Thursday, June 01, 2017

et al., etc., and so on, and so forth, for example, for instance, such as

,for example, 
,for instance, 
,eg., 
, such as 
I can play quite a few musical instruments, for example, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, for instance, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, e.g., the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, such as the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
the first three phrases have commas before and after them.
Such as does NOT have a comma after it

such as
The phrase such as can be used in the middle of a sentence without any commas.  Take a look at this:
Car companies such as Toyota and Ford manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.
You may be wondering why there are no commas.  The answer is simple: the words after such as are necessary and essential to the meaning of the sentence.  If you take out those words, the meaning will change.

Let's take out such as:
Car companies manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.
What does this sentence mean?  It could mean ALL car companies manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.  This is not true because some companies produce their cars in just one or two countries.  Therefore, the phrase such as Toyota and Ford is necessary.  If these words are necessary, do not use commas.
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Usually only for example and for instance can begin new sentences.  Each can begin a new sentence when the phrase is followed by a complete idea or sentence (not a list of items).
My father loves going to restaurants which serve exotic foods.  For example, last week he went to a restaurant which serves deep-fried rattlesnake.
My father loves going to restaurants which serve exotic foods.  For instance, last week he went to a restaurant which serves deep-fried rattlesnake.
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When I go camping, I bring lots of things, for example, a fishing rod, matches, and a sleeping bag.
There have been many leaders in history who have tried to rule the entire world, for instance, Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great.
Do you have any hobbies, e.g., collecting stamps or baseball cards?
Food such as pizza and hamburgers are not really junk food; they contain a lot of protein and vitamins. (no commas are necessary)
Heesun has met many famous people.  For example, one time she met Jacques Chirac.  (there must be a comma after for example--not a colon!)
When I visit Korea, I want to go to many cities, such as Seoul and Taegu.
Evelyn has taken many psychology classes, e.g., Behavior Psychology 102, Child Psychology 223, and Group Dynamics 301.
I love old TV shows, for example, The Twilight Zone and Gilligan's Island.
Joyce has studied many Asian languages, for instance, Korean, Chinese, and Thai.
Juan loves rock musicians from the 1970s, such as Jimmy Hendrix and Janis Joplin.
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I bought a lot of things in that shop, for example, games, toys, and flowers.
I bought a lot of things in that shop, e.g., games, toys, and flowers.

Don't use "and so on" directly after either of these.
don't "for example, and so on"
don't "e.g., and so on"
don't "that is, and so on".
If you do use "e.g." to list examples, you do not need to add "and so on" or "etc..." at the end of the list, because "e.g." indicates that your presenting a limited list of examples.  To say "etc..." and "and so on" at the end is redundant.

et al., 
etc.,

The term "et al." is an abbreviation for the Latin term et alia that means and others, the others being people and not things. It is affixed after the name of a person, e.g., a researcher to indicate that additional people were involved in the work or were acting in the same manner. For example, in the sentence "The work was completed by Shimazu et al.," the term et al. indicates that Shimazu and others (his co-workers or colleagues) were involved in completing the work.

“et al.’ is a scholarly abbreviation of the Latin phrase et alia, which means “and others.” It is commonly used when you don’t want to name all the people or things in a list, and works in roughly the same way as “etc.” “The reorganization plan was designed by Alfred E. Newman, General Halftrack, Zippy the Pinhead, et al.; and it was pretty useless.”
The “al.” in this phrase needs a period after it to indicate it is an abbreviation of alia
but it is incorrect to put a period after “et.”

etc
On the other hand, the word etc, the abbreviation of et cetera, means and the rest or and so forth. It is used at the end of a list to indicate that the list is not complete and only some of the involved items have been mentioned.
Further, when a list is introduced using "such as" or "e.g.," the use of the term "etc" is redundant.
Since e.g. indicates a partial list, it is redundant to add “etc.” at the end of a list introduced by this abbreviation.

Example:

Incorrect: It was reported that some metal ions such as zinc, copper, and vanadium, et al. were useful in the therapy for diabetes mellitus.

Correct: It was reported that some metal ions such as zinc, copper, and vanadium were useful in the therapy for diabetes mellitus.

Also Correct: Zinc, copper, vanadium, etc. were the metal ions reported to be useful in the therapy for diabetes mellitus.

In the above example, since the reference is being made to elements and not people the use of the term et al. is incorrect.

etc. 
This is an abbreviation of the Latin et cetera, meaning 'and other things'. Some people say that it should not be used with lists of people, or to mean 'and so forth' when referring to events or actions: The children laughed, shouted, ran about, etc. However, its use in these contexts is well established, although (this is an abbreviation of the Latin et alii, meaning 'and others'). et al is more polite when referring to people

The more important question is whether you should use these abbreviations at all. They are useful for notes and on forms, but look out of place in ordinary writing; better to begin a list of examples with such as or for example, or to follow it with and so on, and so forth, or (with people) and others. Whatever form you use, make sure that you give some idea of what the other items might be.

In a sentence such as there are worms etc in the garden, etc could refer to almost anything: worms, beetles, woodlice, and so on suggests other creepy-crawlies, while: creatures such as worms, spiders, and frogs suggests a much wider range of wildlife. This means that you have to know what you mean: etc and its equivalents are often used when people are not sure, or cannot be bothered to think about, what they wish to include. Remember the c in et cetera is pronounced s. The et is sometimes incorrectly pronounced ek. Note also that etc and et al can be written with or without a full stop.

Avoid "etc."; use "for example", "such as", "among others" or, better yet, try to give a complete list (unless citing, for example, a list of products known to be incomplete), even if abstract. See also Strunk and White:
Etc.: Not to be used of persons. Equivalent to and the rest, and so forth, and hence not to be used if one of these would be insufficient, that is, if the reader would be left in doubt as to any important particulars. Least open to objection when it represents the last terms of a list already given in full, or immaterial words at the end of a quotation.

At the end of a list introduced by such as, for example, or any similar expression, etc. is incorrect. If
you say, "for example" or "like", do not follow this with "etc.". Thus, it's "fruit like apples, bananas and oranges". The "like" and "for example" already indicate that there are more such items.
When etc. is used at the end of a series (it should be used sparingly), set it off with commas.

The students sold homemade bread, candy, cake, etc., to pay for their trip.

and so on
so forth
And so on and so forth mean the same as etcetera (etc.).
with additional related or similar things mentioned (but not specified).
She told me everything about her kids and so forth.
I heard about problems at work and so forth.
He told me about all his health problems, including his arthritis and so on.
I need some help getting ready for dinner, setting the table, and so on.
It includes, for instance, what is a command, a prayer, a statement, a threat, a question, an answer, and so forth.

The words “such as” include the idea of a few examples, but not the total set of possible choices. Therefore, don’t use “such as” with “and so on” or etc. in the same sentence. It is redundant.
The words “and so on” are generally seen as being casual or spoken language, but not appropriate for research writing. Also, don’t use “like” to give examples.--- had better not to use and so on ---- use et al.,
The term “etc.” always has a period and is the abbreviation of etcetera . You may occasionally find it in published papers, but it is not recommended. --- had better not to use etc.

Phrases with “the following” usually introduce a list and have a colon, “such as/including/includes/ the following:”
EXAMPLE
Their observations include the following: (1) Generally, austenitic stainless steel weld metal
solidifies by primary separation of austenite or ferrite from the melt…
E J, Rao et al./Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 27 (1997) p.145

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