- women's friendships differ from those of men in several specifiable ways. Current and comprehensive reviews of the sizable and growing literature on this problem are available (Sherrod, 1989: Winstead, 1988; Wright, 1989).
- women's friendships are more likely than those of men to involve personalism, confiding, and emotional supportiveness (Booth, 1972; Booth & Hess, 1974; Davison & Packard, 1981; Hill & Stull; 1981; Weiss & Lowenthal, 1975; Winstead & Darlega, 1984; Wright, 1985; Wright & Crawford, 1981; Yoon, 1978).
- Women's friendships are more likely to involve "mere talk" and intimate self-disclosure
(Aries & Johnson, 1983; Caldwell & Peplau, 1982; Hacker, 1981; Johnson & Aries, 1983; Walker & Wright, 1976).
- Women's friendships are likely to be affectively richer, more complex, and more "wholistic"; men's friendships are more likely to be centered around structured activities, and men are likely to have less wholistic "special purpose" friendships (Block, 1980; Weiss & Lowenthal, 1975; Wright, 1982).
- men tend to be more open, more self-disclosing, and more intimate with their women than with their men friends; women tend to be less open, less self-disclosing, and less intimate with their men than with their women friends (Block, 1980; Rose, 1985; Rubin, 1985)
- men most often turn for close, highly personalized interaction to neither male nor female friends, but to romantic partners or female kin. Women, on the other hand, are likely to turn to female friends (Block, 1980; Rubin, 1985; Tognoli, 1980).
- Lombardo and Lavine (1981), androgynous men reported self-disclosing to their friends at higher levels than did traditional men, and self- disclosing at equally high levels to their female and male friends. Androgynous women reported self-disclosing to friends of both genders while traditional women self-disclosed more to their female friends.
- Women and men scoring high on femininity report high levels of intimacy in their friendships regardless of whether they score high or low on masculinity. In other words, both androgynous and cross-sex typed (feminine) men scored higher on intimacy than masculine men: androgynous and sex-typed women scored higher on intimacy than masculine women (Fischer & Narus, 1981; Williams, 1985).
Monday, October 03, 2011
Gender role orientations and friendship
Wright, P. H., & Scanlon, M. B. (1991). Gender role orientations and friendship: Some attenuation, but gender differences abound. Sex Roles, 24, 551-566.