (1997). Individuality and Relatedness of the Self: An Autophotographic Study (Vol. 71).

Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender in the Life Course, Gisela Labouvie-Vief

Diehl, M., Owen, S., & Youngblade, L. (2004). Agency and communion attributes in adults’ spontaneous self-representations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(1), 1-15.

Ego development in adult women
Martha Sturm White, Cahfornia School of Professional
Psychology, Berkeley, CA

Cohn, L.D. 1991---sex differences in the course of personality development: a meta-analysis, Journal of personality and social psychology, 109: 252-266

Incorporating Others into the Self (83-84)
@Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, self-concept, and identity. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 69-104). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
**
Cross, S. E., & Madson, L . (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological
Bulletin, 1 2 2 , 5-37.

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
127). New York: Springer-Verlag

Schwadel, P. (2010). Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on U.S. Religious Service Attendance: The Declining Impact of Sex, Southern Residence, and Catholic Affiliation*. Sociology of Religion, 71(1), 2-24. doi: 10.1093/socrel/srq005

Stolzenberg RM, Blair-Loy M, Waite LJ (1995) Religious participation in early adulthood: age and family life cycle effects on church membership. Am Sociol Rev 60:84–103

Button, T. M. M., Stallings, M. C., Rhee, S. H., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2011). The Etiology of Stability and Change in Religious Values and Religious Attendance. Behavior genetics, 41(2), 201-210.

Gender differences in religious practices, spiritual experiences and health: results from the US General Social Survey. Maselko J1, Kubzansky LD.
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jun;62(11):2848-60.

Wink, P. (1991). Self- and object-directedness in adult women. Journal of Personality,
59, 769-791.

women have a greater involvement than do men in organized religious activities (Hout &
Greeley, 1987; McFadden, 1996b; Stolzenberg et al.,1995)
Hout, M., & Greeley, A. (1987). The center doesn’t hold: Church attendance in the United States, 1940–1984. American Sociological Review, 52, 325–345.
McFadden, S. (1996b). Religion, spirituality, and aging. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (pp. 162–177). San Diego,CA: Academic Press.
Stolzenberg, R., Blair-Loy, M., & Waite, L. (1995). Religious participation in early adulthood: Age and family life cycle effects on church membership. American Sociological Review, 60, 84–103.

***
Women’s greater participation in organized religion may provide a stepping stone toward spiritual growth (Burke, 1999; Stokes, 1990; but see Zinnbauer et al., 1997, who found that spiritual individuals tended to report having being hurt by clergy).
Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer
Stokes, K. (1990). Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7, 167–184.
Stokes, K. (1990). Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7, 167–184.
Zinnbauer, B., Pargament, K., Cole, B., Rye, M., Butter, E., Belavich, T., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzing the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 549–564.

gender inequality in family, work, and other social relations may cause women to experience more
of the discontinuities and decentering experiences that are associated with personal growth in general
(Riegel, 1976) and spiritual development in particular (Atchley, 1997; Burke, 1999).
Riegel, K. (1976). The dialectics of human development. American Psychologist, 31, 689–699

Atchley, R. (1997). Everyday mysticism: Spiritual development in later adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 4, 123–134.

**
Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002). Spiritual Development Across the Adult Life Course: Findings from a Longitudinal Study. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 79-94.

Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. ( 1974). Cohort analysis of church attendance, 1939-1969. Social Forces, 55, 324-331.

Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. (1971). Age, Aging, and Church Attendance. The Gerontologist, 11(4_Part_1), 356-358.

Van Lange, P. A. M., De Bruin, E. M. N., Otten, W., & Joireman, J. A. (1997). Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations: Theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 (4), 733-746.

Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K., & Gentile, B. (2012). Generational Increases in Agentic Self-evaluations among American College Students, 1966–2009. Self and Identity, 11(4), 409-427.

Black, H. K. (1995). ‘Wasted lives’ and the hero grown old: Personal perspectives of spirituality by aging men. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–48.
**
The only scale that showed significant sex differences was Positive Relations With Others,  with women again scoring higher than men

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.
**
Peacock, J. R., & Poloma, M. M. (1999). Religiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course. Social Indicators Research, 48(3), 321-345.
**
DeVaus, D. and I. McAllister: 1987, ‘Gender differences in religion: A test of the structural location theory’, American Sociological Review 52(4), pp. 472– 481.
***
men and women go through different religious developmental stages at different times (Cornwall, 1989)

Cornwall, M.: 1989, ‘Faith development of men and women over the life span’, in S. Bahr and E. T. Peterson (eds.), Aging and the Family (Lexington Press), pp. 115–139.

Cornwall (1989), who explored gender differences in faith development. She found that men’s attitudes seem to vary more over time than do women’s. However, she reported that a consistent pattern of religiosity over time has not emerged. With such inconsistencies in the literature, much space is left open for interpretation and deliberation.

**
Stokes, K. (1991). Faith Development in the Adult Life Cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7(1-2), 167-184

Prager, E. (1998b). Men and meaning in later life. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 4,
191-203.

Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43-52

Harker, L., & Solomon, M. (1996). Change in goals and values of men and women from early to mature adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 3, 133‐143.

James, J. B., Lewkowicz, C., Libhaber, J., & Lachman, M. (1995). Rethinking the gender identity crossover hypothesis: A test of a new model. Sex Roles, 32, 185‐207

Sharp, K. C., Candy, S. G., & Troll, L. E. (1980). Gender and Generation Effects on Person Perception. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 11(4), 307-318

P. S. Rosenkrantz, S. R. Vogel, H. Bee, I. Broverman and D. Broverman, Sex-Role Stereotypes and Self-concepts in College Students, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, pp. 287-295, 1968.

L. Beach and H. Wertheimer, A Free Response Approach to the Study of of Person Cognition, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, pp. 367-374, 1961.

 R. Carlson, Sex Differences in Ego Functioning: Exploratory Studies of Agency and Communion, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37,  pp. 267-277, 1971.


Gilligan, C., Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. J. (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49, 104-111.

**
Relationships between meaning in life and gender have yielded contradictory results in previous research. Some reported higher meaning scores for men (e.g. Crumbaugh, 1968; Orbach et al.,
1987); others did not find any differences (e.g. Debats, 1999; Harlow et al., 1986; Scannell et al., 2002; Steger et al., 2006). In the present sample, no gender differences were found for crisis of meaning. For meaningfulness, a significant, but negligible correlation showed slightly higher scores in women.

Crumbaugh, J.C. (1968). Cross-validation of purpose-in-life test based on Frankl’s concepts. Journal of Individual Psychology, 24, 74–81.

Orbach, I., Illuz, A., & Rosenheim, E. (1987). Value systems and commitment to goals as a function of age, integration and personality, and fear of death. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 10, 225–239.

Debats, D.L. (1999). Sources of meaning: An investigation of significant commitments in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39, 30–57.

Harlow, L.L., Newcomb, M.D., & Bentler, P.M. (1986). Depression, self-derogation, substance use, and suicide ideation: Lack of purpose in life as a mediational factor. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 5–21.

Steger, M.F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 53, 80–93.

Scannell, E.D., Allen, F.C.L., & Burton, J. (2002). Meaning in life and positive and negative well-being. North American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 93–112.

Women attribute slightly more importance to vertical selftranscendence, as is also reported by many studies in the psychology of religion (cf. Hood, Spilka, Hunsberger, & Gorsuch, 2003).
More than men, women value well-being and relatedness. For men, self-actualization has a slightly
stronger relevance than for women. Thus, the longstanding distinction of female communion and
male agency (Bakan, 1966) can still be glimpsed in (post-)modern time

Hood, R.W., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R.L. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford

Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.

@Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to demographics and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483-499
***
Ploch, D. R., & Hastings, D. W. (1994). Graphic Presentations of Church Attendance Using General Social Survey Data. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33(1), 16-33

Ramsey, J. L., & Blieszner, R. (1999). Spiritual resiliency in older women: Models of
strength for challenges through the life span. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Black, H. K. (1995). “Wasted lives” and the hero grown old: Personal perspectives of
spirituality by aging men. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–4
**
women of all ages are more religious than men,both in terms of religious participation and religious practice (Koenig, Kvale, & Ferrel).
Koenig, H. G., Kvale, J. N., & Ferrel, C. (1988). Religion and well-being in later life. The
Gerontologist, 28, 18-28.
**
Markides, K. S. (1983). Aging, Religiosity, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis1. Journal of Gerontology, 38(5), 621-625

Gerhard Lenski, "Social Correlates of Religious Interest," American Sociological Review, 18 (October 1953),

Harold L. Orbach, "Aging and Religion: Church Attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan Area,"
Geriatrics

Lazerwitz, B. (1961). Some Factors Associated with Variations in Church Attendance*. Social Forces, 39(4), 301-309.

Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., Larson, D. B., George, L. K., Cohen, H. J., McCullough, M. E., . . . Blazer, D. G. (1999). Does Religious Attendance Prolong Survival? A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of 3,968 Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 54(7), M370-M376

Erskine, H. G. (1965). The Polls: Personal Religion. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(1), 145-157.

Bultena, L. (1949). Church Membership and Church Attendance in Madison, Wisconsin. American Sociological Review, 14(3), 384-389.

Fukuyama, Y. (1961). The Major Dimensions of Church Membership. Review of Religious Research, 2(4), 154-161
**
Fichter, J. H. (1952). The Profile of Catholic Religious Life. American Journal of Sociology, 58(2), 145-149.
**
The women were significantly more religious than men in activities (about .7 higher on the religious activity subscale, t-test significant at .02 level), and in attitudes (about .3 higher on the religious attitudes subscale, t-test significant at .05 level). This supports the general finding that women tend
to be more religious than men (Orbach, 1961; Riley&Foner, 1968).
#Orbach, H. L. Age and religion: A study of church attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan area. Geriatrics, 1961, 76, 530-540.
#Riley, M. W., & Foner, A. Aging and society. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1968.

Blazer, D., & Palmore, E. (1976). Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel1. The Gerontologist, 16(1_Part_1), 82-85
**
Cox, H., & Hammonds, A. (1989). Religiosity, Aging, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Religion & Aging, 5(1-2), 1-21

Reker, G. T., & Peacock, E. J. (1981). The Life Attitude Profile (LAP): A multidimensional instrument for assessing attitudes toward life. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 13(3), 264-273.

Reker, G., J Peacock, E., & Wong, P. (1987). Meaning and Purpose in Life and Well-being: a Life-span Perspective. Journal of Gerontology: SOCIAL SCIENCES, 42, 44-49
**
For the Israeli as well as Australian women participation in personal relationships was the most important source of meaning in all age categories
#Prager, E., Bar-Tur, L., & Abramowici, I. (1997). The Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP) with Aged Subjects Exhibiting Depressive Symptomatology. Clinical Gerontologist, 17(3), 25-39.
**
Sex differences at the .01 level were found for mean PIL, Anti-hedonism, and Religion-puritanism scores, in favour of males. Females had less purpose in life than males, but were more religious. They were also more anti-hedonistic and idealistic.
@Pearson, P. R., & Sheffield, B. F. (1975). Purpose in life and social attitudes in psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(2), 330-332.
***
purose in life scores---sex differences in PIL scores
#SHKFFIELBD. , F. and PEAKSOPN. ,1 1. Purpose-in-Life in a sample of British psychiatric outpatients.J. din. Psycho/., in press
#Crumbaugh, J. C. Cross-validation of purpose-in-life test based on Frankl's concepts. J. invid. psychol. 1968, 24: 74-81

***
Hardcastle, B. (1985). Midlife Themes of Invisible Citizens:An Exploration into How Ordinary People Make Sense of Their Lives. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(2), 45-63.

Meier, A., & Edwards, H. (1974). Purpose‐in‐Life Test: Age and sex differences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30(3), 384-386.

Chodorow, N. (1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In: M. Z. Rosaldo, & L. Lamphere (Eds.), Woman, culture and society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s development. London: Harvard University Press.

men and women may take quite different paths toward integrated and mature styles of coping and defending
#Diehl, M., Coyle, N., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1996). Age and sex differences in strategies of coping and defense across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 11, 127–139.

differences in personality dispositions (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Gilligan, 1982)
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Trait psychology comes of age. In: T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraskasymposium on motivation, vol: 39 ( pp. 169–204). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

emotional experiences and personal relationships (Brody & Hall, 1993)
Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In: M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions ( pp. 447–460). New York: Guilford Press

cognitive performance (Halpern, 1997)
Halpern, D. F. (1997). Sex difference in intelligence: implications for education. American  Psychologist, 52, 1091–1102.

Moore, D. (1998). Gender identities and social actions. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34, 5–29.

being with animals was more important for men overall than for women.
#Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001).

@Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001). Sources of meaning in life for young and old Israeli Jews and Arabs. Journal of Aging Studies, 15(3), 253-269

**
gender and four sources of meaning: meeting basic needs, being of service to others, preservation of culture and traditions, and financial security. All favored women respondents.

men and women in Canada differed on five of the 12 meaning sources: creative activities, personal relationships, service to others, preservation of values and ideals, and religious activities. All favored women. At least in one earlier study investigating college men’s and women’s rankings of sources of meaning (De Vogler and Ebersole 1980), no significant sex differences were found. Were this similarity between the sexes to be substantiated in additional SOMP-based studies, utilizing a more gender-controlled sample, it would support the theoretical position that, when taken as a whole, the four basic needs for meaning represented in the SOMP-purpose, value, efficacy, and self-worth (Baumeister 199 I)-are of similar if not equal importance to men and women, of all ages.
#DeVogler, K. L. and P. Ebersole. (1980) “Categorization of College Students’ Meaning of Lie.”
Psychological Records 46: 387-390.
#Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of Life. New York: The Guilford Press.

@Prager, E. (1996). Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: Another look at the Sources Of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10(2), 117-136

**
gender differences in the sources of meaning "personal relationships", in which women scored significantly higher than men
@  Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources of Personal Meaning in a Sample of Young-Old and Old-Old Israelis. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 21(2), 59-75
**
personal relationships play a relatively subordinate role for adult men as compared with women,
here are consistent with virtually all studies known to the authors (see, for example Valliant, 1977; Levinson, 1978; Gilligan, 1982; Field and Minkler, 1988);
# Valiant, G.E. (1977). Adaptation to Life. Boston: Little, Brown.
#Levinson, D.J., Darrow, C., and Kline, E. (1978). The Seasons of a Man k Life.
New York: Knopf
#Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice. Boston: Harvard University Press.
#Field, D. And Minkler, M. (1988). Continuity and change in social support between
young-old and very old. Journal of Gemntologv, 43, 100-1 06.

**
Thumer, M. 1975. “Continuities and Discontinuities in Value Orientation.” In Four Stages of
Life: A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transitions, edited by M. F.
Lowenthal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
**
leisure activities contributed to males’ meaning in life more than females, and deriving meaning from life in general was more important for females.
when considering how different sources of meaning contributed to well-being according to gender, the results showed that meaning from personal growth and life in general predicted well-being for
females. The gender difference found for meaning from personal growth contributing to well-being is consistent with research which has found that personal growth (but not meaning derived from it) was more predictive of well-being for females than males (Robitschek, 1999).
The tendency for life in general to be more meaningful for females may suggest that women take
a broader perspective when considering meaning, and consider the degree to which their whole life is imbued with a sense of meaning.

Robitschek, C. (1999). Further validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 31, 197–210.

@Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.
**
interpersonal relationships are more valued by females than males (Debats, 1999; Wong, 1998). Other
research has revealed that well-being and relatedness are more important for females and self-actualisation is more important for males (Schnell, 2009).
**
interpersonal relationships appear to be universally meaningful to people, research has revealed this source to be more important for females (Debats, 1999; Wong, 1998).
#Debats, D. L. (1999). Sources of meaning: An investigation of significant commitments in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39(4), 30–57. doi:10.1177/0022167899394003
#Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Furthermore, religiosity/ spirituality is more valued by females (Wong, 1998), as are well-being and
relatedness; self-actualisation seems to be a central source for males, and this difference is thought to reflect the female/communion and male/agency associations (Schnell, 2009). Another study revealed work, love/marriage, independent pursuits, and leisure as centrally important for males, and birth
of children, love/marriage, and work as most meaningful for females (Baum & Stewart, 1990).
#Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
#Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of meaning and meaning in life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to
demographics and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483–499.
doi:10.1080/17439760903271074
#Baum, S. K., & Stewart, R. B. (1990). Sources of meaning through the lifespan. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 3–14. doi:10.2466/PR0.67.5.3-14


***
Feminist Spirituality
https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/legal-and-political-magazines/feminist-spirituality

http://opcentral.org/resources/2015/01/19/catherina-halkes-feminism-and-spirituality/

Feminist Spirituality as Lived Religion: How UK Feminists Forge Religio-spiritual Lives
Kristin Aune; Gender & Society
Vol 29, Issue 1, pp. 122 - 145

book: Gender and the Life Course

Carol Gilligan's psychology of women

Helson & Pals, 2000
Pals, 1999
Marcia 1966; 1980
Carol Gilligan 1982

McDonald, M., Wong, P., & T. Gingras, D. (2012). Meaning-in-Life Measures and Development of a Brief Version of the Personal Meaning Profile.

Psychology of women quarterly

****
Gender differences on the PMI, favouring females, have also been reported (Fry, 2001; Reker, 1992; VandeCreek, 1991).

Fry, P. S. (2001). The unique contribution of key existential factors to the prediction of psychological well-being of older adults following spousal loss. The Gerontologist, 41, 1–13.

Reker, G. T. (1992). Manual of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised. Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

VandeCreek, L. (1991). Identifying the spiritually needy patient: The role of demographics. The Caregiver Journal, 8, 38–47.

females experience higher levels of personal meaning compared to males (Reker, 2005).

@Reker, G. T. (2005). Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: factorial validity, age, and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 38(1), 71-85
***
Ethics of care
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics_of_care

 Gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. She developed an alternative theory of moral reasoning based on the ethics of caring.

Gilligan, Carol (1982). "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and Morality". Harvard Educational Review. 47 (4).

Yates, G. G. (1983). Spirituality and the American feminist experience. Journal of
Women in Culture and Society, 9, 59-79.

Wuthnow, R. J. (1988). Sociology of religi

Lefkowitz, J. (1994). Sex-related differences in job attitudes and dispositional variables: Now you see them . . .Academy of Management Journal, 37, 323–349.

Lyons, S., Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C. (2005b). Are gender differences in basic human values a generational phenomenon? Sex Roles, 53, 763–778.

Eller, C. (1991). Relativizing the patriarchy: The sacred history of the feminist spirituality
movement. History of Religions, 30, 279-295.

Elizur, D. (1994). Gender and work values: A comparative analysis. Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 201–212.

Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women’s
ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development
(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Wood, J. T. (1994). Who cares? Women, care, and culture. Carbondale, IL: Southern
Illinois University Press.

Beutell, N. J.,&Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 28, 29–41.

Mason, S. E. (1994). Work values: A gender comparison and implications for practice. Psychological Reports, 74, 415–418.

Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from http://www.soc.uu.se/publications/fulltext/gtransoldold.pdf

Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the Functions of Reminiscence (Vol. 4).

Tornstam, L. (2011). Maturing into gerotranscendence

Tornstam, L., (1994). Gerotranscendence—A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration. In L.E. Thomas
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Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning/development was critiqued by Gilligan (1982), so questions have been raised about whether Faith Development Theory applies equally to men and women.
Slee (2004) has pointed to empirical studies which have shown that women score less highly on Faith Development Interviews than men and that women proceed to the more ‘advanced’ stages of faith development at later ages.
Fowler (1992) himself has conceded an element of under-scoring for women and overscoring
for men and has suggested the inclusion of ‘relational knowing’ (reflecting Gilligan, 1982) in the fourth stage (Fowler, 2000)
Slee (2004, p. 32) concluded that ‘women’s distinctive patterns of faith may not adequately be accounted for by his stages’, highlighting particularly the middle stages with their general pattern of movement towards separation and autonomy, which does not reflect the emphasis on relationality that has (perhaps overly) characterized work on women’s development since Gilligan.
Some feminist work on faith development has
used the notion of stages as fluid, dynamic, non-hierarchical phases or steps shaped by emotion, imagination and relationship as well as by cognition (for example, see Harris, 1989) or has eschewed stages altogether (as in Slee’s, 2004, model).

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fowler, J. W. (1995). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest
for meaning. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row.

Slee, N. (2004). Women’s faith development: Patterns and processes. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Fowler, J. W. (2001). Faith development theory and the postmodern challenges. International
Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 159-172.

Harris, M. (1989). Dance of the Spirit: The seven steps of women’s spirituality. New York:
Bantam.
***
Fowler’s scheme fits male development better than that of females (see Slee, 1996, pp. 88–92), a view that parallels Carol Gilligan’s critique of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development (Gilligan, 1980, 1982). A number of studies of women’s faith development argue that Fowler’s account of Stage 4 is particularly inadequate.
Karen DeNicola writes that ‘persons who fail to blend reason and feeling – specifically persons who rely solely on rational certainty – can too easily be scored at Stage 4’ (Moseley, Jarvis & Fowler, 1993, Appendix H). The work of Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule (1986, ch. 6) distinguishes two ways in which females may move into what they call ‘procedural knowing’ (which is akin to Stage 4): a ‘separate’ style involving distancing and objective reasoning, and a ‘connected’ style that majors on reflection through participation and dialogue. Fowler admits (in Astley & Francis, 1992, pp. xii–xiii) that females – and some males – who tread this second path may be underscored in his analysis. Fowler also accepts that any claims to cultural universality for his faith development sequence, as opposed to his claim about the universality of human faith as such, would require the support of much more evidence from cross-cultural studies (see Slee, 1996, pp. 86–88).

Astley, J. & Francis, L. J. (Eds) (1992). Christian perspectives on faith development. Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans.

Belenky, M., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R. & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, C. (1980). Justice and responsibility: Thinking about real dilemmas of moral conflict and choice. In J. W. Fowler & A. Vergote (Eds), Toward moral and religious maturity (pp. 223–249). Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Slee, N. (1996). Further on from Fowler. In L. J. Francis, W. K. Kay & W. S. Campbell (Eds), Research in religious education (pp. 73–96). Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys.

Moseley, R. M., Jarvis, D. & J. W. Fowler (1986; 1993). Manual for faith development research. Atlanta, Georgia: Emory University Center for Faith Development. (Amended by K. DeNicola, 1993.)

Dell, M. L. (2000). She grows in wisdom, stature, and favor with God: Female development from infancy through menarche. In J. Stevenson-Moessner (Ed.), In her own time (pp. 117–143). Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.

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