Sunday, July 23, 2017

land reform, land registration, Taiwan

The entire reform was designed and implemented by the Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction (JCRR). JCRR was a technical collaboration program in agriculture and forestry established in Nanking in October 1948.

1930 (民國19年) 土地法公布
1951 耕地三七五減租條例公布
1953 實施耕者有其田條例公布
375減租 – 1949, 4 月至7月
1951, 6月, 公地放領, 將從日本人手中接收歸公的農地賣給農民
1952, 1月, 耕者有其田, 政府收購地主的農地, 將農地賣給農民, 向地主購買農地所需資金, 部分以四大公營企業(台灣水泥, 台灣紙業, 台灣農林, 台灣礦工業)的股票支付
部分地主變成工商業者, 促成土地資本轉化成產業資本, 變成日後民間中小企業的開始
地主失去政治權力, 農民政治參與權提高

375 – 1949, 4 月至7月
1951, 6月, 公地放領, 將從日本人手中接收歸公的農地賣給農民
1952, 1月, 耕者有其田, 政府收購地主的農地, 將農地賣給農民, 向地主購買農地所需資金, 部分以四大公營企業(台灣水泥, 台灣紙業, 台灣農林, 台灣礦工業)的股票支付

1949 farm rent was limited to a maximum of 37.5% of the main crop yield
island-wide rent reduction to 37.5% for all farm tenants
island-wide rent reduction to 37.5% for all farm tenants

1951 public land previously owned by Japanese nationals was redistributed, mostly to tenants.
major sale of public lands to tenanted farmers

Although the first two steps did not transfer land from rich to poor, they set the stage for the land-to-the-tiller program.

1953 landlords were forced to sell all their landholdings above a minimum size to their tenants under
the Land-to-the Tiller Act.
the most significant stage was the land-to-the-tiller program. By the end of the 1952, it was proposed that all tenanted farmland shall be purchased by the government and then be resold to tenant farmers.
In other words, this policy aimed to transfer property right from the absentee landlord to the actual tenant tiller.

In 375 Rent Reduction program in 1949 (the farm rent was limited to 37.5% of the total crop yield of 1948). Previously, the farm rent was at least 50%. The more the total crop yield, the higher rent that farmers had to pay to the landlords. Selling public lands to tenant farmers program in 1951. Land-to-the-tiller program in 1953. Taiwan’s land reform abolished land tenancy by limiting the amount of land a landlord could own and made tillers have their own lands. The government used bonds and shares of the government-run companies taken over from the Japanese (Taiwan was under Japanese colonial rule from 1895 to 1945) to purchase tenant-cultivated lands and then resold these lands to tillers at a lower price. The land reform decreases the number of tenant families and increase their income. 耕者有其田: 限制地主可擁有的耕地面積, 超出部分由政府強制收購, 政府將收購土地重新售予佃農, 政府發行公債及前為日本殖民政府所有的4家企營企業股票作為購地款 (政府並未以現金買地主的土地)

Ever since Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895, Taiwan had become the agricultural base for
Japan’s industrialization. According to official documents, compared to other Asian countries
Taiwan had much better farmers’ association and agricultural infrastructure since the start of
postwar reconstruction due to colonial rule.8 A much more important colonial legacy, according
to Fei, Ranis and Kuo, was that the overwhelmingly Japanese ownership of manufacturing
enterprises contributed to a more equal distribution of income in two ways: it reduced the
concentration of industrial assets in private Taiwanese hands in the period immediately after the
independence, and it provided a source of industrial assets that could be distributed as
compensation to landowners under the land reform.9 Immediately after the closure of civil war in
Mainland China, Taiwan saw a large inflow of population from the Mainland. The competition
for the already scarce land suddenly became so severe that the stable rule of the Nationalist party
hinged on a successful redistribution of land.

1954 實施都市平均地權條例公布
1977 平均地權條例公布 (將原"實施都市平均地權條例"重新修訂, 改稱為"平均地權條例")

1939 都市計畫法公布
1974 制頒區域計畫法
1980 農地重劃條例
1973 農業發展條例
1976 山坡地保育利用條例
1990 促進產業升級條例
1982 國民住宅條例

國有財產法, 民58
土地稅法, 民66

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