bureaucracy is embedded in a concrete set of social ties that binds the state to society and provides institutionalized channels for the continual negotiation and renegotiation of goals and policies
when embeddedness and autonomy are joined together can a state be called developmental.
the role of the state in industrialization.
External networks connecting the state and civil society are even more important.
the KMT has used state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as key instruments of industrial development.
East Asian developmental states began the post–World War II period with legacies of long bureaucratic traditions and considerable prewar experience in direct economic intervention. World War II and its aftermath in the Pacific region produced a very special kind of “massive societal
dislocation.”24 Traditional agrarian elites were decimated, industrial groups were disorganized and undercapitalized, and external resources were channeled through the state apparatus. The outcome of the war, including, ironically, American occupation,25 qualitatively enhanced the autonomy of these states vis-à-vis private domestic elites. The combination of historically accumulated bureaucratic capacity and conjuncturally generated autonomy placed these states in an exceptional position.