Friday, January 29, 2016

While standing lists of qualified applicants (called registers) were commonly used for Federal hiring until fairly recently, their use has been much reduced in recent years. Decentralization has led to a shift from use of registers to “case examining,” where individual jobs or small numbers of jobs are advertised and filled as needs arise.
(MSPB,2000a)

Names of eligible applicants are placed on lists, or registers of eligibles, in the order of their ratings. Competitor inventories are established from which selections will be made over a period of time and for case examining in which a register is used to fill a single position or a group of positions and is closed after the needed selection(s) is made.

Case Examining: 用人機關為迅速填補某特定職缺,針對該職缺發布招募公告,當甄選過程完成終結,乃將本招募案結案。優點為針對特定職缺,明訂職能/KSAs,基於職能/KSAs來評分/比申請者。又因申請人針對該職缺,提出工作申請,故機關可確保有人可供選用。缺點為因針對每個職缺,均須公告招募,耗時較久;且申請人須針對個別職缺公告,一一提出申請(除非職缺公告另有規定(OPM,2007)

Certificates generated by case examining give applicants a different experience. Case examining means applicants apply under a specific vacancy announcement, issued by an agency or OPM, that may cover one or more vacancies. With this approach, applicants are more likely to be informed of their application status in a reasonable period of time. However, this also represents a one-time consideration for employment. Applicants must apply again and again for other openings that are advertised, even if the jobs are similar. This could become burdensome since the materials or information required to be submitted may vary with each vacancy announcement.
(MSPB, 2000b)

若機關採用Case Examining,針對加分10分之退伍軍人優待身分者[1],DEU在以下三種情形,必須接受其提出工作申請,無論其於何時提出、針對何職位提出、機關目前是否有職缺招募:(1)機關於最近前三年內,曾進用非臨時人員,(2)候選人名單已存在,但不再受理新申請之提出,(3)候選人名單即將被建立完成。又若其符合相關資格條件要求, DEU須儘速將其列入候選人名單,俾供甄選主管挑選 (OPM,2007)[2]
    針對申請人完成評分/比後, DEU建立候選人名單(certificate),提供機關甄選主管挑選最後進用者。若某候選人已被考量過三次(three considerations),均未獲選用,DEU可將其從候選人名單上移除,其不會再受到雇用考量。(OPM,2007)


[1] 加分10: 身心障礙退伍軍人本人(CPCPSXP)、退伍軍人之親屬(配偶、遺孀/鰥夫、母親)
[2] 5 U.S.C. § 3305, 5 CFR Part 332

Competitor Inventory[1]: 當職缺屬於某職業類別,常以非永業人員填補;為填補每個職缺,而須個別公告招募及辦理考試,缺乏效率,DEU可設立Competitor Inventory(為合格者名單,類似資料庫),供填補目前及未來職缺使用。不須分別針對每個職缺,進行招募及考試,申請者只須提出申請一次,後來陸續有職缺,均會被列入雇用考量。Competitor Inventory中之及格者(eligible)符合相關資格條件要求,可被考量雇用於: (1)單一或數個職等(grade level), (2)單一或數個專門職業, (3)單一或數個地理位置, (4)職缺公告中明示之各種不同情況,例如,出差,晚班,輪班工作。
    Competitor Inventory可分為二種:(1)事先評分/(pre-rated inventory) [2]:名單中及格者已被評分及評比[3],(2)延緩評分/(deferred-rated inventory)[4]:名單中及格者僅依姓名筆劃或編號排列,當甄選主管針對某職缺,DEU要求候選人名單時,DEU才會開始對及格者進行評分/,而此評分/比只適用於該職缺之甄選。(OPM,2007)
    建立Competitor Inventory,須紀錄以下資訊:(1)考試名稱及其編號,(2)涵蓋的職位、職等、地理位置,(3) Inventory建立日期,(4)其他Inventory的性質(若新的Inventory取代其他Inventory)。另外,就建立日期而言,視招募公告明訂之受理申請時間長短而定: (1)若僅受理申請一段時間,Inventory建立的日期為,由此Inventory產生的第一分候選人名單的日期; (2)若持續受理申請,Inventory建立的日期為,第一位及格者被列入此Inventory的日期。另外, Competitor Inventory及格者受到雇用考量之期間長短(period of eligiblility),視用人機關對該Inventory需要而定,一般來說,受到雇用考量期間為一年,但可縮短。及格者被列入Inventory的日期十分重要,因其受到雇用考量之期間長短,由該日期開始起算。(OPM,2007)
    Competitor Inventory缺點為 (1)前述Case Examining 因只針對目前提出申請某職缺工作者,進用雇用考量,故往往有人可供挑選。然而, Competitor Inventory 類似資料庫,申請人雖之前曾提出申請,若機關現在要進用時,其目前可能無法任職。(2)需要持續地維護[5]



[1] 又名: standing competitor inventory, standing register, register
如何終結、合併competitor inventory,請見: http://zencaroline.blogspot.tw/2014/11/terminating-or-combining-inventories.html
[2]更多關於pre-rated inventory資料,請見:
http://zencaroline.blogspot.tw/2015/02/pre-rated-inventory.html
[3] applications are referred to as being “pre-rated” or “front-end rated.”
[4] 更於關於 deferred-rated inventory資料, 請見:
http://zencaroline.blogspot.tw/2015/02/deferred-rated-inventory.html
[5] 維護competitor inventory資料,請見:
終結或合併competitor inventory資料,請見:
http://zencaroline.blogspot.tw/2015/02/terminating-or-combining-inventories.html

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