Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Creating, amending and abolishing laws, 法律制定, 修正, 廢除

http://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesaurus-category/british/creating-amending-and-abolishing-laws
 
abolish verb
to officially get rid of a law, system, practice etc

abrogate verb
very formal to officially get rid of a law or political arrangement, often without the agreement of the other people, groups etc involved

amend verb
to make changes to a document, law, agreement etc, especially in order to improve it

amendment noun
a change made to a law or agreement

amendment noun
the process of changing a law or agreement

backdate verb
to make a rule or law start to be effective from a date in the past

bring in
to introduce a new law or system

codify verb
to make something part of an organized system, especially an official system of laws

come in
if something such as a law or practice comes in, it starts to be used or done

come into effect
if a new rule or law comes into effect, it starts to be used

criminalize verb
to make an activity illegal by making a new law

decriminalise
a British spelling of decriminalize

decriminalize verb
to change the law so that something that was illegal becomes legal

deregulate verb
to take away the rules that control something such as an industry

deregulation noun
the process of taking away the rules that control something such as an industry

ease verb
to make a rule or punishment less severe

enact verb
to make a proposal into a law

first reading noun
the first time that a parliament considers a proposal for a new law

frame verb
to develop or make up something such as a plan or law

get through
to have a new law accepted by a parliament

get through
if a law gets through, it is accepted by a parliament

go through
if a law goes through, or if it goes through a law-making institution, it is officially approved

grandfather verb
american to arrange for someone or something not to be subject to a new law or regulation that applies to everyone or everything else

grandfather clause noun
american an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing groups or situations, when a new rule will apply to all future groups or situations

harmonise
a British spelling of harmonize

harmonization noun
the act or practice of making laws or policies similar to those of a different country or organization

harmonize verb
to make laws or policies similar to those of a different country, organization etc

impose verb
to introduce something such as a new law or new system, and force people to accept it

in effect
if a law or rule is in effect, it is operating

initiative noun
legalamerican a process by which people can suggest a new law by signing a petition

insert verb
to add something to a legal agreement or an official document

invoke verb
formal to use a law or rule in order to achieve something

legalise
a British spelling of legalize

legalize verb
to make something legal by creating a new law

legislate verb
to create a new law and have it officially accepted

legislator noun
someone who has the power and authority to create new laws

legitimize verb
to make something legal

liberalise
a British spelling of liberalize

liberalize verb
to make laws or rules less strict so that people have more freedom

lift verb
to officially end a rule or law that stopped someone from doing something

mandate verb
mainly american to give an official order or make a law stating that something must be done

nullify verb
legal to make something lose its legal effect

outlaw verb
to make something illegal

pass verb
to make a law, proposal etc become official, usually by voting to accept it

pass verb
if a law, proposal etc passes, or passes a particular law-making body, it becomes official as the result of a vote

passage noun
the process by which a bill is discussed in a parliament and becomes law

pilot verb
mainly journalism to make sure that something such as a new law is introduced or accepted

push through
to succeed in getting a law, agreement etc accepted quickly although a lot of people oppose it

reading noun
one of three occasions when a bill (=new law) is read to Parliament in the UK and discussed before it can become law

relax verb
to make rules, controls, conditions etc less strict

relaxation noun
the process of making rules, controls, conditions etc more relaxed

repeal verb
to state officially that a law no longer has legal authority and has ended

rescind verb
formal to state officially that something such as a law or an agreement has ended and no longer has legal authority

rescission noun
the act of revoking something such as a contract

restore verb
to start using something such as a law or custom again

revise verb
to change, improve, or make additions to something such as a book, law, or piece of writing

revoke verb
to officially say that something is no longer legal, for example a law or a document

rewrite verb
to make changes to something such as a computer program

strengthen verb
to make a law or punishment stronger

strike down
if a judge or court strikes down a law, they officially end it

take effect
if a new rule or law takes effect, it starts to be used

void verb
legal to make something no longer legal or effective

washup noun
the period during the last few days of a parliament when the government tries to get officially accepted as many of its proposals for new laws as possible

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