- Friendships are thought to be sharply curtailed and less intense after marriage (Bott, 1971; Lopata, 1971 ; Lowenthal, Thurnher, Chirrboga, & Associates, 1976; Young & Willmott, 1957),
- why people are drawn together as friends. Similar personalities (Beier, Rossi, & Garfield, 1961 ; Izard, 1960; Pierce, 1970); similar cognitive construction systems (Duck, 1973a; 1973b; Duck & Spencer, 1972); and common attitudes, values, and interests (Black, 1974; LaGaipa & Werner, 1971; Lowenthal, et al., 1976; Olczak & Goldman, 1975; Secord & Backman, 1964) all appear to influence friendship pairing. Sullivan (1953) sees the friendship pairing as crucial in clarifying, correcting, and confirming one's perceptions, and providing consensual validation of all components of personal worth.
- Married adults tend to develop their closest friendships with members of the same sex.
- Male comradeship/brotherhood thrives on shared endeavor and the loss of personal identities; female friendship/sisterhood thrives on the enhancement of personal identities, on heightened self-discovery, and on self-awareness. Research supporting Daly's views shows that male friendship consists more of activity, while female friendship consists of a greater sharing of deep feelings and confidences (Lowenthal et al., 1976; Pleck & Sawyer, 1974).
- a relationship develops, there is a gradual progression towards discussion of more areas of information and towards disclosure about deeper, more intimate material.
- Cozby's (1973) review of the literature indicated mixed results on sex differences, but did establish that no researchers found men to be more self-disclosing than women.
- Jourard (1971) is often cited as providing support for the conclusion that females disclose more to the same-sex friends than do males.
- Morgan (1976) found that males and females are differentiated only on high intimacy topics, on which females disclose more than males. Rands and Levinger's (1979) work on "implicit theories" of pair relationships establishes that female pairs are perceived as more likely to disclose intimacies than are male pairs. Aries' (1976) study of same- sex laboratory groups is generally consistent with the self-disclosure research. By content analyzing discussions that members of the same sex had in order to get to know one another, she found that women share more about themselves, their feelings, homes, and close relationships; men share more about sports and amusements; competition and aggression; and things they have seen, read, or heard.
Monday, October 03, 2011
Aries, E. J., & Johnson, F. L. (1983). Close friendship in adulthood: Conversational content between same-sex friends. Sex Roles, 9(12), 1183-1196.