Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Erik Erikson, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

stage theory of human development

1.Infancy–trust vs. mistrust

in infancy an individual is confronted with the issues of trust vs. mistrust with the corresponding virtue being hope. If the infant receives loving support and encouragement, then the world in which the infant develops will be perceived as a trusting and nurturing place. Therefore the situations and
events that the infant encounters during this stage of development will greatly impact the ways in which that individual ultimately perceives the self and others throughout the life course.

2.Toddlerhood–autonomy vs. shame

3. Childhood–Initiative vs. guilt 

4. School Age–industry vs. inferiority

5. Adolescence–identity vs. role confusion

6.Early adulthood, young adult (20–39)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Adulthood–intimacy vs. isolation
Friends, partners
Can I love?
Romantic relationships

7.Adulthood (40–64)
7 th stage
Maturity–generativity vs. stagnation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Household, workmates
Can I make my life count?
Work, parenthood
Generativity---a concern for establishing and guiding the next generation.
generativity in its broadest sense refers to creative and productive activity through work
Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of generativity.
contributing to society and helping to guide future generations.
raising a family or working toward the betterment of society, a sense of generativity—a sense of productivity and accomplishment
Erikson’s concept embraces a sense of caring for the future; caring for the next generation.
Erikson included working for a better world as part of his concept
care for and about others
Generativity is also positively associated with volunteerism, community involvement, and voting
Philanthropy as a Form of Generativity
Erikson’s concept of generativity implies not simply having children but to giving back or contributing to society and future generations.

generattivity is primarily the interest in establishing and guiding the next generation (Erikson, 1959: 103)
altruistic concern (Erikson, 1959: 103)

Erikson's notion of "generativity" (Erikson, 1950, 1983).As Erikson conceived it, generativity is a form of altruism and involves a concern for other people, especially those in the next generation.
Teaching students or acting as a mentor to young colleagues provide good examples of generativity (Levinson, et al. 1978). The individual does not seek his own advantage, but the nurturance of another person. Raising one's own children, of course, is the most commonly cited instance of generativity, although all too often narcissism is really the motive rather than generativity: the parent sees only himself in the child, seeking to perpetuate himself through the child. True generativity involves recognizing somebody as an individual in his own right, not as an extension of oneself. Generativity, Erikson argued, is a task for middle and later life, and unless an individual attains it to some degree, further emotional development does not easily occur.

The alternative to generativity, Erikson thought, is rather dismal. It is stagnation. The self-centered individual becomes trapped in his own desires, ambitions, and griefs, unable to see the larger whole. Such an ego-centered position is self defeating, given the inevitability of personal losses in the
second half of life.

In contrast, a person who is self-centered and unable or unwilling to help society move forward develops a feeling of stagnation—a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity.
The opposing concept to generativity is stagnation, or the loss of self in selfabsorptio

8. Maturity (65-death)
Later Life–integrity vs. despair.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Mankind, my kind
Is it okay to have been me?
Reflection on life
contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.
retrospection: people look back on their lives and accomplishments. They develop feelings of contentment and integrity if they believe that they have led a happy, productive life. They may instead develop a sense of despair if they look back on a life of disappointments and unachieved goals.
Integrity in the later years of life implies acceptance of a life that was well-lived.
by this age a person begins take a
reflective and evaluative look back at his or her life. A person may ask questions like “Was my life fulfilling?” or “What was I able to accomplish?

eighth stage, which Erikson calls "ego-integrity". At this stage the individual reaches a fundamental acceptance of his/her life, regardless of how good or bad it had been. The individual looks back and feels satisfied with the past.
ego-integrity--- the affirmation of one's own life as it was and it (see through illusion, rejecting illusion, Chinen, 1985)

the acceptance of one's own and only life cycle and of the people who have become significant to it as something that had to be and that, by necessity, permitted no substitutions. (Erikson, 1959: 104)
one's life is one's own responsibility (Erikson, 1959: 104)

lack or loss of this accrued ego integration is signified by despair and an often unconscious fear of death: the one and only life cycle is not accepted as the ultimate of life. 
Despair expresses the feeling that the time is short, too short for the attempt to start another life and to try out alternate roads to integrity
such a despair is often hidden behind a show of disgust, a misanthropy, or a chronic contemptuous displeasure with particular institutions and particular people, a disgust and displeasure which (where not allied with constructive ideas and a life of cooperation) only signify the individual's contempt for himself. (Erikson, 1959: 105)

According to Erikson's theory, the individual does not reach the eighth stage of ego-integrity,
he/she experiences despair and fear of death. The positive personality characteristic during
this eighth stage is wisdom while its negative component is disgust and contempt

Despair, however, implies a lack of further hope. Despair can result from unfulfilled potential or a feeling that one has wasted one’s life, without hope for personal redemption
Despair is often disguised by an outward attitude of contempt toward others. Such contempt, according to Erikson, really reflects contempt for the self, projected outward.

Ego integrity implies an emotional integration which permits participation by followership as well as acceptance of the responsibility of leadership (Erikson, 1959: 105)

Joan Erikson: The Ninth Stage
added a ninth stage in The Life Cycle Completed: Extended Version
The Life Cycle Completed (Erikson, 1997)
in the eighties or in the nineties
close connection between culture and identity. In our own culture, she observed, old people are often isolated from the rest of the community.
“aged individuals are often ostracized, neglected, and overlooked; elders are seen no longer as bearers of wisdom but as embodiments of shame”

she believed that “old people can and do maintain a grand-generative function”

Joan Erikson promotes Lars Tornstam’s (1993) concept of gerotranscendence toward the final stage of life, which consists of these changes in perception:

1. A feeling of “cosmic communion” with the universe (or spiritual connectedness),
2. Time being circumscribed (the future is limited),
3. Reduced mobility, implying a narrowing of personal space,
4. Death being seen philosophically as “the way of all living things,” and
5. A sense of self expanding to include “a wider range of interrelated others” (J. Erikson, in Erikson, 1997, p. 124).

The Life Cycle Completed
By Erik H. Erikson, Joan M. Erikson, 1997

Lars Tornstam’s (1993) gerotranscendence

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