Fuller, R. C. (2001). Spiritual, but not religious: Understanding unchurched America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Saucier, G., & Skrzypińska, K. (2006). Spiritual but not religious? Evidence for two independent dispositions. Journal of Personality, 74, 1257-1292.
the increasing individualism of American culture may have produced decreased religiosity
Twenge, J. M., Sherman, R. A., Exline, J. J., & Grubbs, J. B. (2016). Declines in American Adults’ Religious Participation and Beliefs, 1972-2014. SAGE Open, 6(1), 2158244016638133. doi: 10.1177/2158244016638133
individualism, a cultural system placing more emphasis on the self and less on social rules (e.g.,
Bellah, Madsen, Sullivan, Swidler, & Tipton, 1985; Fukuyama, 1999; Myers, 2000; Twenge, 2014).
Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. Berkeley: University of California Press
Fukuyama, F. (1999). The great disruption: Human nature and the reconstitution of social order. New York, NY: Free Press.
Myers, D. G. (2000). The American paradox: Spiritual hunger in an age of plenty. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Twenge, J. M., Campbell, W. K., & Carter, N. T. (2014). Declines in trust in others and confidence in institutions among American adults and late adolescents, 1972-2012. Psychological Science,
increases in focus on the self (Twenge, Campbell, & Gentile, 2013; Twenge & Foster, 2010) and
declines in focus on institutions, empathy for others, and moral rules (Kesebir & Kesebir, 2012; Konrath, O’Brien, & Hsing, 2011; Twenge et al., 2014).
Kesebir, P., & Kesebir, S. (2012). The cultural salience of moral character and virtue declined in twentieth century America. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 471-480.
Konrath, S. H., O’Brien, E. H., & Hsing, C. (2011). Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review,
Welzel (2013)Western societies has been toward more freedom and less commitment to groups.
Welzel, C. (2013). Freedom rising: Human empowerment and the quest for emancipation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press