life-span human development
Life-span developmental psychology
development is a lifelong process
Lifelong Development, development occurs across one’s entire life
Lifelong development iencompasses the entire life span, from conception to death
all stages of the life span equally contribute in the regulation of the nature of human development; no age period holds supremacy over another.
human development, multidimensionality
a complex interplay of factors, both endogenous and exogenous, influence development across the lifespan
dynamic interaction of these factors is what influences an individual’s development.
a relationship exists between an individual's development and the socio-cultural setting around them, and also how this setting evolves over time.
During the time of adolescence, Baltes believed the socio-cultural setting in which an individual develops plays a distinct role in the development of their personality.
socio-cultural setting evolves over time
Vietnam War-- The study involved individuals of four different adolescent age groups who all showed significant personality development in the same direction (a tendency to occupy themselves with ethical, moral, and political issues rather than cognitive achievement).---Nesselroade, J. R., & Baltes, P. B. (1974). Adolescent personality development and historical change: 1970-1972. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 39(1, Serial No. 154).
Edler showed that the Great Depression was a setting that significantly affected the development of adolescents and their corresponding adult personalities, by showing a similar common personality development across age groups---Edler, G. H., Jr. (1974). Children of the Great Depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jump up ^ Edler, G. H., Jr., & Liker, J. K. (1982). Hard times in women’s lives: Historical influences across forty years. American Journal of Sociology, 88, 241–269
Contextualism as a paradigm is Baltes’ idea that three systems of biological and environmental influence work together to influence development: age-graded, history-graded, and nonnormative influences.
three systems of influence work together to influence development. Concerning adolescent development, the age-graded influences would help to explain the similarities within a cohort, the history-graded influences would help to explain the differences between cohorts, and the nonnormative influences would explain the idiosyncrasies of each adolescents individual development. When all influences are considered together, it lends to a broader explanation of an adolescent’s development.