Secular ideologies in 19th and early 20th centuries
- Marxists dismiss religion as a tool of class oppression. Religon is the opium of hte people, a false consolation for life's miseries.
- Freudians regard religion as a collective neurosis
- Economists think religion has no value because it has no market price
- Sociologists, such as Emile Durkhiem (religion can be a solution to anomie) and Max Weber (religion is an instrument of modernisation) pronounce religion's death rites.