Frankl’s words concerning what he called “the existential vacuum” (Frankl, 1969, p. 106). Frankl explained that the traditions that providedguidance to behavior diminished in the twentieth century. Frankl wrote:
No instinct tells him what he has to do, and no tradition tells him what he ought to do: sometimes he does not even know what he wishes to do. Instead he either wishes to do what other people do (conformism) or he does what other people wish him to do (totalitarianism). (Frankl, 1969, p. 106)
Frankl stated that the manifestation of the existential vacuum is boredom.
Boredom could be viewed as a product of lack of purpose and meaning. In the twenty-first century those sentiments are still valid. The lack of meaning is recognized as a precursor to mental health disorders, particularly depression and anxiety (Frankl, 1969; Ryff & Singer, 1998b).