Monday, March 12, 2018

gender, spirituality

 Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion
Gender in Management: An International Journal
 Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion

Miller, Alan S. and John P. Hoffmann 1995 "Risk and Religion: An Explanation of Gender Differences in Religiosity." Journalfor the Scientific Study of Religion 34:63-75

Fox, Mary Frank and Glenn Firebaugh 1992 "Confidence in Science: The Gender Gap." Social Science Quarterly 73:101-113.

Feyerherm, A. and Vick, Y.H. (2005), “Generation X women in high technology: overcoming
gender and generational challenges to succeed in the corporate environment”, Career
Development International, Vol. 10 No. 3, p. 216.

Mason, S. E. (1994). Work values: A gender comparison and implications for practice. Psychological Reports, 74, 415–418

Manhardt, P. J. (1972). Job orientation of male and female college graduates in business. Personnel Psychology, 25, 361–368.

Lefkowitz, J. (1994). Sex-related differences in job attitudes and dispositional variables: Now you see them . . .Academy of Management Journal, 37, 323–349.

Elizur, D. (1994). Gender and work values: A comparative analysis. Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 201–212.

Beutell, N. J.,&Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 28, 29–41

ELAINE DONELSON, Psychology of religion and adolescents in the United States: past to present
Journal of Adolescence 1999, 22, 187]204

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men more than women compete with one another for status, prestige, and dominance, and thus might be expected (more than women) to conceptualize God with respect to dimensions such as power and dominance. Results consistent with this hypothesis have been reported in both adolescents (Cox,
1967) and adults (Nelsen, Cheek, & Au, 1985).

Cox, E. (1967). Sixth form religion. London: SCM Press.

Nelsen, H. M., Cheek, N. H., Jr.,&Au, P. (1985). Gender differences in images of God. Journal for the
Scientific Study of Religion, 24, 396–402.

@Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, p133
**
Mary Jo Neitz (2003) Dis/Location Engaging Feminist Inquiry in the Sociology of Religion, p276,
In M. Dillon (Ed.), Handbook of the Sociology of Religion. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Eller, Cynthia. 1993. Living in the Lap of the Goddess: The Feminist Spirituality Movement in America. New York: Crossroad

Miller, A. S., & Stark, R. (2002). Gender and religiousness: Can socialization explanations
be saved? American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1399–1423

De Vaus, D., & McAllister, I. (1987). Gender differences in religion: A test of the structural
location theory. American Sociological Review, 52, 472–481

Greer, B. A., & Roof, W. C. (1992). "Desperately Seeking Sheila": Locating Religious Privatism in American Society. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31(3), 346-352. doi: 10.2307/1387125

Davidson, J. C., & Caddell, D. P. (1994). Religion and the Meaning of Work. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33(2), 135-147. doi: 10.2307/1386600

Glenn, N. D. (1987). THE TREND IN “NO RELIGION” RESPONDENTS TO U.S. NATIONAL SURVEYS, LATE 1950s TO EARLY 1980s. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51(3), 293-314. doi: 10.1086/269037

Glendinning, T., & Bruce, S. (2006). New ways of believing or belonging: is religion giving way to spirituality?1. The British Journal of Sociology, 57(3), 399-414. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2006.00117.x

Lyons, S. (November 2005). Are gender differences in basic human values a generational phenomenon? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Retrieved May 13, 2008 from http://wwwfindarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_9-10_53/ai_n16084047/print

Kling, K. C., Hyde, J. S., Showers, C. J., & Bushwell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 470–500.

Hedges, L. V., & Becker, B. J. (1986). Statistical methods in the metaanalysis of research in gender differences. In J. S. Hyde & M. C. Linn (Eds.), The psychology of gender: Advances through meta-analysis (pp. 14–50). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Reich, K. H. (1997). Do we need a theory for the religiousness development of women? International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 7, 67–86. doi:10.1207/s15327582ijpr0702_1

Maselko, J., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2006). Gender differences in religious  practices, spiritual experiences and health: Results from the U.S. General Social Survey. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 2848–2860. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.11.008

Gomez, R., & Fisher, J. W. (2005). The spiritual well-being questionnaire: Testing for model applicability, measurement and structural equivalencies, and latent mean differences across gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1383–1393. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.03.023

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Wink and Dillon (2002, 2008) collated longitudinal data evaluating the role of spirituality and religiousness across a life span of over 60 years. Drawing from a sample of more than 200 participants born in the 1920s, Wink and Dillon examined the development and expression of these numinous dimensions from young adulthood through old age. Their findings suggested that levels of
spirituality increased significantly over the course of the life span, especially from middle to late adulthood, with women evidencing a higher level of spirituality than men. Men’s spirituality, however, showed a more significant increase than women’s from early to middle adulthood. For women, a high level of spirituality in late adulthood was related to the number of negative life events experienced in middle adulthood, most notably financial strain and spousal and parental conflicts.

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002). Spiritual development across the adult life course: Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Adult Development, 9, 79–94. doi:10.1023/A:1013833419122

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2008). Religiousness, spirituality, and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood: Findings from a longitudinal study. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1, 102–115. doi:10.1037/1941-1022.S.1.102

@Age and Gender Effects on the Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) Scale: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality
2013, Vol. 5, No. 2, 90–98
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Levin, Jeffrey S., Robert J. Taylor, and Linda M. Chatters. 1994. “Race and Gender
Differences in Religiosity among Older Adults: Findings from Four National Surveys.”
Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 49:S137-45

Davidson, James. 1977. “Socioeconomic Status and Ten Dimensions of Religious
Commitment.” Sociology and Social Research 61:462-85.

An Investigation of the Sociological Patterns of Prayer Frequency and Content
Joseph O. Baker
Sociology of Religion 2008, 69:2 169-185

Barringer, Mandi, David Gay, and John Lynxwiler
2013 “Gender, Religiosity, Spirituality, and Attitudes toward Homosexuality.”
Sociological Spectrum 33: 240-57.

Gay, D. A., & Lynxwiler, J. P. (2013). Cohort, Spirituality, and Religiosity: A Cross-sectional Comparison. Journal of Religion and Society, 15, 1-17.

Reay, D. 1998. “Rethinking Social Class: Qualitative Perspectives on Class and Gender.” Sociology
32 (2): 259–275

Nayak, A. 2006. “Displaced Masculinities: Chavs, Youth and Class in the Post-industrial City.”
Sociology 40 (5): 813–831. doi:10.1177/0038038506067508.

Flere, Sergej. 2007. Gender and religious orientation. Social Compass 54(2):239–53.

Sweeney, PD & McFarlin, DB 1997, ‘Process and outcome: Gender differences in the assessment of justice’, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 18, 83-98.

Freese, Jeremy. 2004. “Risk Preferences and Gender Differences in Religiousness: Evidence from the
World Values Survey.” Review of Religious Research, 46:88–91.

Miller, Alan S. and John P. Hoffman. 1995. “Risk and Religion: An Explanation of Gender Differences in Religiosity.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34:63–75.

Miller, Alan S. and Rodney Stark. 2002. “Gender and Religiousness: Can Socialization Explanations Be  Saved?” American Journal of Sociology 107:1399–1423.

Wink, P. (1991). Self- and object-directedness in adult women. Journal of Personality, 59, 769-791.

Russo, N., Kelly, M. and Deacon, M. (1991), “Gender and sex related attribution: beyond
individualistic conceptions of achievement”, Sex Roles, Vol. 25 Nos 5-6, pp. 331-50

Parker, B. and Cusmir, L.H. (1990), “A generational and sex-based view of managerial work
values”, Psychological Reports, Vol. 66, pp. 947-51.

Oxford Handbook of the Sociology of Religion (check gender and religion)

Sumner, M. and F. Niederman. "The Impact of Gender Differences on Job Satisfaction, Job Turnover, and Career Experiences of Information Systems Professionals," Journal of Computer Information Systems, 44:2, 2003, pp.29-38.

Tang, T.L., Singer, M.G., and Roberts, S. (2000), ‘Employees’ Perceived Organizational
Instrumentality: An Examination of the Gender Differences,’ Journal of Managerial
Psychology, 15, 378–406

religion was more important for girls than boys
Cnaan, R. A., Gelles, R. J., & Sinha, J. W. (2004). Youth and Religion: The Gameboy Generation Goes to “Church”. Social Indicators Research, 68(2), 175-200.  10.1023/b:soci.0000025592.60815.37

a trend similar to that found for adults
Davis, W.L.: 1987–88, ‘Men and the church: What keeps them out and what
brings them in’, Journal of the Academy for Evangelism in Theological Education 3, pp. 46–61.

de Vaus, D. and I. McAllister: 1987, ‘Gender differences in religion: A test of the
structural location theory’, American Sociological Review 52, pp. 472–481

Ulbrich, H. and M. Wallace: 1984, ‘Women’s work force status and church
attendance’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 23, pp. 341–350.

Na, E. and Duckitt, J. (2003), “Value consensus and diversity between generations and genders”,
Social Indicators Research, Vol. 62/63 Nos 1/3, pp. 411-35.

Lyons, S., Duxbury, L. and Higgins, C. (2005a), “Are gender differences in basic human values a
generational phenomenon?”, Sex Roles, Vol. 53 Nos 9/10, pp. 763-78.

chaper 6 (with reference list) Why so Many Women in Holistic Spirituality? A Puzzle Revisited
in the book Sociology of Spirituality

Lovelock, J.E. ([1979] 1987), Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford: Oxford University
Press.

Neve, R. (1995). Changes in attitudes toward women's emancipation in the Netherlands over two decades: Unraveling a trend. Social Science Research, 24, 167-187.

Mason, K. 0. & Lu, Y-H. ( 1988). Attitudes toward women's familial roles: Changes in the United States 1977-1985. Gender and Society, 2, 39-57

Brewster, K. L., & Padavic, I. (2000). Change in gender-ideology, 1977-1996: The contributions of intracohort change and population turnover. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 477-487.

Whiteoak, J. W., Crawford, N. G., & Mapstone, R. H. (2006). Impact of gender and generational differences in work values and attitudes in an Arab culture. Thunderbird International Business Review, 48(1), 77-91. doi:10.1002/tie.20086

Margaret Lindorff. 2010. The personal values of tomorrow's workforce: Similarities and differences across sex and nationality. Journal of Management & Organization 16:03, 353-368

Xiang Yi, Barbara Ribbens, Linna Fu, Weibo Cheng. 2015. Variation in career and workplace attitudes by generation, gender, and culture differences in career perceptions in the United States and China. Employee Relations 37:1, 66-82.

Sigalit Warshawski, Sivia Barnoy, Ilya Kagan. 2017. Professional, generational, and gender differences in perception of organisational values among Israeli physicians and nurses: Implications for retention. Journal of Interprofessional Care 31:6, 696-704.

Meglino, B.M. and Ravlin, E.C. (1998), “Individual values in organizations: concepts,
controversies, and research”, Journal of Management, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 351-89.

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males were significantly more narcissistic than females at ages. Gender socialization allowing more hostility, impulsivity, and self-centeredness in males than in females might explain this difference. Previous studies have found this gender difference using self-reports (e.g., Gabriel, Critelli, & Ee, 1994; Wright, O’Leary, & Balkin, 1989).
@Carlson, K. S., & Gjerde, P. F. (2009). Preschool personality antecedents of narcissism in adolescence and young adulthood: A 20-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality 43(4), 570-578. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.03.003
***

Zell, E., Krizan, Z., & Teeter, S. R. (2015). Evaluating gender similarities and differences
using metasynthesis. American Psychologist, 70, 10–20.

Twenge, J. M. (2001a). Changes in women's assertiveness in response to status and roles: A cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1931-1993. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 81, 133−145.

Twenge, J. M. (1997). Attitudes towards women, 1970-1995. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 35−51.

Su, R., Rounds, J., & Armstrong, P. I. (2009). Men and things, women and people: A meta-analysis of sex differences in interests. Psychological Bulletin, 135,
859−884.

Lippa, R. (1998). Gender-related individual difference and the structure of vocational interests: The importance of the "People-Things" dimension. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 996−1009.

Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. The American Psychologist, 54, 408−423.

Cross & Madson, 1997; for review) suggests that males conceptualize the self more in terms of independence whereas females tend to be more interdependent.

Cross, S. E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5–37.
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males reported being more narcissistic than females

men are more narcissistic than women (e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1999; Farwell & Wohlwend-Lloyd, 1998; Joubert, 1998; Ladd et al., 1997). In fact, Campbell (1999) found an average correlation of .18 (males higher than females) between gender and narcissism across 20 samples with 3668 participants. Thus, our final hypothesis is that male participants in the present investigation will report more narcissism compared to female participants.

men usually report more narcissism than women (e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1999; Farwell & Wohlwend-Lloyd, 1998; Joubert, 1998; Ladd, Welsh, Vitulli, Labbe, & Law, 1997).
@ Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6
***

Donnelly, K., Twenge, J. M., Clark, M. A., Shaikh, S. K., Beiler-May,
A., & Carter, N. T. (2015). Attitudes toward women’s work and
family roles in the United States, 1976–2013. Psychology of Women
Quarterly, 0361684315590774

Wallace, Ruth. 1997. The mosaic of research on religion: Where are the women? Journal,/or the Scientific Study of Religion 36:l-12.

Aidala, A. 1985. Social change, gender roles, and new religious movements. Sociological Aiia!wis 46:287-3 14.

Griffin, W. 1995. The embodied goddess: Feminist witchcraft and female divinity Sociology of Religion 56: 35-48.

Dal ton, A.H. & Mar cis, J.G., “Gen der Dif fer ences in Job Sat is fac tion
Among Young Adults”, (1987) Jour nal of Be hav ioral Eco nom ics, Vol. 16,
No. 1, pp. 21- 32

Marsden, P., Kalleberg, A., and Cook, C. (1993), ‘Gender Differences in Organizational
Commitment,’ Work and Occupations, 20, 3, 368–390.

HOCHSCHILD, A. R. (1973) "A review of sex role research." Amer. J. of Sociology
78, 4: 1011-1029.

Twenge, J. M. (2001). Changes in women’s assertiveness in response to status and roles: A cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1931–1993. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 133–145.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman drew a connection between gender and different forms
of religion (Gilman 2003). The lived religion of women, she argued, was built on
experiences of birth and growth, while the lived religion of men was built on
experiences of struggle, conflict, and death.
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. 2003. His Religion and Hers. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira.
Original edition, 1923.

Davie, Jodie Shapiro. 1995. Women in the presence: Constructing community and seeking spirituality in mainline
Protestantism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Re‐Orienting Western Feminisms: Women's Diversity in a Post‐colonial World by Chilla Bulbeck
Lourdes Torres
American Journal of Sociology May 2000, Volume 105, Issue 6, pp. 1763 - 1764

Theorizing Gender from Religion Cases: Agency, Feminist Activism, and Masculinity
Orit Avishai
Sociology of Religion, Volume 77, Issue 3, 1 September 2016, Pages 261–279, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srw020

The Hallmarks of Righteous Women: Gendered Background Expectations in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
J. Edward Sumerau, Ryan T. Cragun
Sociology of Religion, Volume 76, Issue 1, 1 January 2015, Pages 49–71, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru040

Incorporating Transgender Experience Toward a More Inclusive Gender Lens in the Sociology of Religion
J E Sumerau, Lain A B Mathers, Ryan T Cragun
Sociology of Religion, sry001, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sry001

Becoming Visible: Religion and Gender in Sociology
Mary Jo Neitz
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 4, 1 December 2014, Pages 511–523, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru058

Dating in Light of Christ: Young Evangelicals Negotiating Gender in the Context of Religious and Secular American Culture
Courtney Ann Irby
Sociology of Religion, Volume 75, Issue 2, 1 June 2014, Pages 260–283, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srt062

Goddess Pilgrims as Tourists: Inscribing the Body through Sacred Travel
Kathryn Rountree
Sociology of Religion, Volume 63, Issue 4, 1 December 2002, Pages 475–496, https://doi.org/10.2307/3712303

The Embodied Goddess: Feminist Witchcraft and Female Divinity
Wendy Griffin
Sociology of Religion, Volume 56, Issue 1, 1 March 1995, Pages 35–48, https://doi.org/10.2307/3712037

Canadian Women Religious' Negotiation of Feminism and Catholicism
Christine L. M. Gervais
Sociology of Religion, Volume 73, Issue 4, 1 December 2012, Pages 384–410, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srs039

The Encounter of Scientific and Religious Values Pertinent to Man's Spiritual Nature
David O. Moberg
Sociology of Religion, Volume 28, Issue 1, 1 March 1967, Pages 22–33, https://doi.org/10.2307/3710419

Defecting in Place: Women Claiming Responsibility for Their Own Spiritual Lifes , by Miriam Therese Winter, Adair Lummis, and Allison Stokes. New York: Crossroad Publishing, 1994, xii + 312 pp. $22.95
Catherine A. Faver
Sociology of Religion, Volume 56, Issue 2, 1 July 1995, Pages 217–218, https://doi.org/10.2307/3711765

Political Activism and Feminist Spirituality
Nancy J. Finley
Sociology of Religion, Volume 52, Issue 4, 1 December 1991, Pages 349–362, https://doi.org/10.2307/3710851

Women's Spirituality Research: Doing Feminism
Tanice G. Foltz
Sociology of Religion, Volume 61, Issue 4, 1 December 2000, Pages 409–418, https://doi.org/10.2307/3712524

Rethinking Religious Gender Differences: The Case of Elite Women
Orestes P. Hastings, D. Michael Lindsay
Sociology of Religion, Volume 74, Issue 4, 1 December 2013, Pages 471–495, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srt048

Black, H. K., & Hannum, S. M. (2015). Aging, Spirituality, and Time: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 27(2-3), 145-165. doi: 10.1080/15528030.2014.1003274

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological Well-Being in Adult Life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(4), 99-104

Because women tend to be more religious than men and also show higher rates of social
and community participation (Putnam 2000; Rossi 2001),
Putnam, R. 2000. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster
Rossi, A. 2001. Caring and doing for others. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Fletcher, J. (1994b). Castrating the female advantage: Feminist standpoint research and Management
Science. Journal of Management Inquiry, 3, 74–82.

Miller, J. B. (1991). The development of women’s sense of self. In J. V. Jordan, A. G. Kaplan,
J. B. Miller, I. P. Stiver, & J. L. Surrey (Eds.), Women’s growth in connection. New York:
The Guilford Press

http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/religious-denomination/spiritual-but-not-religious/

http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/gender-composition/

Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial Development of Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3), 125-151.

Rossi, A. S. Life-span theories and women's lives. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1980,6, 4- 32.

Ryff, C. D., & Baltes, P. B. Value transitions and adult development in women: The instrumentality-terminality sequence hypothesis. Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 567-568.

Caffarella, R. S., & Olson, S. K. (1993). Psychosocial Development of Women: A Critical Review of the Literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(3),

Puglisi, J. Thomas and Dorothy W. Jackson. 1980-81. "Sex Role Identity and Self Esteem in Adulthood." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 12:129-138.
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Women describe themselves more in terms of gender and family and personal relationships, but less in terms of larger social groups, such as veteran, than do men
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, J. P. T. (1988). Age, Personality, and the Spontaneous Self-Concept. Journal of Gerontology, 43(6), S177-S185.

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women have long been seen as more developed in interpersonal relatedness (Bakan, 1966).
Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Boston: Beacon Press.

Chevron, E. S., Quinlan, D. M., & Blatt, S. J. (1978). Sex roles and gender differences in the experience of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87, 680-683

Miller, J. B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon Press.

Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Guisinger, S., & J. Blatt, S. (1994). Individuality and Relatedness: Evolution of a Fundamental Dialectic (Vol. 49).
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Jordan et al. (1991) and Gilligan et al. (1991) argued that a woman's sense of self is organized around being able to attain and maintain affiliation and relationships. This self-in-relation theory marks a major departure from phallocentric developmental perspectives. In traditional views of psychological
development that focus on separation, women's concern with relationships is often viewed as a weakness or even as pathological.

Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, L. P., & Stiver, J. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford Press.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, C, Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

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J. Dollinger, S., Ann Preston, L., Pagany O'Brien, S., & Dilalla, D. (1997). Individuality and Relatedness of the Self: An Autophotographic Study (Vol. 71).

Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender in the Life Course, Gisela Labouvie-Vief

Diehl, M., Owen, S., & Youngblade, L. (2004). Agency and communion attributes in adults’ spontaneous self-representations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(1), 1-15.

Ego development in adult women
Martha Sturm White, Cahfornia School of Professional
Psychology, Berkeley, CA

Cohn, L.D. 1991---sex differences in the course of personality development: a meta-analysis, Journal of personality and social psychology, 109: 252-266

Incorporating Others into the Self (83-84)
@Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, self-concept, and identity. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 69-104). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
**
Cross, S. E., & Madson, L . (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological
Bulletin, 1 2 2 , 5-37.

Markus, H., & Oyserman, D. (1989). Gender and thought: The role of the self-concept. In
M. Crawford & M. Gentry (Eds.), Gender and thought: Psychological perspectives (pp. 100-
127). New York: Springer-Verlag

Schwadel, P. (2010). Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on U.S. Religious Service Attendance: The Declining Impact of Sex, Southern Residence, and Catholic Affiliation*. Sociology of Religion, 71(1), 2-24. doi: 10.1093/socrel/srq005

Stolzenberg RM, Blair-Loy M, Waite LJ (1995) Religious participation in early adulthood: age and family life cycle effects on church membership. Am Sociol Rev 60:84–103

Button, T. M. M., Stallings, M. C., Rhee, S. H., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2011). The Etiology of Stability and Change in Religious Values and Religious Attendance. Behavior genetics, 41(2), 201-210.

Gender differences in religious practices, spiritual experiences and health: results from the US General Social Survey. Maselko J1, Kubzansky LD.
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jun;62(11):2848-60.

Wink, P. (1991). Self- and object-directedness in adult women. Journal of Personality,
59, 769-791.

women have a greater involvement than do men in organized religious activities (Hout &
Greeley, 1987; McFadden, 1996b; Stolzenberg et al.,1995)
Hout, M., & Greeley, A. (1987). The center doesn’t hold: Church attendance in the United States, 1940–1984. American Sociological Review, 52, 325–345.
McFadden, S. (1996b). Religion, spirituality, and aging. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (pp. 162–177). San Diego,CA: Academic Press.
Stolzenberg, R., Blair-Loy, M., & Waite, L. (1995). Religious participation in early adulthood: Age and family life cycle effects on church membership. American Sociological Review, 60, 84–103.

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Women’s greater participation in organized religion may provide a stepping stone toward spiritual growth (Burke, 1999; Stokes, 1990; but see Zinnbauer et al., 1997, who found that spiritual individuals tended to report having being hurt by clergy).
Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer
Stokes, K. (1990). Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7, 167–184.
Stokes, K. (1990). Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7, 167–184.
Zinnbauer, B., Pargament, K., Cole, B., Rye, M., Butter, E., Belavich, T., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzing the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 549–564.

gender inequality in family, work, and other social relations may cause women to experience more
of the discontinuities and decentering experiences that are associated with personal growth in general
(Riegel, 1976) and spiritual development in particular (Atchley, 1997; Burke, 1999).
Riegel, K. (1976). The dialectics of human development. American Psychologist, 31, 689–699

Atchley, R. (1997). Everyday mysticism: Spiritual development in later adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 4, 123–134.

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Burke, P. (1999). Spirituality: A continually evolving component in women’s identity development. In L. E. Thomas & S. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Religion, belief, and spirituality in late life (pp. 113–136). New York: Springer

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2002). Spiritual Development Across the Adult Life Course: Findings from a Longitudinal Study. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 79-94.

Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. ( 1974). Cohort analysis of church attendance, 1939-1969. Social Forces, 55, 324-331.

Wingrove, C. R., & Alston, J. P. (1971). Age, Aging, and Church Attendance. The Gerontologist, 11(4_Part_1), 356-358.

Van Lange, P. A. M., De Bruin, E. M. N., Otten, W., & Joireman, J. A. (1997). Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations: Theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 (4), 733-746.

Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K., & Gentile, B. (2012). Generational Increases in Agentic Self-evaluations among American College Students, 1966–2009. Self and Identity, 11(4), 409-427.

Black, H. K. (1995). ‘Wasted lives’ and the hero grown old: Personal perspectives of spirituality by aging men. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–48.
**
The only scale that showed significant sex differences was Positive Relations With Others,  with women again scoring higher than men

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.
**
Peacock, J. R., & Poloma, M. M. (1999). Religiosity and Life Satisfaction Across the Life Course. Social Indicators Research, 48(3), 321-345.
**
DeVaus, D. and I. McAllister: 1987, ‘Gender differences in religion: A test of the structural location theory’, American Sociological Review 52(4), pp. 472– 481.
***
men and women go through different religious developmental stages at different times (Cornwall, 1989)

Cornwall, M.: 1989, ‘Faith development of men and women over the life span’, in S. Bahr and E. T. Peterson (eds.), Aging and the Family (Lexington Press), pp. 115–139.

Cornwall (1989), who explored gender differences in faith development. She found that men’s attitudes seem to vary more over time than do women’s. However, she reported that a consistent pattern of religiosity over time has not emerged. With such inconsistencies in the literature, much space is left open for interpretation and deliberation.

**
Stokes, K. (1991). Faith Development in the Adult Life Cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 7(1-2), 167-184

Prager, E. (1998b). Men and meaning in later life. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 4,
191-203.

Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43-52

Harker, L., & Solomon, M. (1996). Change in goals and values of men and women from early to mature adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 3, 133‐143.

James, J. B., Lewkowicz, C., Libhaber, J., & Lachman, M. (1995). Rethinking the gender identity crossover hypothesis: A test of a new model. Sex Roles, 32, 185‐207

Sharp, K. C., Candy, S. G., & Troll, L. E. (1980). Gender and Generation Effects on Person Perception. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 11(4), 307-318

P. S. Rosenkrantz, S. R. Vogel, H. Bee, I. Broverman and D. Broverman, Sex-Role Stereotypes and Self-concepts in College Students, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, pp. 287-295, 1968.

L. Beach and H. Wertheimer, A Free Response Approach to the Study of of Person Cognition, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, pp. 367-374, 1961.

 R. Carlson, Sex Differences in Ego Functioning: Exploratory Studies of Agency and Communion, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37,  pp. 267-277, 1971.


Gilligan, C., Rogers, A. G., & Tolman, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Women, girls and psychotherapy. New York: Haworth.

Guisinger, S., & Blatt, S. J. (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49, 104-111.

**
Relationships between meaning in life and gender have yielded contradictory results in previous research. Some reported higher meaning scores for men (e.g. Crumbaugh, 1968; Orbach et al.,
1987); others did not find any differences (e.g. Debats, 1999; Harlow et al., 1986; Scannell et al., 2002; Steger et al., 2006). In the present sample, no gender differences were found for crisis of meaning. For meaningfulness, a significant, but negligible correlation showed slightly higher scores in women.

Crumbaugh, J.C. (1968). Cross-validation of purpose-in-life test based on Frankl’s concepts. Journal of Individual Psychology, 24, 74–81.

Orbach, I., Illuz, A., & Rosenheim, E. (1987). Value systems and commitment to goals as a function of age, integration and personality, and fear of death. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 10, 225–239.

Debats, D.L. (1999). Sources of meaning: An investigation of significant commitments in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39, 30–57.

Harlow, L.L., Newcomb, M.D., & Bentler, P.M. (1986). Depression, self-derogation, substance use, and suicide ideation: Lack of purpose in life as a mediational factor. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 5–21.

Steger, M.F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 53, 80–93.

Scannell, E.D., Allen, F.C.L., & Burton, J. (2002). Meaning in life and positive and negative well-being. North American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 93–112.

Women attribute slightly more importance to vertical selftranscendence, as is also reported by many studies in the psychology of religion (cf. Hood, Spilka, Hunsberger, & Gorsuch, 2003).
More than men, women value well-being and relatedness. For men, self-actualization has a slightly
stronger relevance than for women. Thus, the longstanding distinction of female communion and
male agency (Bakan, 1966) can still be glimpsed in (post-)modern time

Hood, R.W., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R.L. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford

Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.

@Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to demographics and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483-499
***
Ploch, D. R., & Hastings, D. W. (1994). Graphic Presentations of Church Attendance Using General Social Survey Data. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33(1), 16-33

Ramsey, J. L., & Blieszner, R. (1999). Spiritual resiliency in older women: Models of
strength for challenges through the life span. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Black, H. K. (1995). “Wasted lives” and the hero grown old: Personal perspectives of
spirituality by aging men. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 9, 35–4
**
women of all ages are more religious than men,both in terms of religious participation and religious practice (Koenig, Kvale, & Ferrel).
Koenig, H. G., Kvale, J. N., & Ferrel, C. (1988). Religion and well-being in later life. The
Gerontologist, 28, 18-28.
**
Markides, K. S. (1983). Aging, Religiosity, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis1. Journal of Gerontology, 38(5), 621-625

Gerhard Lenski, "Social Correlates of Religious Interest," American Sociological Review, 18 (October 1953),

Harold L. Orbach, "Aging and Religion: Church Attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan Area,"
Geriatrics

Lazerwitz, B. (1961). Some Factors Associated with Variations in Church Attendance*. Social Forces, 39(4), 301-309.

Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., Larson, D. B., George, L. K., Cohen, H. J., McCullough, M. E., . . . Blazer, D. G. (1999). Does Religious Attendance Prolong Survival? A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of 3,968 Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 54(7), M370-M376

Erskine, H. G. (1965). The Polls: Personal Religion. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(1), 145-157.

Bultena, L. (1949). Church Membership and Church Attendance in Madison, Wisconsin. American Sociological Review, 14(3), 384-389.

Fukuyama, Y. (1961). The Major Dimensions of Church Membership. Review of Religious Research, 2(4), 154-161
**
Fichter, J. H. (1952). The Profile of Catholic Religious Life. American Journal of Sociology, 58(2), 145-149.
**
The women were significantly more religious than men in activities (about .7 higher on the religious activity subscale, t-test significant at .02 level), and in attitudes (about .3 higher on the religious attitudes subscale, t-test significant at .05 level). This supports the general finding that women tend
to be more religious than men (Orbach, 1961; Riley&Foner, 1968).
#Orbach, H. L. Age and religion: A study of church attendance in the Detroit Metropolitan area. Geriatrics, 1961, 76, 530-540.
#Riley, M. W., & Foner, A. Aging and society. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1968.

Blazer, D., & Palmore, E. (1976). Religion and Aging in a Longitudinal Panel1. The Gerontologist, 16(1_Part_1), 82-85
**
Cox, H., & Hammonds, A. (1989). Religiosity, Aging, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Religion & Aging, 5(1-2), 1-21

Reker, G. T., & Peacock, E. J. (1981). The Life Attitude Profile (LAP): A multidimensional instrument for assessing attitudes toward life. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 13(3), 264-273.

Reker, G., J Peacock, E., & Wong, P. (1987). Meaning and Purpose in Life and Well-being: a Life-span Perspective. Journal of Gerontology: SOCIAL SCIENCES, 42, 44-49
**
For the Israeli as well as Australian women participation in personal relationships was the most important source of meaning in all age categories
#Prager, E., Bar-Tur, L., & Abramowici, I. (1997). The Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP) with Aged Subjects Exhibiting Depressive Symptomatology. Clinical Gerontologist, 17(3), 25-39.
**
Sex differences at the .01 level were found for mean PIL, Anti-hedonism, and Religion-puritanism scores, in favour of males. Females had less purpose in life than males, but were more religious. They were also more anti-hedonistic and idealistic.
@Pearson, P. R., & Sheffield, B. F. (1975). Purpose in life and social attitudes in psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(2), 330-332.
***
purose in life scores---sex differences in PIL scores
#SHKFFIELBD. , F. and PEAKSOPN. ,1 1. Purpose-in-Life in a sample of British psychiatric outpatients.J. din. Psycho/., in press
#Crumbaugh, J. C. Cross-validation of purpose-in-life test based on Frankl's concepts. J. invid. psychol. 1968, 24: 74-81

***
Hardcastle, B. (1985). Midlife Themes of Invisible Citizens:An Exploration into How Ordinary People Make Sense of Their Lives. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(2), 45-63.

Meier, A., & Edwards, H. (1974). Purpose‐in‐Life Test: Age and sex differences. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30(3), 384-386.

Chodorow, N. (1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In: M. Z. Rosaldo, & L. Lamphere (Eds.), Woman, culture and society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s development. London: Harvard University Press.

men and women may take quite different paths toward integrated and mature styles of coping and defending
#Diehl, M., Coyle, N., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1996). Age and sex differences in strategies of coping and defense across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 11, 127–139.

differences in personality dispositions (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Gilligan, 1982)
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Trait psychology comes of age. In: T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraskasymposium on motivation, vol: 39 ( pp. 169–204). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

emotional experiences and personal relationships (Brody & Hall, 1993)
Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In: M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions ( pp. 447–460). New York: Guilford Press

cognitive performance (Halpern, 1997)
Halpern, D. F. (1997). Sex difference in intelligence: implications for education. American  Psychologist, 52, 1091–1102.

Moore, D. (1998). Gender identities and social actions. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34, 5–29.

being with animals was more important for men overall than for women.
#Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001).

@Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001). Sources of meaning in life for young and old Israeli Jews and Arabs. Journal of Aging Studies, 15(3), 253-269

**
gender and four sources of meaning: meeting basic needs, being of service to others, preservation of culture and traditions, and financial security. All favored women respondents.

men and women in Canada differed on five of the 12 meaning sources: creative activities, personal relationships, service to others, preservation of values and ideals, and religious activities. All favored women. At least in one earlier study investigating college men’s and women’s rankings of sources of meaning (De Vogler and Ebersole 1980), no significant sex differences were found. Were this similarity between the sexes to be substantiated in additional SOMP-based studies, utilizing a more gender-controlled sample, it would support the theoretical position that, when taken as a whole, the four basic needs for meaning represented in the SOMP-purpose, value, efficacy, and self-worth (Baumeister 199 I)-are of similar if not equal importance to men and women, of all ages.
#DeVogler, K. L. and P. Ebersole. (1980) “Categorization of College Students’ Meaning of Lie.”
Psychological Records 46: 387-390.
#Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of Life. New York: The Guilford Press.

@Prager, E. (1996). Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: Another look at the Sources Of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10(2), 117-136

**
gender differences in the sources of meaning "personal relationships", in which women scored significantly higher than men
@  Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources of Personal Meaning in a Sample of Young-Old and Old-Old Israelis. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 21(2), 59-75
**
personal relationships play a relatively subordinate role for adult men as compared with women,
here are consistent with virtually all studies known to the authors (see, for example Valliant, 1977; Levinson, 1978; Gilligan, 1982; Field and Minkler, 1988);
# Valiant, G.E. (1977). Adaptation to Life. Boston: Little, Brown.
#Levinson, D.J., Darrow, C., and Kline, E. (1978). The Seasons of a Man k Life.
New York: Knopf
#Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice. Boston: Harvard University Press.
#Field, D. And Minkler, M. (1988). Continuity and change in social support between
young-old and very old. Journal of Gemntologv, 43, 100-1 06.

**
Thumer, M. 1975. “Continuities and Discontinuities in Value Orientation.” In Four Stages of
Life: A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transitions, edited by M. F.
Lowenthal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
**
leisure activities contributed to males’ meaning in life more than females, and deriving meaning from life in general was more important for females.
when considering how different sources of meaning contributed to well-being according to gender, the results showed that meaning from personal growth and life in general predicted well-being for
females. The gender difference found for meaning from personal growth contributing to well-being is consistent with research which has found that personal growth (but not meaning derived from it) was more predictive of well-being for females than males (Robitschek, 1999).
The tendency for life in general to be more meaningful for females may suggest that women take
a broader perspective when considering meaning, and consider the degree to which their whole life is imbued with a sense of meaning.

Robitschek, C. (1999). Further validation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 31, 197–210.

@Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.
**
interpersonal relationships are more valued by females than males (Debats, 1999; Wong, 1998). Other
research has revealed that well-being and relatedness are more important for females and self-actualisation is more important for males (Schnell, 2009).
**
interpersonal relationships appear to be universally meaningful to people, research has revealed this source to be more important for females (Debats, 1999; Wong, 1998).
#Debats, D. L. (1999). Sources of meaning: An investigation of significant commitments in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39(4), 30–57. doi:10.1177/0022167899394003
#Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Furthermore, religiosity/ spirituality is more valued by females (Wong, 1998), as are well-being and
relatedness; self-actualisation seems to be a central source for males, and this difference is thought to reflect the female/communion and male/agency associations (Schnell, 2009). Another study revealed work, love/marriage, independent pursuits, and leisure as centrally important for males, and birth
of children, love/marriage, and work as most meaningful for females (Baum & Stewart, 1990).
#Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
#Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of meaning and meaning in life Questionnaire (SoMe): Relations to
demographics and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483–499.
doi:10.1080/17439760903271074
#Baum, S. K., & Stewart, R. B. (1990). Sources of meaning through the lifespan. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 3–14. doi:10.2466/PR0.67.5.3-14


***
Feminist Spirituality
https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/legal-and-political-magazines/feminist-spirituality

http://opcentral.org/resources/2015/01/19/catherina-halkes-feminism-and-spirituality/

Feminist Spirituality as Lived Religion: How UK Feminists Forge Religio-spiritual Lives
Kristin Aune; Gender & Society
Vol 29, Issue 1, pp. 122 - 145

book: Gender and the Life Course

Carol Gilligan's psychology of women

Helson & Pals, 2000
Pals, 1999
Marcia 1966; 1980
Carol Gilligan 1982

McDonald, M., Wong, P., & T. Gingras, D. (2012). Meaning-in-Life Measures and Development of a Brief Version of the Personal Meaning Profile.

Psychology of women quarterly

****
Gender differences on the PMI, favouring females, have also been reported (Fry, 2001; Reker, 1992; VandeCreek, 1991).

Fry, P. S. (2001). The unique contribution of key existential factors to the prediction of psychological well-being of older adults following spousal loss. The Gerontologist, 41, 1–13.

Reker, G. T. (1992). Manual of the Life Attitude Profile-Revised. Peterborough, ON: Student Psychologists Press.

VandeCreek, L. (1991). Identifying the spiritually needy patient: The role of demographics. The Caregiver Journal, 8, 38–47.

females experience higher levels of personal meaning compared to males (Reker, 2005).

@Reker, G. T. (2005). Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: factorial validity, age, and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 38(1), 71-85
***
Ethics of care
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics_of_care

 Gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. She developed an alternative theory of moral reasoning based on the ethics of caring.

Gilligan, Carol (1982). "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and Morality". Harvard Educational Review. 47 (4).

Yates, G. G. (1983). Spirituality and the American feminist experience. Journal of
Women in Culture and Society, 9, 59-79.

Wuthnow, R. J. (1988). Sociology of religi

Lefkowitz, J. (1994). Sex-related differences in job attitudes and dispositional variables: Now you see them . . .Academy of Management Journal, 37, 323–349.

Lyons, S., Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C. (2005b). Are gender differences in basic human values a generational phenomenon? Sex Roles, 53, 763–778.

Eller, C. (1991). Relativizing the patriarchy: The sacred history of the feminist spirituality
movement. History of Religions, 30, 279-295.

Elizur, D. (1994). Gender and work values: A comparative analysis. Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 201–212.

Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women’s
ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development
(2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Wood, J. T. (1994). Who cares? Women, care, and culture. Carbondale, IL: Southern
Illinois University Press.

Beutell, N. J.,&Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 28, 29–41.

Mason, S. E. (1994). Work values: A gender comparison and implications for practice. Psychological Reports, 74, 415–418.

Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from http://www.soc.uu.se/publications/fulltext/gtransoldold.pdf

Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the Functions of Reminiscence (Vol. 4).

Tornstam, L. (2011). Maturing into gerotranscendence

Tornstam, L., (1994). Gerotranscendence—A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration. In L.E. Thomas
and S.A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the Religious Dimension, (pp 203-225). Westport:
Greenwood Publishing Group.

Tornstam, L. (1997b). Gerotranscendence in a Broad Cross Sectional Perspective. Journal of Aging
and Identity, 2(1), 17-36.

Tornstam, L. (1997c). Life Crises and Gerotranscendence, Journal of Aging and Identity, 2, 117-131.

Siri, T., Susan, V., & Cheryl, F. (2007). Attracting Generation Y graduates: Organisational attributes, likelihood to apply and sex differences. Career Development International, 12(6), 504-522

Ozorak, E. W. (1996). The power, but not the glory: How women empower
themselves through religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,
35(1), 17–29.

Reich, K. H. (1997). Do we need a theory for the religious development of women?
International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 7(2), 67–86.

A New Direction in Women's Philanthropy
Jacqueline Jacobs Caster
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 37, 2: pp. 353-361.

The Global Dynamics of Gender and Philanthropy in Membership Associations
A Study of Charitable Giving by Lions Clubs International Members
Xiaonan Kou1, Amir Daniel Hayat1, Debra J. Mesch1, Una Okonkwo Osili1
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 43, 2_suppl: pp. 18S-38S

Philanthropy in a Different Voice: The Women's Funds
Marsha Shapiro Rose
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 23, 3: pp. 227-24

The Effects of Race, Gender, and Marital Status on Giving and Volunteering in Indiana
Debra J. Mesch Patrick M. Rooney Kathryn S. Steinberg Brian Denton
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 35, 4: pp. 565-587.

Book Review: Women and the gift: Beyond the given and all-giving, by M. Joy (Ed.)
Elizabeth J. Dale
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 43, 6: pp. 1129-1131.

 Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion

Gender and the Nonprofit Sector
Nuno S. Themudo
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 38, 4: pp. 663-683.

Gender Differences in the Correlates of Volunteering and Charitable Giving
Christopher J. Einolf1
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 40, 6: pp. 1092-1112.

****
Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning/development was critiqued by Gilligan (1982), so questions have been raised about whether Faith Development Theory applies equally to men and women.
Slee (2004) has pointed to empirical studies which have shown that women score less highly on Faith Development Interviews than men and that women proceed to the more ‘advanced’ stages of faith development at later ages.
Fowler (1992) himself has conceded an element of under-scoring for women and overscoring
for men and has suggested the inclusion of ‘relational knowing’ (reflecting Gilligan, 1982) in the fourth stage (Fowler, 2000)
Slee (2004, p. 32) concluded that ‘women’s distinctive patterns of faith may not adequately be accounted for by his stages’, highlighting particularly the middle stages with their general pattern of movement towards separation and autonomy, which does not reflect the emphasis on relationality that has (perhaps overly) characterized work on women’s development since Gilligan.
Some feminist work on faith development has
used the notion of stages as fluid, dynamic, non-hierarchical phases or steps shaped by emotion, imagination and relationship as well as by cognition (for example, see Harris, 1989) or has eschewed stages altogether (as in Slee’s, 2004, model).

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fowler, J. W. (1995). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest
for meaning. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row.

Slee, N. (2004). Women’s faith development: Patterns and processes. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Fowler, J. W. (2001). Faith development theory and the postmodern challenges. International
Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11, 159-172.

Harris, M. (1989). Dance of the Spirit: The seven steps of women’s spirituality. New York:
Bantam.
***
Fowler’s scheme fits male development better than that of females (see Slee, 1996, pp. 88–92), a view that parallels Carol Gilligan’s critique of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development (Gilligan, 1980, 1982). A number of studies of women’s faith development argue that Fowler’s account of Stage 4 is particularly inadequate.
Karen DeNicola writes that ‘persons who fail to blend reason and feeling – specifically persons who rely solely on rational certainty – can too easily be scored at Stage 4’ (Moseley, Jarvis & Fowler, 1993, Appendix H). The work of Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule (1986, ch. 6) distinguishes two ways in which females may move into what they call ‘procedural knowing’ (which is akin to Stage 4): a ‘separate’ style involving distancing and objective reasoning, and a ‘connected’ style that majors on reflection through participation and dialogue. Fowler admits (in Astley & Francis, 1992, pp. xii–xiii) that females – and some males – who tread this second path may be underscored in his analysis. Fowler also accepts that any claims to cultural universality for his faith development sequence, as opposed to his claim about the universality of human faith as such, would require the support of much more evidence from cross-cultural studies (see Slee, 1996, pp. 86–88).

Astley, J. & Francis, L. J. (Eds) (1992). Christian perspectives on faith development. Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans.

Belenky, M., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R. & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, C. (1980). Justice and responsibility: Thinking about real dilemmas of moral conflict and choice. In J. W. Fowler & A. Vergote (Eds), Toward moral and religious maturity (pp. 223–249). Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Slee, N. (1996). Further on from Fowler. In L. J. Francis, W. K. Kay & W. S. Campbell (Eds), Research in religious education (pp. 73–96). Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys.

Moseley, R. M., Jarvis, D. & J. W. Fowler (1986; 1993). Manual for faith development research. Atlanta, Georgia: Emory University Center for Faith Development. (Amended by K. DeNicola, 1993.)

Dell, M. L. (2000). She grows in wisdom, stature, and favor with God: Female development from infancy through menarche. In J. Stevenson-Moessner (Ed.), In her own time (pp. 117–143). Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.

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