Thursday, February 23, 2017

representative gov
disability
aborginee

各政府性別統計資料庫

whole list
http://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=39165&CtNode=6233&mp=4

新北市統計資料庫
主計處首頁»業務資訊»統計»性別統計
http://pxweb.bas.ntpc.gov.tw/pxweb/dialog/statfile9_n.asp

台北市政府人事處
首頁 > 業務項目 > 人事統計
http://dop.gov.taipei/np.asp?ctNode=51825&mp=113001


宜蘭縣政府, 主計處, 首頁 性別統計專區性別統計圖像
http://bgacst.e-land.gov.tw/News.aspx?n=FB5E02E95571474A&sms=DD855C7DF840A224

重要性別統計資料庫

https://www.gender.ey.gov.tw/gecdb/

性別平等研究文獻資源網

https://www.gender.ey.gov.tw/research/default.aspx
https://www.gender.ey.gov.tw/research/default.aspx
北部7: 臺北市新北市、宜蘭縣、桃園市、新竹縣、基隆市、新竹市。
中部5: 臺中市、苗栗縣、彰化縣、南投縣、雲林縣。
南部6: 高雄市、臺南市、嘉義縣、屏東縣、澎湖縣、嘉義市。
東部2: 臺東縣、花蓮縣。

政府正在推動的是「長照保險法」,但市場上販售的「長期看護保險」,範圍比較小。雖然細項仍未公布,但主管機關計劃提供的照護內容包括護理服務、交通接送等實際服務,相形之下,保險公司傾向提供現金服務。

政府能提供的畢竟有限,長照保險法和健保一樣,只能提供基本服務,而保險公司則負責填補政策的縫隙。以健保為例,全民健保只能提供保戶住6人病房,許多東西也不給付,但日額型的民間保險每天補貼3000元,可以住雙人病房。

業者和學者同聲提醒,即使有需求,長看險仍不應該是規劃退休保障時的第一張保單。

凃薏如提醒,保戶應該先盤點自己缺了什麼,再想長看險,「先看家庭醫療、身故保障是否足夠,其次為重大疾病保障,最後才看長期看護。」

對中年保戶而言,如果年金夠,未必需要長看險。凃薏如舉例,如果退休後年金一個月只有兩萬元拿來當生活費,就建議買長看險;但如果一個月年金10萬元,就不需要。

換言之,保戶應該考慮扣除長期看護費用後(外籍看護一個月薪資約兩萬元、本國看護約六萬元),年金是否足以支應生活費。

除了買新保單,半年前,金管會推出的保單轉換服務也是保戶的好選擇。彭金隆指出,部份現在4、50歲的保戶,手邊有終身死亡險,步入中老年後,適合轉成自己是受益人的保單,此時長看險就是不錯的選擇。

依據新光人壽統計,從開放保單轉換至今,就有31%的保戶選擇轉換成長期看護類型的保單,顯示國人對此類保單的需求。

至於許多保戶憂心傳統長看險的定義不夠明確,凃薏如建議可以購買依據特定疾病、殘障等級給付的類長看險。但彭金隆提醒,類長看險給付範圍較小,保戶仍應多方比較。

「長照保險法」仍有一段路要走,但老化不等人。彭金隆戲稱,人生有兩次警告,第一次,是有人遞名片給你,你得拿遠一點才看得見;第二次,是坐捷運被讓座。這時候,就該開始規劃人生下半場。

少子化時代只能靠自己,盤點後,若年金不足以支應每月至少2萬元的支出,長看險的保障不無小補,值得參考。                    

買保險公司的長期看護險保單,有兩點特別需要注意
1.市售長看險多有90天免責期,業者無需理賠。保戶仍需做足準備,支應免責期間的生活。
2.長看險投保上限最高70歲,有意投保者應及早規劃。

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

為了解性別工作平等法實施成效及受僱者在職場就業平等實況,勞動部於104年8至9月分別以「事業單位」及「受僱者」為調查對象,分別辦理

「僱用管理就業平等概況調查」,104年僱用管理及工作場所就業平等概況
回收有效樣本事業單位3,182份
https://srda.sinica.edu.tw/gov/group/53
http://statdb.mol.gov.tw/html/svy04/0424menu.htm

「工作場所就業平等概況調查」,104年工作場所就業平等概況調查
計回收有效樣本受僱者4,117份(女性3,013份及男性1,104份)。

http://www.mol.gov.tw/announcement/2099/25057/
http://statdb.mol.gov.tw/html/mon/214040.htm
85902906 ms. wang for survey


http://www.mol.gov.tw/statistics/2452/
性別工作平等申訴案件件數-按地區分, march 1, 2017 will be updated online
85902901 ms. chen


資料整理與檢核之實務_ By Using R

Nesstar線上分析--功能介紹

R Data Input and Output

胡蘿蔔,蒸著吃最好


蒸是胡蘿蔔最健康的吃法,因為胡蘿蔔素存在於植物細胞中,經過加熱之後,細胞變軟,通透性升高,胡蘿蔔素能夠更好的釋放,吸收利用率更高。
這樣吃胡蘿蔔的好處也頗多:
1、護心、通血管
胡蘿蔔素中含的槲皮素、山柰酚能增加冠狀動脈血流量,降低血脂,促進腎上腺素的合成,因而有降壓強心的作用。
胡蘿蔔中含有琥珀酸鉀鹽,有助於防止血管硬化,降低膽固醇及有降低血壓的作用。
胡蘿蔔中的葉酸,能減少冠心病發病因素。高血壓者還可以飲胡蘿蔔汁後,有很好的降壓作用。
2、降糖降脂
胡蘿蔔還含有降糖物質,是糖尿病人的良好食品,其所含的某些成分,如懈皮素、山標酚能增加冠狀動脈血流量,降低血脂,促進腎上腺素的合成。
3、抗衰老、減緩老化
β胡蘿蔔素還能在機體正常新陳代謝中扮演抗氧化劑的作用,幫助細胞減緩老化的過程。
4、提高免疫力
胡蘿蔔素轉變成維生素A,有助於增強機體的免疫軾能,在預防上皮細胞癌變的過程中具有重要作用,而胡蘿蔔中的木質素也能提高機體免疫機制。
5、護眼明目
眾所周知,多吃胡蘿蔔對眼睛大有益處。因為胡蘿蔔中所含的維生素A與β胡蘿蔔素不僅能緩解眼疲勞和眼幹眼澀,還能預防夜盲症,並加強眼睛的辯色能力。

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

data, 中央研究院

http://www.rchss.sinica.edu.tw/adm/super_pages.php?ID=adm1

https://srda.sinica.edu.tw/

中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心調查研究專題中心
「學術調查研究資料庫」會員約定條款

為促進調查訪問原始資料共享,調查研究專題中心「學術調查研究資料庫」(以下簡稱本資料庫)特將各界捐贈或授權之調查資料檔案整理開放,供一般大眾與學界人士參考、使用。為維護資料捐贈者權益並便於資料庫管理,本資料庫採會員制。凡加入本資料庫會員者,方可使用本資料庫提供之各項會員服務。


1.      會員類別

會員資格依其使用權限的不同,區分為以下四種類別。

1.1一般會員(二年期)

(1)       國內外公私立研究機構之專任研究人員

(2)       國內外公私立大專院校之專兼任教師

(3)       政府機構之專任研究人員

(4)       捐贈或授權資料予「學術調查研究資料庫」之個人或單位代表

1.2一般會員(一年期)

(1)       國內外公私立大專院校大學部學生、碩博士班研究生

(2)       國內外公私立研究機構研究助理人員

(3)       國內外公私立大專院校研究助理人員

(4)       政府機構研究助理人員

若不符合前述一般會員資格,但已取得博士學位者,可以個案申請方式處理。

1.3 院內會員

中央研究院專任研究人員

1.4 網路會員

    不限資格之個人

2.會員資格申請及有效期限

2.1一般會員申請者,於資料庫網站填具申請表,完成電子郵件信箱確認後,簽署「會員約定條款同意書」,連同在職或在學文件影本向本資料庫提出申請。符合申請資格者,本資料庫會根據申請人提供之證件,開通帳號年限。

會員效期到期之前,本資料庫將主動與會員聯絡資料校正及資格延長事宜。會員須於校正期間內確認有無資料異動情形,否則暫停其一般會員權限。

2.2院內會員申請者,於資料庫網站填具申請表,提供中央研究院電子郵件信箱後並經確認,簽署「會員約定條款同意書」,連同中央研究院服務證影本向本資料庫提出申請。

本資料庫於每年11月以電子郵件校正資料,離職後會員權限失效。

2.3網路會員申請者,於資料庫網站填具申請表格,並完成電子郵件確認後,即可開通帳號使用。網路會員帳號為永久有效。

一般會員與院內會員在帳號過期或失效後,將自動轉為網路會員。


3.會員資料管理

3.1會員需自行設定一組密碼與帳號,以利會員權益之行使。

3.2對於會員所留存之個人資料,除下列情況外,本資料庫在未獲得會員同意之前,不得對外揭露會員之姓名、地址、電子郵件地址及其他依法受保護之個人資料:

(1)   依原資料提供者之要求;

(2)   基於法律之規定;

(3)   為保障本資料庫之財產及權益;

(4)   在緊急情況下為維護其他會員或第三人之權益。

3.3在會員資格終止後,本資料庫得保留會員資料作為統計、相關資料傳送、或衍生著作調查等聯絡之用。


4.會員權益

4.1會員可使用的公開釋出資料,依其會員資格有不同的資料權限。

4.1.1一般會員可申請使用或下載學術調查資料、政府抽樣調查資料、公共使用版資料、限制性使用版資料;使用線上分析軟體功能。

4.1.2院內會員,除一般會員能夠申請使用或下載的調查資料外,可申請使用政府普查資料。

4.1.3網路會員僅能下載公共使用版資料。

4.1.4特定資料的使用或下載,需依資料捐贈者之指定方式提出申請。

4.2會員可利用本資料庫網頁討論區、線上諮詢區等管道交流意見。

4.3會員可免費索取本資料庫發行之通訊。

4.4會員可免費收到本資料庫發行之電子報,內含最新的資料釋出消息或其他與資料庫相關的資訊。

5.會員風險資訊

5.1會員同意使用本資料庫各項服務,係基於個人之意願及決定,並同意自負任何使用風險,包括因為自本資料庫下載資料導致會員的電腦系統損壞,或是發生資料流失、錯誤等問題。
5.2會員應瞭解並同意,因軟硬體設備、相關電信業者網路系統之故障,或遭第三人侵入系統篡改或偽造變造資料等,可能造成本資料庫網站系統全部或部份中斷、暫時無法使用、遲延,或造成資料傳輸或儲存上之錯誤,會員不得因此而要求任何補償或賠償。
5.3本資料庫在網站上提供之網路連結,可能連結到其他個人、公司或組織之網站。提供該等連結之目的,僅係為便利會員自行搜集或取得資訊。對於所連結之該等個人、公司或組織之網站上所提供之產品、服務或資訊,本資料庫無法擔保其真實性、完整性、即時性或可信度;該等個人、公司或組織,亦不因此而與本資料庫有任何僱佣、委任、代理、合夥或其他類似之關係。

5.4本資料庫得隨時停止或變更各項服務內容,且無需事先知會個別會員。

6.會員規範

6.1會員同意提供完整且真實之個人資料,如有服務單位或職稱異動等情形時,應即時告知本資料庫更新之。

6.2對於申請會員所設定的密碼與帳號,會員應自行負責保密。會員應有義務妥善保管個人之帳號與密碼,並為此組帳號與密碼登入系統後所進行之一切活動負責。為維護會員自身權益,請勿將帳號與密碼洩露或提供予第三人知悉,或出借或轉讓他人使用。若同一時間內有第二人以同一帳號及密碼登入使用,將拒絕登入。如發現帳號或密碼遭人非法使用或有任何異常破壞使用安全之情形時,會員應立即通知本資料庫。

6.3會員同意不使用本服務之任何功能或下載資料從事下列行為:

(1)    張貼任何內容具詐欺、毀謗、侮辱他人或違反法律之文字、圖片或任何形式之檔案。

(2)    散布任何具有侵害、破壞、中止、干擾或毀損電腦、系統、程式、軟體或類似物件之病毒軟體、程式、檔案等類似載體。

(3)    侵犯他人著作權、商標權、專利權、營業祕密或其他具智慧財產權之圖片、文字、圖形、言論、軟體、檔案或程式。

(4)    從事任何廣告或商業交易。

(5)    違法或未經授權擅自進入其他會員之帳號或本資料庫未開放使用之空間。

6.4若發現會員有異常使用行為時,本資料庫得要求會員提出說明。

6.5會員不得擅自提供、拷貝、影印從本資料庫取得之資料給其他個人或機構。

6.6在使用資料時,會員應尊重並遵守該筆資料捐贈者所訂立之使用條件。

6.7 會員須遵守研究倫理及個人資料保護法等相關法規。

6.8會員使用資料於研究目的者,如有共同作者或使用者,須於本資料庫進行資料使用滿意度及申請用途調查時,提供所有使用資料人的姓名、職稱、服務單位等。

6.9資料若用於教學者,會員須於申請資料時或於本資料庫進行資料使用滿意度及申請用途調查時,提供所有學生的姓名、學號、系級等。

6.10會員利用本資料庫資料撰成之論著,必須於謝詞(acknowledgement),及參考文獻(References)處詳細書明資料出處(請見附件之範例) 。

6.11資料使用者因運用該調查資料撰成之一切論著(如會議論文、期刊論文、博碩士論文、專書或其他等),在出版或發表後,須告知本資料庫該論著之書目,以利其它資料使用者參考。

7.終止條款

會員如違反本約定條款之規範者,本資料庫得視情節停止或終止會員之權益。


8.賠償責任

8.1會員於使用本資料庫服務,而違反本約定之任一條款或法令之規定,導致中央研究院或本資料庫或其受僱人及其他履行輔助人因此而受有損害者,會員必須負損害賠償責任。

8.2會員於使用本資料庫服務,而違反本約定之任一條款或法令之規定(含附件之使用方式),而侵害第三人之權利或財產,或因而致第三人受有損害者,會員應自負損害賠償責任。若該第三人對中央研究院提出告訴,會員同意負責應訟,以及單獨負擔一切律師及行政費用,包括中央研究院之費用,以確保中央研究院不致因而受到任何損害;若中央研究院因而被判賠償者,會員亦全額負責。

8.3會員因使用本資料庫服務而與本資料庫間所產生之權利義務關係,應以中華民國法律為準據法,所涉及之一切訴訟,均以臺灣士林地方法院為第一審管轄法院。


9.修改條款

本資料庫保留隨時修改本條款之權利。本資料庫於條款修改後,會於本資料庫網頁公告修改內容,不另作會員個別通知。如會員不同意修改之內容,可要求本資料庫中止其會員資料。如會員未主動告知中止會員資格,則視為會員已同意並接受本資料庫修訂條款內容。

create ur own website, free

https://sites.google.com/

easy for cv, publications update

passive representation

examines whether the composition of the bureau- cracy mirrors the demographic composition of the general pop- ulation or whether women and minorities are under- represented in government agencies (Brown 1999; Dolan 2000, 2002; Esman 1999; Kelly and Newman 2001; Naff and Crum 2000; Riccucci and Saidel 2001).

Brown, Deryck R. 1999. Ethnic Politics and Public Sector Management in Trinidad and Guyana. Public Administration and Development 19(4): 367-79.

Dolan, Julie. 2000. The Senior Executive Service: Gender, Attitudes and Representative Bureaucracy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 10(3): 513-29. - .

2002. The Budget-Minimizing Bureaucrat? Empirical Evidence from the Senior Executive Service. Public Administration Review 62(1): 42

Esman, Milton J. 1999. Public Administration and Conflict Management in Plural Societies: The Case for Representative Bureaucracy. Public Administration and Development 19(4): 353-

Kelly, Rita Mae, and Meredith Newman. 2001. The Gendered Bureaucracy: Agency Mission, Equality of Opportunity, and Representative Bureaucracies. Women and Politics 22(3): 1

Naff, Katherine C., and John Crum. 2000. The President and Representative Bureaucracy: Rhetoric and Reality. Public Administration Review 60(3): 98-109.

Riccucci, Norma M., and Judith R. Saidel. 1997. The Representativeness of State-Level Bureaucratic Leaders. PublicAdministration Review 57(5): 423





看電腦, 眼睛疲勞

這色調是眼科專家配置 ,長時間使用會很有效 舒緩眼睛疲勞,保護眼睛。

桌面及word
桌面->右鍵->內容->外觀->進階->項目選擇(視窗)、顏色1(L)選擇(其它)
將色調改為:85。
飽和度(濃度):123 或 90
亮度:205
->添加到自定義顏色
->在自定義顏色選定確定->確定

Then 所有文檔都 再不是刺眼 白底黑字,而是非常柔和 豆沙綠色,
這色調是眼科專家配置 ,長時間使用會很有效 舒緩眼睛疲勞,保護眼睛。

PDF
edit -- preferences---accessibility---replace document color---custom color --- page background
色調 (hue) 85
飽合度(sat)  90  或 123
亮度(lum) 205

編輯, 首選項, 輔助工具, 替換文檔顏色, 自定義色彩, 頁面背景右邊小方框選其他顏色
色調 (hue) 85
飽合度(sat)  90  或 123
亮度(lum) 205

Monday, February 20, 2017

Check out the Preference Settings of your PDF reader. Find out the "Invert Colours" option and activate it. Most PDFs are plain text. So, this changes the black-on-white to a more comfortable white-on-black text. After that, lower the screen brightness to a level at which you feel comfortable.


Open a PDF file (any file) in Adobe Reader. Go to Edit>Preferences. In the Preferences window, click the ‘Accessibility’ tab and enable the ‘Replace Document Colors’ option.

Next, select ‘Use High-Contrast Colors’ and select a color scheme from the presets available. If you don’t need a high contrast color scheme but would like to make the document easier to read in low light/at night, select ‘Custom Color’ instead. You can then choose the color of the page, and the document text, and duly invert it so that the page color is black, and the text is white.

logistic regression

Continuous variables are not used as dependents in logistic regression.
Unlike logit regression, logistic regression has only one dependent variable.
logit regression--for ordinal logistic analysis

log for loglinear analysis
logit for binary or multinomial logistic analysis
cumulative logit for ordinal logistic analysis

Binary logistic regression is a form of regression which is used when the dependent is a dichotomy (male, female) and the independents are of any type. 

Multinomial logistic regression exists to handle the case of dependents with more classes than two (white, black, Asian,  ), though it is sometimes used for binary dependents also since it generates somewhat different output described below.

ordinal logistic regression
When multiple classes of a multinomial dependent variable can be ranked, then ordinal logistic regression is preferred to multinomial logistic regression, since ordinal regression has higher power for ordinal data.

More recently, generalized linear modeling (GZLM) has appeared as a module in SPSS, SAS, and other packages. GZLM provides allows the researcher to create regression models with any distribution of the dependent (ex., binary, multinomial, ordinal) and any link function (ex., log for loglinear analysis, logit for binary or multinomial logistic analysis, cumulative logit for ordinal logistic analysis). Similarly, generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) is now available to handle multilevel logistic modeling.

Logistic regression can be used to predict a categorical dependent variable on the basis of continuous and/or categorical independents; to determine the effect size of the independent variables on the dependent; to rank the relative importance of independents; to assess interaction effects; and to understand the impact of covariate control variables. The impact of predictor variables is usually explained in terms of odds ratios.

Logistic regression applies maximum likelihood estimation after transforming the dependent into a logit variable. A logit is the natural log of the odds of the dependent equaling a certain value or not (usually 1 in binary logistic models, or the highest value in multinomial models). Logistic regression estimates the odds of a certain event (value) occurring. This means that logistic regression calculates changes in the log odds of the dependent, not changes in the dependent itself as OLS regression does.

Logistic regression has many analogies to OLS regression: logit coefficients correspond to b coefficients in the logistic regression equation, the standardized logit coefficients correspond to beta weights, and a pseudo R2 statistic is available to summarize the strength of the relationship.

Unlike OLS regression, however, logistic regression does not assume linearity of relationship between the raw values of the independent variables and raw values of the dependent, does not require normally distributed variables, does not assume homoscedasticity, and in general has less stringent requirements. It does, however, require that observations be independent and that the independent variables be linearly related to the logit of the dependent. The predictive success of the logistic regression can be assessed by looking at the classification table, showing correct and incorrect classifications of the dichotomous, ordinal, or polytomous dependent. Goodness-of-fit tests such as the likelihood ratio test are available as indicators of model appropriateness, as is the Wald statistic to test the significance of individual independent variables.

Logit regression, discussed separately, is another related option in SPSS and other statistics packages for using loglinear methods to analyze one or more dependents. Where both are applicable, logit regression has numerically equivalent results to logistic regression, but with different output options. For the same class of problems, logistic regression has become more popular among social scientists.
Badgett and King (1997) argue that past discriminatory experiences often motivate lesbians and gay men interested in social change to seek em- ployment in nonprofit organizations.
Lewis (forthcoming) finds that people with same-sex partners are much more likely than comparable married people to work for the nonprofit sector (also see Badgett 2003).
LGB elected officials appear to shift policy in favor of LGB citizens (Haider-Markel 2007; Haider-Markel et al. 2000; Smith and Haider-Markel 2002),
Thielemann, Gregory S., and Joseph Stewart Jr. 1996. "A demand-side perspective on the importance of representative bureaucracy: AIDS, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation." Public Administration Review 56:168-73.
原住民

地方政府性別統計

http://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=39165&CtNode=6233&mp=4

 臺灣省14縣市及6個直轄市

直轄市政府

  新北市政府

  臺北市政府

  桃園市政府

  臺中市政府

  臺南市政府

  高雄市政府



 縣(市)政府

  宜蘭縣政府

  新竹縣政府

  苗栗縣政府

  彰化縣政府

  南投縣政府

  雲林縣政府

  嘉義縣政府

  屏東縣政府

  臺東縣政府

  花蓮縣政府

  澎湖縣政府

  金門縣政府

  連江縣政府

  基隆市政府

  新竹市政府

  嘉義市政府
Dolan, Julie. 2002. "Representative Bureaucracy in the Federal Executive: Gender and Spending Pri- orities." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 12 (3): 353-376.

female federal executives have more positive attitudes toward government spending on programs that benefit women (Dolan 2002).

gov open data

http://data.gov.tw/wise_search
主計總處 本總處單位 國勢普查處
https://www.dgbas.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=3606&CtNode=1786&mp=1


主計總處 本總處單位 綜合統計處
https://www.dgbas.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=3603&CtNode=1780&mp=1
Panel data, also called longitudinal data or cross-sectional time series data, are data where multiple cases (people, firms, countries etc) were observed at two or more time periods.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

原住民, representative bureaucracy

gender

警政統計查詢網

https://ba.npa.gov.tw/npa/stmain.jsp?sys=100

https://www.npa.gov.tw/NPAGip/wSite/ct?xItem=78293&ctNode=12873&mp=1

https://www.npa.gov.tw/NPAGip/wSite/lp?ctNode=12873&nowPage=2&pagesize=15

衛生福利部保護服務司

Ministry of health welfare
http://www.mohw.gov.tw/CHT/DOPS/DM1.aspx?f_list_no=806&fod_list_no=4622

Meier, Kenneth J., and Jill Nicholson-Crotty. 2006. "Gender, representative forcement: The case of sexual assault." Public Administration Review, 66 ,850-860

multiple regression
several independent variable
 Prior research on rape has shown correlations with  several factors, including unemployment, education  level, income, poverty, minority population, size of  the police force, and variations in state law (local  jurisdictions enforce state laws; see Baron and Straus  1989). To control for these factors, each of the models  includes measures of unemployment, the percentage  of residents over age 25 with a high school diploma,  the median personal income, the percentage of fami lies living in poverty, the percentage of Latino residents, the percentage of African American residents,
 and the number police officers per 100,000 population. Except for the size of the police force (from FBI  data) and the unemployment rate (from the Bureau of Labor Statistics), all data were taken from the 1990 Census.

dependent variables
report rate and the arrest rate rather than the incident
female representation in law enforcement improves sexual assault outcomes for women (Meier and Nicholson-Crotty 2006)

female student math scores benefit from schools with more female math teachers (Keiser et al. 2002),
Representation of Lesbians and Gay Men in Federal, State, and Local Bureaucracies
Author(s): Gregory B. Lewis and David W. Pitts
Source: Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART, Vol. 21, No. 1
(January 2011), pp. 159-180

see and delete your entire Google search history

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/see-delete-google-history/

Here’s how you can download your Google history:

Step 1: Sign into your Google account.

Step 2: View your Web & App Activity

Step 3: In the top right corner of the page, click the cog icon and select “Download.”

Step 4: Click “Create Archive.”

Step 5: When your personal archive is ready to be downloaded, Google will send you an email. You can then view the archive in the “Takeout Folder” of your Google Drive. You can also choose to download the list as a zip of JSON files onto your computer.

Here’s how you can delete your Google history:

Step 1: Sign into your Google account.

Step 2: View your Web & App Activity

Step 3: In the top right corner of the page, click the cog icon and select “Remove Items.”

Step 4: Choose time period for which you want to delete items. To delete your entire history, select “The Beginning of Time.”

Step 5: Click “Remove.”

There are also options to delete individual search items, searches that have occurred in more recent periods, and searches from mobile or tablet devices.
Influences on the Size and Scope of Networks for Social Service Delivery
Author(s): Elizabeth A. Graddy and Bin Chen
Source: Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART, Vol. 16, No. 4
(Oct., 2006), pp. 533-552

jstor, proquest

jstor
publication title: Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory
item title (paper title): Network Effectiveness (in paper title)

proquest
publication title: Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory
document title  (paper title): Network Effectiveness (in paper title)

Saturday, February 18, 2017

Exploring the Determinants of Network Effectiveness: The Case of Neighborhood Governance Networks in Beijing
Wang, Weijie. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART; Lawrence26.2 (Apr 2016): 375.

Nonprofit Organizations Becoming Business-Like

Nonprofit Organizations Becoming Business-Like: A Systematic Review
2014
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly
Vol 45, Issue 1, pp. 64 - 86

Bush, R. (1992). Survival of the nonprofit spirit in a for-profit world. Nonprofit and Voluntary
Sector Quarterly, 21, 391-410.
Hammack, D. C., & Young, D. R. (1993). Nonprofit organizations in a market economy:
Understanding new roles, issues, and trends. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Alexander, J. A., & Weiner, B. J. (1998). The adoption of the corporate governance model by
nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 8, 223-242.
Weisbrod, B. A. (Ed.). (1998). To profit or not to profit. The commercial transformation of the
nonprofit sector. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Backman, E. V., & Smith, S. R. (2000). Healthy organizations, unhealthy communities?
Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 10, 355-373.
Dart, R. (2004). Being “business-like” in a nonprofit organization: A grounded and inductive
typology. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33, 290-310.
Dart, R. (2004). The legitimacy of social enterprise. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 14,
411-424.
Eikenberry, A. M., & Kluver Drapal, J. (2004). The marketization of the nonprofit sector: Civil
society at risk? Public Administration Review, 64, 132-140.
Bode, I. (2006). Disorganized welfare mixes: Voluntary agencies and new governance regimes
in Western Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 16, 346-359.
Eikenberry, A. M. (2009). Refusing the market: A democratic discourse for voluntary and
nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 582-596.
Hwang, H., & Powell, W. W. (2009). The rationalization of charity: The influences of
professionalism in the nonprofit sector. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54, 268-298.
Shaw, S., & Allen, J. B. (2009). “To be a business and to keep our humanity”: A critical
management studies analysis of the relationship between a funder and nonprofit community
organizations. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 20, 83-96.
Baines, D. (2010). Neoliberal restructuring, activism/participation, and social unionism in the
nonprofit social services. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39, 10-28.
Suarez, D. F. (2010). Street credentials and management backgrounds: Careers of nonprofit
executives in an evolving sector. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39, 696-716.
Kreutzer, K., & Jäger, U. (2011). Volunteering versus managerialism: Conflict over
organizational identity in voluntary associations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40,
634-661

Harris Interactive’s Web survey

http://harris-interactive.com/
Challenges in Survey Research and Their Implications for Philanthropic Studies Research
John M. Kennedy Brian Vargus

Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly
Vol 30, Issue 3, pp. 483 - 494
2016

Joseph and Matthew Payton Philanthropic Studies Library

https://ulib.iupui.edu/payton
A Literature Review of Empirical Studies of Philanthropy: Eight Mechanisms That Drive Charitable Giving
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 2011, Vol 40, Issue 5, pp. 924 - 973

P!nk - Just Give Me A Reason ft. Nate Ruess

Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly

Philanthropy and Social Innovation

China Institute for Philanthropy and Social Innovation at Renmin University Beijing, China

Beijing, China: ARNOVA

Join us in Beijing, China: ARNOVA, partnering with the China Institute for Philanthropy and Social Innovation at Renmin University of China’s School of Public Administration and Policy, will jointly host the first-ever ARNOVA-Asia Conference from June 6-7, 2017. This meeting is an effort to encourage dialogue across scholars working in some dimension of nonprofit and voluntary action studies.

The Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA), partnering with the China Institute for Philanthropy and Social Innovation at Renmin University of China’s School of Public Administration and Policy, will jointly host the first-ever ARNOVA-Asia Conference.
 Export to Your Calendar 6/6/2017 to 6/7/2017
When: June 6-7, 2017
Where: China Institute for Philanthropy and Social Innovation at Renmin University
Beijing
China
Contact: ARNOVA-Asia@upenn.edu

Call for Proposals

The Nonprofit Worlds in Asia: Diverse Perspectives from a Fragmented Field of Study
June 6-7, 2017  |  Renmin University of China  |  Beijing, China



The Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA), partnering with the China Institute for Philanthropy and Social Innovation at Renmin University of China’s School of Public Administration and Policy, will jointly host the first-ever ARNOVA-Asia Conference.

Proposals for research presentations are open for manuscripts that focus within the broad range of nonprofit organization and voluntary action in all parts or sides of Asia. Research on philanthropy, nonprofit organizations/NGOs/social economy organizations, and voluntary action in Asia is an emerging and yet fast-growing field of study. For the most part, however, it remains a highly fragmented field of study. This meeting is an effort to encourage dialogue across scholars working in some dimension of nonprofit and voluntary action studies. These dimensions include but are not limited to the following:

- Operations and mechanics of nonprofit organizations and social enterprises;
- Management, leadership, and governance of nonprofit organizations;
- Collaboration of nonprofit organizations within and across sectors;
- The influence of political and cultural contexts on voluntary organizations;
- Funding or giving to, and volunteering or participating with, nonprofit organizations;
- The role of nonprofits in cultivating grassroots action, driving social innovation, and shaping public policy

The program committee welcomes proposals for conceptual, empirical, or literature review papers that focus on new areas of research or evaluations of existing streams of research.

- Conceptual paper proposals should develop a theoretical framework, identify key concepts, develop a model of causation, and specify propositions or testable hypotheses. 
- Empirical paper proposals will be evaluated based on the relevance and quality of the research question, research design, data, findings, and implications for theory and practice.
- Literature review proposals will be evaluated based on their potential to add substantially to our understanding of nonprofit and voluntary action studies.

All paper proposals should be no more than 400 words (in English language), not including identifying and contact information. A person may submit no more than two proposals (including both single-authored and co-authored papers). Individuals will be limited to two acceptances (at least one of which must be multi-authored) and only one opportunity to present research at the conference.

Post-Conference Publication Opportunities

Papers accepted by the ARNOVA-Asia Conference will be considered for possible publication in a series of thematic symposiums (or mini-symposiums) with our partner journals:
Administration & Society
Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly
Nonprofit Management & Leadership
Public Performance & Management Review
Voluntaristics Review

All the submissions would go through the regular blind review process and be subject to the same quality standards set by the journal.

The deadline for proposal submission is February 28, 2017. Please submit your research proposal to ARNOVA-Asia@upenn.edu. The program committee will notify the decision by April 10. A full paper (about 15-20 pages, double space, excluding reference and tables) is due on May 20. The Conference will cover food for all attendees from mainland China, and will cover local transportation, food, and lodging for other attendees. If you have logistics questions related to the conference, please contact Ms. He Wang at cipsi@ruc.edu.cn. If you have any questions about proposal submissions, please contact Mr. Seongho An at anseong@upenn.edu.

Thursday, February 16, 2017

relationship between law and economic development (p. 21). First, laws and legal institutions may converge with economic development, if not formally, then in a functional sense. Second, laws and legal institutions may diverge. Law matters for development, but there are no discernible trends across autonomous legal systems. Third, law may be irrelevant for economic development, so there is no link between economic growth and legal change. Fourth, the response of law may be differentiated, thus some parts of legal systems may converge while others may develop idiosyncratically.

relationship of law and economic development

Does Law Matter for Economic Development? Evidence From East Asia

  • 1970s, law and society scholars drew on these traditions to inform international development policy in what was then called the "Law and Development Movement"
  • theoretically informed development policy focused on law (Tamanaha 1995).
  • Tamanaha, Brian Z. (1995), Review Essay: "The Lessons of Law and Development Studies," 89 American J. of International Law 470-86.
  • The Law and Development Movement ultimately fizzled (Gardner 1980; Trubek and Galanter 1974), 
  • Gardner, James (1980) Legal Imperialism:A merican Lawyersa nd Foreign Aid in Latin America. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press; 
  • Trubek, David & Marc Galanter (1974) "Scholars in Self-Estrangement: Some Reflections on the Crisis in Law and Development Studies in the UnitedStates," Wisconsin Law Rev. 1062-95. 
  • Trubek, David (1972) "Max Weber on Law and the Rise of Capitalism," 1972 Wisconsin Law Rev. 720-53.
  • government agencies, international organizations, and the non-profit sector advocate the need for strengthening the rule of law in developing countries.
  • By most accounts, law has not played a major role in Asian economic growth. Scholars have placed more emphasis on particular policies, institutions, and cultural underpinnings rather than on law per se (Upham 1994). 

  • economic growth vs economic development

    Economic growth 

    • means an increase in real national income / national output.
    • we would expect economic growth to enable more economic development. Higher real GDP, enables more to be spent on health care and education.
    • However, the link is not guaranteed. The proceeds of economic growth could be wasted or retained by a small wealthy elite.
    • Economic growth measures an increase in Real GDP (real output). GDP is a measure of the national income / national output and national expenditure. It basically measures the total volume of goods and services produced in an economy.
    • Factors affecting economic growth in developing countries:
    • Levels of infrastructure – e.g. transport and communication
    • Levels of corruption, e.g what percentage of tax rates are actually collected and spent on public services.
    • Educational standards and labour productivity. Basic levels of literacy and education can determine productivity of workforce.
    • Levels of inward investment. For example, China has invested in many African countries to help export raw materials, that its economy needs.
    • Labour mobility. Is labour able to move from relatively unproductive agriculture to more productive manufacturing.
    • Flow of foreign aid and investment. Targeted aid, can help improve infrastructure and living standards.
    • Level of savings and investment. Higher savings can fund more investment, helping economic growth.
    • Economic growth without development: It is possible to have economic growth without development. i.e. an increase in GDP, but most people don’t see any actual improvements in living standards.
    • Economic growth may only benefit a small % of the population. For example, if a country produces more oil, it will see an increase in GDP. However, it is possible, that this oil is only owned by one firm, and therefore, the average worker doesn’t really benefit.
    • Corruption. A country may see higher GDP, but the benefits of growth may be siphoned into the bank accounts of politicians
    • Environmental problems. Producing toxic chemicals will lead to an increase in real GDP. However, without proper regulation it can also lead to environmental and health problems. This is an example of where growth leads to a decline in living standards for many.
    • Congestion. Economic growth can cause an increase in congestion. This means people will spend longer in traffic jams. GDP may increase but they have lower living standards because they spend more time in traffic jams.
    • Production not consumed. If a state owned industry increases output, this is reflected in an increase in GDP. However, if the output is not used by anyone then it causes no actual increase in living standards.
    • Military spending. A country may increase GDP through spending more on military goods. However, if this is at the expense of health care and education it can lead to lower living standards.

    Economic development

    • means an improvement in quality of life and living standards, e.g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care.
    • Development looks at a wider range of statistics than just GDP per capita. Development is concerned with how people are actually affected. It looks at their actual living standards and the freedom they have to enjoy a good standard of living.
    • Measures of economic development will look at:
    • Real income per head – GDP per capita
    • Levels of literacy and education standards
    • Levels of health care e.g. number of doctors per 1000 population
    • Quality and availability of housing
    • Levels of environmental standards
    • Life expectancy.
    • Measures of economic development: Measuring economic development is not as precise as measuring GDP, because it depends what factors are included in the measure.There are several different measures of economic development, such as the Human development index (HDI)
    • The HDI combines: Life Expectancy Index (Average life expectancy compared to a global expected life expectancy); Education Index (years of schooling, expected years of schooling; Income Index (GNI at PPP)



    GDP, Gross Domestic Product measures the national output of an economy. This measures the volume of goods and services produced in a given year.

    Real GDP takes into account inflation. In other words Real GDP measures the actual increase in goods and services and excludes the impact of rising prices.

    Real GDP per capita takes into account the average GDP per person in the economy.

    光碟機, 燒錄機

    他的磁頭沒有差別 .... 
    只是他雷射光的光強功率不同而已 .... 
    一個不能調整功率 ... 

    一個能調整到能燒錄的功率 ..

    光碟機
    是用在放映 , 說清楚就是把影片、音樂或資料光碟放入光碟機中 
    電腦會自動開啟光碟機檔, 你就能使用了 
    而光碟機分CD及DVD二種都不支援燒錄動作 
    而光碟機純粹只能放光碟來聽音樂.看影片...
    光碟機會遇到的問題通常有二點:
    一、用久了,燒錄機的托盤會故障出不來啊。怎麼辦?(保內送修,保外你就放生吧)
    要預防這種托盤出不來的問題,我建議是不要用手去推托盤(很多人會習慣這樣推),要用按鈕讓托盤自動收進去。
    二、用久了,燒錄機好像會挑片耶。怎麼辦?(保內送修,保外你就放生吧)
    再來是挑片的問題,這一點沒辦法,如果你長期使用,再加上DVD片子本身又常常帶灰塵的話,用久了真的會造成DVD讀寫頭耗弱挑片的問題。


    燒錄機
    光碟機功能及加入了燒錄功能 
    要燒錄時一定要有空白CD及燒錄軟體如 Nero 
    同樣的燒錄機分CD及DVD 
    DVD支援CD 
    CD不支援DVD
    要燒DVD 或是CD一定得用燒錄機 
    燒錄機可以燒DVD和CD 
    也可以像純粹只是放光碟來聽音樂.看影片... 
    光碟(CD)燒錄機早就停產了,現在已經是DVD燒錄機的時代

    DVD燒錄機要買什麼廠牌比較好?

    答:目前市面上常見的有華碩、先鋒、LITEON這三種牌子。我是習慣用華碩的啦,但基本上應該沒什麼差別。就算有些是16倍速,有些24倍速,但那真的沒差,

    外接式的DVD燒錄機好用嗎?

    答:這個問題沒有什麼好說的,在實務上,現在用隨身碟或行動硬碟會更方便,外接式的DVD機真的很少用。

    Slim 超薄外接式USB介面DVD燒錄機 常會遇到無法讀取雜牌片子!其實不是光碟機問題

    而是那一些雜牌片沒有照規矩來做!角度根本不對 所以造成讀寫頭無法正常讀取資料!

    基本上少用筆記型燒錄機燒錄, 比較不穩易壞片,非不得以最好少用
    燒錄時最好用低倍慢慢燒,片子會較好讀,資料壽命也較長
    燒錄完別忘了做驗證比對
    驗證比對失敗請重燒
    以保持資料正確性

    若資料不重要可忽略

    需要用到藍光燒錄機嗎?

    答:相較於一般的DVD片容量只有4.7GB,藍光片的容量可以到50GB以上,如果你有大量資料備份的需求或許可以考慮藍光燒錄機,但實務上,大家寧願用行動硬碟備份,方便且容量更大。有些人甚至寧願再花錢買網路儲存系統(NAS)來做備份,只能說,對於一般的使用者,藍光燒錄機的需求真的不高。





    GDP 國民所得統計常用資料

    主計處, 主計總處, 統計專區, 國民所得及經濟成長, 統計表
    http://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=37407&CtNode=3564&mp=4
    check "經濟成長"
    某年度反白, 按右鍵, 消除隱藏
    ________________

    主計總處統計專區, 國民所得及經濟成長, 資料庫, 主要指標, 國民所得統計常用資料 (年)
    經濟成長(%)
    原始值

    http://statdb.dgbas.gov.tw/pxweb/Dialog/NI.asp

    Wednesday, February 15, 2017

    硬碟換 256G (含)以上的SSD 才符合效能

    [DIY]筆電升級首選SSD 固態硬碟,瞬間把牛車變跑車

    http://ieplus01.pixnet.net/blog/post/321921927-%5Bdiy%5D%E7%AD%86%E9%9B%BB%E5%8D%87%E7%B4%9A%E9%A6%96%E9%81%B8ssd-%E5%9B%BA%E6%85%8B%E7%A1%AC%E7%A2%9F%EF%BC%8C%E7%9E%AC%E9%96%93%E6%8A%8A%E7%89%9B%E8%BB%8A%E8%AE%8A

    overbought

    overbought refers to a situation in which the high demand for a certain asset pushes the price of an underlying asset to levels that are not supported by the fundamentals.
    In technical analysis, overbought describes a situation in which the price of an asset has risen to such a degree that an oscillator has touched its upper bound.
    Oversold is the opposite of overbought.

    good investment websites


    • Motif Investing  https://www.motifinvesting.com/
    • eSavant  https://www.savantcapital.com/newsroom/media-center/id/53/savant-capital-management-introduces-esavant-advisor
    •  PersonalCapital   https://www.personalcapital.com/
    • Covestor  http://covestor.com/
    • FOLIOfn https://www.folioinvesting.com/folioinvesting/home/
    • Wealthfront  https://www.wealthfront.com/
    • LearnVest  https://www.google.com.tw/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=learnvest

    prospectus

    A prospectus is a disclosure document that describes a financial instrument for potential buyers. A prospectus includes material information about an investment, such as a description of the company's business, financial statements, risk related to the business, biographies of senior executives, and any other material information. In some countries, this document is called an explanatory memorandum.

    financial regulators

    SEC

    • Central Registration Depository https://www.sec.gov/answers/crd.htm  review information about firms and their representatives
     FINRA--Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
    • http://www.finra.org/industry
    • broker check  http://www.finra.org/BrokerCheck/
    • risk meter (tool)
    Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC)
    • http://www.sipc.org/
    • check brokerage firm
    State regulator
    • check state licensed investment advisors
    AARP (formerly the American Association of Retired Persons)
    • http://www.aarp.org/
    CFP
    • CFP Board sets and enforces standards for Certified Financial Planner certification
    • http://www.cfp.net/
    FDIC
    • each depositor is insured up to 250,000 per insured bank 
    • if u and ur partner have a joint account, then each of u would have 250,000, for a total of 500,000
    FSLIC:  Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation

    ------------------
    broker, advisor

    RIA
    • Registered investment advisor (RIA) registered with the SEC or with their state's securities agencies
    • RIA's fiduciary standard is stricter and offers more protection to investors than does the suitability standard for RRs
    • have to either pass series 65 exam or have obtained one of these designations: CFP, ChFC, PFS, CFA, CIC
    RRs
    • brokers or registered representatives (RRs) working for a broker-dealer register with FINRA
    • RRs have to pass series 7 exam
    CWM, chartered wealth manager
    is conferred by the Board of Standards of the American Academy of Financial Management (AAFM) and has been adopted in 145 countries

    In Europe
    • European financial planning association, EFPA
    hedge funds, venture capital, private equity funds are normally not in the Investing Pocket

    currency


    • currency exposure is zero sum-when one currency goes up, another currency must be going down
    • u need to have a broad exposure to a variety of currencies, especially from counties that have strong fundamentals in  currency reserves and are fiscally and monetarily sound
    • it is not acceptable risk to have all ur exposure in just one currency
    • as u age, u will want a larger weighting in ur home currency in order to decrease the volatility of ur portfolio

    GDP, stock market returns



    • those higher growth markets will over time have stock markets that will give a higher return
    • GDP growth will be a better predictor of better stock market returns going forward
    • free financial planning tools, DIY plans


      • https://basic.esplanner.com/
      • http://goalgami.com/content/index.php
      • https://www.betterment.com/
      • http://www.timmccarthy.com/
      if the total market capitalization of the combined public companies of a country is not over 30-40 billion, most global investors won't follow the market closely

      investors want the ability to sell easily, so the free float, or amount of stock that is truly available to tread, needs to be at a minimum level of over 25 to 30 percent of the total market's capitalization for investors to feel comfortable in buying securities in a country

      Tuesday, February 14, 2017

      Five Country Classifications

      Mature Countries:
      These are established countries with stable economies and older infrastructure. Countries include United States, Canada,Western Europe, and Japan. Risk factors include aging population, limited economic growth, extremely high national debt, and high pension obligations. It is important to choose countries which will continue to be competitive and relevant in today’s economy.

      Japan, Austria, Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), France ---these governments are virtually antibusiness

      PIIIGS: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Iceland, Greece, Spain

      Advanced Growth Countries:
      These countries are considered financially and economically strong and had a history of robust economic growth in the past, but as a group growth is beginning to slow down. Such countries include Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and Israel.

      Growth Countries:
      This group of countries notably include BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China), make an attractive growth investment because they are growing at a higher growth rate than mature economies, and many GDP per capita growth rates are projected to be double that of developed countries. Countries include BRICs, Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Hungary, South Africa, Czech Republic, Philippines, and Poland. Although Turkey is a member of this group, due to political turmoil exercise caution before investing in Turkey at this time.

      Emerging Growth:
      Emerging growth countries have been predicted in the past to show large growth but in one way or another have not seen the success that growth countries had. Some countries in this group are expected to emerge into the growth category in the next few decades according to analyst and presents an attractive price to the right investor. Countries include Pakistan, Columbia, Peru, Philippines, Indonesia, Nigeria, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco.

      Frontier:
      Finally, frontier countries. This group represents the rest of the countries in the world that have never really emerged. Although some countries may never exhibit signs of growth and prosperity as other countries (in our lifetimes), there are other countries that may develop exponentially. This presents a lot of opportunity, particularly for investors under 50. Countries include Bangladesh, Vietnam, Croatia, Slovakia, Mauritius, Egypt, Argentina, Sri Lanka, and Qatar.

      MSCI world index (see gmail for more details)

      • problem: in this index, investors are underweighted in the countries that are clearly growing faster
      • those higher growth markets will over time have stock markets that will give a higher return


      FTSE global index

      Corruption Perception Index (CPI) by Transparency International
      Bribe Payers Index
      Global Corruption Barometer

      REITs, REIT funds

      • Real Estate Investment Trusts 
      • Real Estate Investment Trusts 
      • promising about growth countries is the access to real estate investing via global REITs
      • if u have a lot of equity in ur home or homes, eg. half or more of ur total assets, then u may not need any more exposure to REIT other than 3 to 5 percent in global REIT
      • if u don't have much exposure personally to real estate, u may have as much as 10 to 15 percent of ur total equities exposure in REIT or REIT funds for further diversification
      • a global REIT fund is a set of publicly traded equity REITs listed in both developed and emerging markets.

      derivatives: options, futures, swaps


      • derivatives derive their value from other asset classes
      • derivatives run the gamut, from low risk hedging instruments to extremely high risks
      • products containing derivatives are often positioned by marketers in the industry to be lower risk than in reality
      • Options and futures are based off of a particular stock, or stock market, or a bond category. Options and futures can make an investment safer or riskier depending on how they are placed into a fund --- thus u need to understand intimately how derivatives are being used in any of ur underlying funds
      • it is quite difficult for the average investor to discern the true risk level of each type of derivative
      • for the average investor, it is best to shy away from direct derivative investing completely
      • caution you against products that contain customized derivatives, as opposed to listed futures and options
      • having a listed exchange behind the underlying options and futures gives u more protection and liquidity as well as a better gauge to measure the true value of what u have purchased

      The Best Vegetarian Chinese Food in Los Angeles County Is at a Buddhist Monastery 


      https://www.kcet.org/food-living/the-best-vegetarian-chinese-food-in-los-angeles-county-is-at-a-buddhist-monastery?utm_campaign=trueAnthem:+Trending+Content&utm_content=58a2e33d19d6ba00066160d7&utm_medium=trueAnthem&utm_source=facebook

      如何刪選出法律系畢業生data

      excel 檔案
      資料
      篩選
      刪除全選
      選擇代碼 38

      Monday, February 13, 2017

      防毒軟體

      小紅傘

      https://www.avira.com/zh-tw/download/product/avira-free-antivirus




      小紅傘繁體中文版免費防毒軟體 - Avira Free Antivirus (Antivir),有眾多的愛用者,因為它對系統的執行效能干擾極小,偵測病毒的能力也不錯,阿榮認為它最大的特色是:可以針對誤判的檔案設定排除,這是許多防毒軟體作不到的!功能方面:可以偵測病毒、木馬、蠕蟲、惡意自動撥號程式、釣魚程式、Rootkits,個人版可以永久免費使用,安裝完,雖然有一年使用期限,但會隨著自動更新而往後延。

      margin loan


      • brokerage firms lend money to investors typically to help them purchase securities. This practice is referred to as margin loan. 
      • 證券商借錢給你買股票

      how to monitor financial institution


      • if the CDs spread (the cost of insuring against the firm's default) of an institution's debt is widening, this may be a warning for u not to have too much money in this institution
      • periodically check the "trading spreads" of the debt of ur primary institutions u deal with
      • trading spread --- the gap between the buying price and the selling price of a financial institution's stocks, bonds, and derivatives ---if few people want to buy and many people want to sell, then, the gap widens, which is often a bad signal about the health of the institution 
      • Do not have all ur money in one broker, or one bank

      nike 高統鞋

      Nike 休閒鞋 AF1 Ultra Force 女鞋

      Nike AF1 Ultra Flyknit 籃球 女鞋

      Nike 休閒鞋 W Blazer Mid 流行 女鞋

      ADIDAS-ATTITUDE女休閒鞋-白

      liquidity


      • can u sell it quickly?
      • number of buyers has been dramatically shrinking --- bad
      • the biggest risk in owning real estate or low volume trading stocks or bonds is liquidity
      • when people can't sell their houses for 4 to 5 years, at any price --bad
      • check how broad the spectrum of buyers are for each type of asset (u are considering to buy)
      • check how easy does the asset trade in various up and down markets
      • check how well each fund manager does in short-term difficult markets when liquidity has dried up---this can be an indicator of how much liquidity risk is inherent in fund in the event of a severe, long-term downturn

      inflation


      • given that governments have so much debt, it is in their interest to encourage at least some inflation, but history has shown us it is not always so easy to control
      • it is best to build into ur portfolio products and asset classes that can be a hedge against inflation, e.g., even though equities and real estate exposure have their own inherent risks, they can act as a means to ameliorate inflation risks

      hedge fund


      • it is often a waste of ur money when ur long-term investing funds pay for hedging

      currency hedge fund

      • currencies are a zero sum game--one goes up and another goes down
      • if u are investing for decades rather than for months and years, and if ur funds paid for currency hedges throughout the decades, the additional cost of those hedges will hammer ur returns
      • many fund managers like to hedge in order to decrease short term volatility due to currency movements
      • since u are investing for such a long period of time, u don't want too many funds that absorb the costs of all those short-term hedges
      • ur need to make sure the currency risk in ur overall funds portfolio is spread across a variety of currencies, including a large exposure to ur own home currency, or the currency of the location where u will likely retire  

      growth countries


      • debt to GDP (ratio) is much lower and safer than the old countries

      gold


      • gold, in and of itself, intrinsically does not increase in value, although you may not realize it based on the past decade
      • if u have a lot of gold, u can cost u money: u have to pay for store it, guard it etc
      • over time, gold barely go about inflation
      • it is good to have a little in portfolio as it dose help smooth out fluctuations, especially in dangerous times, like when governments are printing too much paper money
      • over ur lifetime, u can't expects much of a return for gold
      • gold is simply a good store of value, but no more

      Cohousing communities help prevent social isolation

      Sunday, February 12, 2017

      Asus 14吋, 白色, 無光碟機

      ASUS E402 14吋四核筆電(N3160/500G/4G/1.65kg/白)
      E402SA-0072AN3160
      Intel 四核Celeron N3160 處理器
      500G硬碟 / 4G 記憶體
      14吋 LED鏡面螢幕
      RJ45 / VGA /HDMI
      Win 10 / 輕量1.65kg
      光碟機
      鏡面
      yahoo 11,900

      ASUS E402SA-0072AN3160 天使白
      處理器:Intel 四核 Celeron N3160 
      LCD尺寸:14" (1366 X 768) 
      記憶體:4GB DDR3 
      容量:500GB 
      無線網路:802.11 bgn + Bluetooth 4.0 
      其他:HDMI、USB 3.0、VGA 
      作業系統:Window 10 64bit 
      pchome 11,900

      E402SA 四核N3160 14吋LED 效能筆電(天使白)
      momo 11,900

      台大醫院網路掛號

      1.當日上午門診掛號時間:8:30~10:30;當日下午門診掛號時間:8:30~15:00,額滿為
         止。

      2.非當日門診預約時間(不含當日):因本院為教學醫院,醫師身兼教學、研究、服務及支援
         分院等任務,異動較為頻繁,為免醫師異動影響病友就醫權益,每日凌晨00:00起提供24小    時服務,可預約2周內門診,例如:10/1可預約10/2~10/15的門診,額滿為止。

      筆電外接光碟機_

      有DVD-ROM的notebook 通常體型大. 不然你可以先去外面看外接DVD-ROM多少錢. 便宜就買外接的. 以後如果DVD機掛了, 直接維修或換掉不用整台機子送修.

      現在已經很少人在用光碟機了,尤其光碟的保存更是一大問題,目前取代光碟的產品就是隨身碟跟外接硬碟,方便又好用
      只要家裡有一台附光碟機的電腦(不管是NB或PC皆可)
      將所有光碟資料都複製到外接硬碟或隨身碟,以後重灌電腦就不需要用到光碟了
      再不然買一台外接燒錄機也可以,現在很便宜

      我個人是有5年沒使用光碟機了,所有的資料/驅動/照片都備份在D槽跟外接硬碟(双重保險)
      安裝新電腦或重灌軟體時,隨身碟或外接硬碟一插即裝,供參考

      燒車上聽的音樂cd, 不然已經很久沒碰光碟機

      現在連安裝Windows都可以改用隨身碟了

      如果內建的光碟機讀取功率不夠了會很麻煩
      不是換新的傷錢,就是放著佔位子&增加重量
      能外接最好

      真有需要當然是買外掛的,不常用的東西還是不要每天帶來帶去的。

      如果有桌機,所有檔案就先在桌機copy到隨身碟,再拿到筆電用就可以了。
      真有需要再去買外掛的吧!

      如果你需要光碟, 你可以買外接式光碟機, 或是把檔案轉到 DT 上燒也可以
      這年頭硬碟便宜, 燒光碟保存不一定划算. 只是資料全掛或是被病毒吃掉的風險較小

      我實在不喜歡買內建光碟的NB
      唯一訴求,越輕越好,越薄越好!!!

      一般輕薄型筆電都沒有內建光碟機
      所以如果有光碟機需求就只能外接光碟機了
      只是現在用到光碟機的機會真的相對較少了


      Saturday, February 11, 2017

      Asus 筆電

      13吋
      ASUS E402 14吋四核筆電(N3160/500G/4G/1.65kg/白)
      E402SA-0072AN3160
      Intel 四核Celeron N3160 處理器
      500G硬碟 / 4G 記憶體
      14吋 LED鏡面螢幕
      RJ45 / VGA /HDMI
      Win 10 / 輕量1.65kg
      光碟機


      14吋
      ASUS X441SA 14吋四核筆電(N3710/500G/4G/1.75kg/白)
      X441SA-0023GN3710
      Intel Pentium N3710四核處理器
      500G硬碟/4G記憶體
      DVD燒錄器/14吋LED鏡面螢幕
      USB 3.1/VGA/HDMI 介面齊全
      Windows 10 / 1.75kg
      DVD燒錄機

      ASUS E402 14吋四核筆電(N3160/500G/4G/1.65kg/白)
      E402SA-0072AN3160
      Intel 四核Celeron N3160 處理器
      500G硬碟 / 4G 記憶體
      14吋 LED鏡面螢幕
      RJ45 / VGA /HDMI
      Win 10 / 輕量1.65kg
      光碟機

      E402SA 四核N3160 14吋LED 效能筆電(天使白)
      Intel 四核心處理器
      4G記憶體 / 500G硬碟
      14吋LED螢幕 / 僅1.65Kg重

      台灣合法通過了!月亮杯本月中將上市

      http://www.msn.com/zh-tw/lifestyle/livingsocial/%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E5%90%88%E6%B3%95%E9%80%9A%E9%81%8E%E4%BA%86%EF%BC%81%E6%9C%88%E4%BA%AE%E6%9D%AF%E6%9C%AC%E6%9C%88%E4%B8%AD%E5%B0%87%E4%B8%8A%E5%B8%82/ar-AAmKvqB

      女性福音!在歐美女性生理期常用的月經量杯(menstrual cup),也就是俗稱的「月亮杯」,終於在台灣合法上市,最快2月17日就能在台北世貿的國際美容展上市。

      「月亮杯」為女性生理用品,由矽膠材質製成的軟杯,捲起後置入陰道盛接女性經血,使用後可清洗重複使用,一個月亮杯就能使用5至10年,長期而言較環保、省錢。
      台灣將月亮杯歸類為「第二等級醫療器材」,申請過程繁複,月亮杯募資計劃推動者「凡妮莎」前年5月向衛福部申請核准月亮杯,歷經20個月,終於在本月7日通過醫療器材查驗登記,最快本月17日就能在台合法上市。凡妮莎也將等待中央修法讓月亮杯合法網購,讓民眾購買更便利。

      紗窗, 小蘇打

      長年累積未清洗的紗窗就像冷氣的過濾網一般,堆積著灰塵、汙垢,從屋外吹進來的涼風,經過藏汙納垢的紗窗後,將灰塵等等一併又吹了進來,並且在屋內循環著,使得空氣中充滿了灰塵、塵螨,造成家裡孩子的過敏變得更嚴重。

      讓我們和著有《家事のきほん新事典》(暫譯:家務的基礎新事典)的家事達人藤原千秋老師,一起利用懶散掃除法,做簡單的紗窗清潔,改善你的居住環境品質。

      需要準備的東西:

      1、免洗劑海綿(三聚氰胺樹脂海綿)。

      2、水桶(裝入乾淨的自來水)。

      (免洗劑海綿皆可在10元或39元商品店購入,推薦購買大塊的。)

      3、小蘇打粉。

      4、石鹼粉。

      紗窗清潔順序:

      室內:

      1、因料理時所排出的油煙、油汙混合形成的髒污,特別容易附著紗窗並且難清除,故使用能適當分解油汙等等酸性汙垢的小蘇打粉和石鹼粉溶液來清潔。小蘇打粉和石鹼粉溶液因為不起泡泡,所以不需要大量的水來清洗,非常的方便實用。

      在裝有水的水桶裡,將小蘇打粉和石鹼粉溶解後加入使用(以水1公升為基準,加入目測約一杯。)小蘇打粉、石鹼粉也皆能在10元或39元商品店購入。

      2、將免洗劑海綿,用上述水溶液浸濕後擰乾,輕輕的擦拭紗窗。另外,若是

      怕弄髒地板的話可以在窗戶前地板鋪上報紙。

      室外:(雖然使用水就能清除,但油煙多的地方仍建議利用室內的掃除方法來做。)

      1.將用水浸濕的大塊免洗劑海綿擰乾,從上到下,由右至左,配合窗戶的形狀,順序不拘,輕輕地擦拭(絕對避免用力,使得髒汙無法吸附上海綿。)

      2.若是海綿髒了的話,用清水清洗。清潔的過程中,讓海棉保持在乾淨的狀態。

      3.從紗窗上除下的棉塵等種種垃圾等,使用吸塵器吸取或使用衛生紙包起來丟掉即可。

      最後完成善後工作就輕鬆結束了一直以來惱人的紗窗清潔,還你乾淨、清爽的居家環境。

      Friday, February 10, 2017

      小心米飯中的砒霜 改變烹調方法

      在北愛爾蘭研究大米和大米產品的一名學者表示,人們慣常煮大米的方法,令砷(俗稱砒霜)這種對人體有害物質殘留在米飯裏。
      在北愛貝爾法斯特皇后大學的安迪·馬哈爾格教授(Prof Andy Meharg)在BBC電視節目《相信我,我是醫生》(Trust me, I'm a doctor)中比較三種煮飯方法。

      第一種:兩杯水煮一杯大米,把水與大米留在鍋裏或電飯煲煮至所有水分幹透;第二種:五杯水煮一杯大米,當米飯煮熟後,把多餘的水分倒出;第三種:將一杯大米用水浸隔夜,第二天把水倒掉,然後用第二種方法煮熟

      結果顯示,第一種方法煮熟的米飯中,砷殘留物最多,第二種方法煮熟的米飯,砷殘留物減少至43%;最後一種方法煮出來的米飯,砷殘留物減少至18%。

      由於砷是存在於泥土和水源的自然物質,它會出現在食物中,但通常分量微少,對人體影響有限。
      不過,大米的砷含量比其他穀物類高10至20倍,主要原因是稻米普遍於水田中種植,這樣使砷容易進入大米。
      科學界對砷的安全標凖有不同看法。歐洲聯盟則把無機砷(inorganic arsenic)列為第一級致癌物質。
      近十多年有關大米的砷含量過高的研究或報道不時出現,因此BBC節目《相信我,我是醫生》找來專家探討這個食物安全疑慮。
      馬哈爾格教授研究大米和大米產品數十年,他經常進行測試,他在節目中講述有關他的觀察:
      印度香米 (或稱巴斯馬蒂米 Basmati rice)的砷含量比其他種類低
      糙米 (Brown rice)比白米含有更多砷,因為糙米帶殼
      有機種植對大米的砷含量沒有任何影響
      米餅或爆米花等產品的砷含量高於米飯
      米漿的砷含量大大超過飲用水安全砷標凖的規定
      馬哈爾格教授曾在米產品中發現超越現今安全標凖的砷含量,現在有世界衛生組織等國際機構對此做出監管。
      《相信我,我是醫生》節目認為,減少人體吸收砷的物質,可用第三種煮米飯的方法。此外,節目建議觀眾適量進食米飯,就如其他食物一樣,保持均衡飲食。
      而嬰幼兒方面,由於米漿經常用於製造嬰兒食品,英國食物標凖局(Food Standards Agency)建議家長不要給五歲或以下幼兒食用米漿代替奶品。兒童也最好少量進食米漿或米產品。
      世界衛生組織和聯合國糧農組織在2014年頒布大米砷含量安全指引。歐盟也有大米和米產品的砷含量安全規定,並為嬰幼兒食品設定更高的安全標凖。
      全世界一半人口以米飯為主要食糧,最大的市場在東亞、南亞、和非洲地區,在西方米飯的食用也正在增加,英國2015年的大米銷量達1.5億公斤。
      http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/science-38913626?ocid=socialflow_facebook

      Wednesday, February 08, 2017

      “Give yourself an even greater challenge than the one you are trying to master and you will develop the powers necessary to overcome the original difficulty.”–William J. Bennett –

      Saturday, February 04, 2017

      The Netherlands welcomes Trump in his own words

      Summary of 100 years of research methods

      ortina, J. M., Aguinis, H., & DeShon, R. P. in press. Twilight of dawn or of evening? A century of research methods in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology.

      Bertrand Russell books





      • Marriage and morals 
      • What I believe?
      • The Conquest of happiness
      • This is my philosophy
      • Martial revolution
      •  Power; Power-A New Social Analysis
      •  Philosophy for a time of crisis
      • Wisdom of the west

      Jim Rogers books


      1. A gift to my children : a father's lessons for life and investing

      • Hot commodities : how anyone can invest profitably in the world's best market 
      • Street smarts : adventures on the road and in the markets 
      •  A bull in China : investing profitably in the world's greatest market
      •  Investment biker
      •  Street smarts : adventures on the road and in the markets
      • Adventure capitalist

      Thursday, February 02, 2017

      Robert Kegan, boundary

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Kegan


      Japan -- 1990s as "the lost decade": no washout, no recovery
      the important thing about making errors in judgment is the ability to admit those errors

      only when you recognize ur mistakes will u be able to make the corrections necessary to put urself on the right path

      hard landing, soft landing

      hard landing
      • the slowing down of economic growth at an unacceptable degree (relative to inflation and unemployment)
      • An economic state wherein the economy is slowing down sharply or is tipped into outright recession after a period of rapid growth, due to government attempts to rein in inflation.
      • as soon a u hear in the news about a hard landing in the Chinese economy similar to those in 1989 and 1994, consider it the best opportunity to buy into Chinese stocks or commodities
      soft landing
      • the process of an economy shifting from growth to slow-growth to potentially flat, as it approaches but avoids a recession. It is usually caused by government attempts to slow down inflation
      The criteria for distinguishing between ahard and soft landing are numerous and subjective

      commodities

      • oil. gold, lumber, timber, energy, minerals, precious and semiprecious metals, agriculture (pork belly, grain, forest products), metals (gold, silver, steel, cooper), mineral (oil, natural gas)
      • bull alternates between stocks and commodities; historically, this has happened in cycles of 15 to 23 years; the commodities market became bullish in 1999, the commodity bull may run until between 2014 and 2022 (1999+15=2014, 1999+23=2022)
      • interplay between stocks and commodities---cereals are made from commodities such as rice, wheat, corn, and sugar. When there is a downturn in the commodities market, the cost of these foods drops. Provided that sales levels are sustained, the company's net profit goes up, which in turn is reflected n a rise in its share price.
      • when the price of commodities rises, Kellogg's can't reflect its cost increase in the price of its cereal immediately, this will affect the company's net profit, and its stock price will suffer as a consequence
      • companies benefit from low costs when commodities are sluggish; when commodities prices rise, profits drop off, taking stock price with them
      • commodities and stocks are inversely correlated 
      • a single country's political turmoil can drive up commodity prices around the world, the price of price of gold in particular will usually rise; a full-scale war will drive up not only the price of gold but the price of most other commodities
      • the rise of China brings with it a rise in demand for commodities, with its 1.3 billion people consumes steel, iron ore, and soy; it is the largest consumer of cooper in the world and the second leading consumer of energy, including oil; in the interim, this imbalance will continue to drive up the price of commodities despite the normal, periodic corrections to prices
      • it is important to have at least some exposure in ur portfolio to a variety of commodities
      • it is best to keep only a small portion of ur investment in commodities
      • direct exposure in some commodities
      • indirect exposure in some commodities--- investing in heavily dependent commodities-exporting countries and in companies dedicated to commodities, like mining and oil companies
      • it is preferable to select a commodities fund that includes a larger portion of all the commodities
      • given commodities does not organically grow as does a stock or a bond, keep commodites to less than 10 to 15 percent maximum, with a minimum 3 to 5 percent
      • commodities should be broadly invested across precious metals, industrial/commercial materials, energy, agricultural goods, and timber. Make sure not to be solely exposed to just oil and gold, they tend to dominate certain indices
      commodities index funds
      • u need to make sure that the fund if not over concentrated in just one or two of the dominant asset types

      Wednesday, February 01, 2017

      大元光電

      http://www.pcstore.com.tw/daiyuan/HM/introduce.htm

      equal opportunity

       equal opportunity, affirmative action institution that operates in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The university does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex (including pregnancy), age, sexual orientation, disability, marital status, personal appearance, gender identity and expression, family responsibilities, political affiliation, source of income, veteran status, an individual’s genetic information or any other bases under federal or local laws (collectively “Protected Bases”) in its programs and activities. 

      ankle support

      https://www.djoglobal.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/ACPCEXOS2014CAT.pdf
      Trump presidency and administration, a big social and policy experiments for academia and theories.....

      Tuesday, January 31, 2017

      In Solidarity with People Affected by the ‘Muslim Ban’: Call for an Academic Boycott of International Conferences held in the US

      https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSeNN_2HHREt1h-dm_CgWpFHw8NDPGLCkOwB4lLRFtKFJqI25w/viewform

      Wednesday, January 25, 2017

      ‘La La Land’ gets nostalgic for classic Hollywood musicals

      Amartya Sen

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amartya_Sen

      Amartya Sen: ‘Referendums are like opinion polls. Sometimes they’re very wrong’

      https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/jan/22/amartya-sen-brexit-trump-press-freedom?CMP=fb_a-culture_b-gdnculture

      好市多:我其實不是超市,我是你無法拒絕的仲介

      https://www.stockfeel.com.tw/%E5%A5%BD%E5%B8%82%E5%A4%9A%EF%BC%9A%E6%88%91%E5%85%B6%E5%AF%A6%E4%B8%8D%E6%98%AF%E8%B6%85%E5%B8%82%EF%BC%8C%E6%88%91%E6%98%AF%E4%BD%A0%E7%84%A1%E6%B3%95%E6%8B%92%E7%B5%95%E7%9A%84%E4%BB%B2%E4%BB%8B/

      科學文獻免費查!馬克祖克柏和妻子買下論文搜尋引擎 Meta

      https://www.inside.com.tw/2017/01/24/chan-zuckerberg-initiative-acquires-and-will-free-up-science-search-engine-meta

      原始點療法

      首先必須要先歸零,因他不需要任何醫學背景,也不需醫學知識,不用了解經絡或穴位,不用會按摩,更不需醫學院七年的養成訓練,只要有正確的觀念及手法,就可以讓疾病遠離,自然更可以預防疾病。
      如此神奇的健康療法,就是由張釗漢醫師發明的原始點療法,這療法的觀念為:人之所以會生病的原因很簡單,只有3個因素:
      1.體質寒
      2.他處體傷
      3.本處體傷
      因此只要將這3個因素解除,疾病自然遠離。

      Tesla delivers first batch of vehicles and opens first Supercharger in Taiwan

      https://electrek.co/2017/01/24/tesla-taiwan-supercharger/

      Tuesday, January 24, 2017

      Directors Deals

      https://www.researchpool.com/provider/directors-deals#

      ​Directors Deals is a specialist market data vendor which monitors and analyses trades made by the directors of listed companies. Sometimes known as Insider Data, senior managers and directors report their share trades to the regulator in each market as are a legal means to invest in the company they work for. Investment managers can use this data to gauge the future share price performance based on the Directors implied opinion through the trades executed. However, not every director trade offers insight which is where a specialist service can help make sense of the data. Our data covers fifty-five markets globally and includes data fields beyond that which is reported to the regulator. This adds context and analysis to the transactions such as insight into directors past trading success and other personal attributes.


      Monday, January 23, 2017

      本益比 price-earning ratio

      • PE (price-earning ratio) 本益比--- 股價除以公司的盈餘, 得到本益比, 報紙上每天都會刊出本益比; 在考慮是否買某家公司的股票時, 本益比有助於投資人判斷這檔股票是便宜或是貴; 不同產業的本益比大不相同, 不同公司的本益比也不同---宜比較一家公司當年的本益比和歷史本益比; 若一般股票的平均本益比大約為16倍, Disney本益比為23倍, 和一般股票相比, 顯得貴了一點; 但因過去15年內, Disney 的本益比在12到40之間起伏, 以歷史標準來看, 目前23倍的本益比並不離譜, Disney比一般股票貴, 是因為其善於創造優異的表現
      • 股價每股100元的IBM可能是或不是便宜貨, 完全要看IBM的盈餘而定。若IBM今年每股賺10元 (盈餘), 你以100元買進 (股價), 成本是盈餘的10倍, 100/10=10, 本益比為10, 以目前的市場來看, 本益比10很便宜; 唯若每股只賺1元 (盈餘),你用100元買進,成本是盈餘的100倍, 100倍的本益比實在太高了   
      • 投資人應找出未來多年盈餘可以成長的公司, 長期以來, 股價一年平均上漲約8%絕非意外, 原因是企業盈餘大致上每年平均增加8%, 另外還要發於3%的股利, 是故, 你的年度報酬率會達到11 %

      平均本益比
      • 若你選取一大堆公司, 把所有公司的股價加起來, 除以公司盈餘之和, 得到平均本益比, wall street 用Dow Jones 股價指數, S and P 500 股價指數與其他指數, 計算本益比, 得到"大盤本益比" 或" 大盤價格"
      • 了解大盤本益比很有用, 你可從中知道任何時候, 投資人願意付出多少價格 (股價), 換取企業盈餘, 大盤本益比會起起伏伏, 但通常在10到20倍內升降
      • 可拿你想購買公司的本益比與大盤本益比相比較, 若大盤本益比為16, 某公司本益比為11, 意謂該公司比一般公司好多了
      • 公司盈餘成長越快, 投資人越願意付出高價,換取這種盈餘, 例如積極奮進, 歷史較短的公司平益比超過20倍, 即為此道理, 因大家認為這種公司會有傑出表現, 願意付出較高的價格, 擁有股票
      • 歷史較久, 地位穩固的公司本益比大約在15倍以下, 和盈餘相比, 這種公司的股價比較便宜, 因為大家認為地位穩固的公司會步履蹣跚, 不會有特殊表現
      • 有些公司的盈餘穩定增加, 屬於成長公司
      • 有些公司的盈餘不穩定, 為暴窮暴富類型, 為循環性公司, 只有在某種經濟情況中才有優異表現, 汽車,鋼鐵,重工業即如此, 這種公司的本益比低於穩定成長的公司, 因為其表現不穩定, 不同年度的獲利要看經濟狀況而定, 但經濟狀況卻很難預測

      這家新創打造「都市農場組合包」,讓造農場跟組IKEA家具一樣簡單

      http://www.seinsights.asia/article/3290/3268/4589

      Sunday, January 22, 2017

      股票分割

      許多上市公司會把原始的上市股數分割為更多股, 例如: 一股分割為二股, 三股或更多
      若你投資1000元買進某公司100股---即以每股10元的價格買進
      當該公司股票一股分割為二股時, 你持有的股票就增加為200股, 但每股價格變為5元
      若二年後, 股價漲到每股10元, 那麼你的投資實際上已經成長了一倍

      但若不知道這二年間股票是否曾經分割, 而只股價的話, 那麼以10美元買進, 又以10元賣出, 就可能誤以為股價並沒有上漲

      上市公司通常不願意讓每股股價的絕對金額過高, 因此公司採行股票分割的理由之一---壓低股價

      Thursday, January 19, 2017

      股東權益

      股東權益可再區分成

        1.股本 (只有名稱是股本才是股本, Capital stock): 股本是當初設立公司所幕集的資金/實收資本額
        • 普通股股本
        • 特別股股本(特別股不一定每一家公司都有)
        2.資本公積 (Capital Surplus)

        3.保留盈餘(虧損)(又稱累積盈餘) (Retained Earnings):指公司營業所獲得之盈餘未以股利之方式分配給股東,而保留於公司使用之盈餘

        4.其他調整項目--- 做為股東權益的增項或減項

        會計制度改變

        過去數 10 年,我國使用GAAP會計制度。

        但是從 2012 年開始,上市櫃公司可自行選擇使用 IFRSs

        2013 年開始,所有上市櫃公司強制規定須要遵循 IFRSs。

        非上市櫃及興櫃公司,則規定須從2015年開始遵循 IFRSs

        http://www.cmoney.tw/learn/course/0520/topic/691

        資產負債表 (Balance Sheet), 損益表, 現金流量表
























        資產負債表可用來了解公司的財務體質是健全或疲弱
        value line比資產負債表更容易閱讀

        第一天
        流動資產 (asset)
        • 用自己的房子當抵押, 向銀行借來第二胎貸款10萬元來創立公司 (5萬元為現金, 另外5萬元拿來買了生產設備)
        • 折舊---工廠,辦公室,生產設備,機器,電腦等會隨著使用時間增加, 而喪失價值, 國稅局承認這一點, 容許企業在設備與建築物老化或過時時, 扣除設備與建築物的價值: 土地不能折舊, 建築物 (在20-25年內折舊完畢), 機器/打字機/電腦等的折舊期限短多了 (依不同項目, 折舊年限3-15年不等, 因為這些東西老化的速度比建築物快)
        • 故第一天流動資產的現金為5萬元, 固定資產為5萬元, 因第一天尚未有折舊, 故累積折舊為0
        • 流動負債 (公司積欠的債務): 10萬元銀行貸款/個人貸款, 是用房子當抵押的錢, 公司的負債為0, 故第一天沒有任何負債
        • 有價證券 (marketable securities)
        • 應收帳款
        流動負債 (liability)
        • 股本(實收資本額,股本是當初設立公司所幕集的資金/實收資本額)--公司有二種方法可以取得股本: (1) 出售股票, (2)靠業務賺錢。創立第一天, 尚未從業務中賺錢 (故保留盈餘為0), 故唯一的股本是一開始投資在公司的10萬元 (實收資本額)
        • 負債與股東權益 (=負債總額+實收資本額+保留盈餘)
        • 流通在外股數: 將原始股本(10萬元)投資在自己公司裡時,發給自己1萬股的股票, 因此每股淨值10元--此可由創業者自行決定, 他也可以只發給自己1000股, 每股淨值100元
        • 負債減少是生意興隆的一個訊號, 如果現金增加的幅度超過負債, 表示資產負債表趨於健全, 反之則是趨於惡化
        • 長期負債 (long-term debt): 若長期負債超過現金, 若隨著現金部分持續短少, 負債規模會來越來越大, 這家公司的財務體質會轉趨疲弱
        • check 現金是否比長期負債多
        • 短期負債(short-term debt)
        第一年年底
        • 公司現金只剩下2.5萬元, 創業者把其他的錢,花在經營公司和生產介面產品上
        • 應收帳款19,500元, 顯示有些顧客已購買了產品, 但尚未付款,19,5000元是公司尚未收到的帳款,故列入應收帳款
        • 存貨3萬元,表示價值3萬元的產品放在倉庫裡,準備賣出去,沒有賣出去的產品視為資產,但無人能保証公司能用正常價格,把尚未賣出的產品賣掉
        • 公司一開始花了5萬元買進設備,累積折舊1萬元(因機器快速過時,國稅局准許每年提列20%折舊, 公司可得到1萬元的稅務抵減)
        • 在負債部分: 1萬元應付帳款,為公司欠別人的錢 (表示公司尚未支付的所有費用,包括電話費,電費,積欠供應商的款項等)
        • 股東權益: 4500元保留盈餘(公司經營一年的利潤), 公司現在的股東權益為104,500元 (其中包括開始投資的10萬元,加上公司第一年賺的4500元); 公司可以決定如何處理利潤,它可發放股息(利),把4500元發給股東(在此例中,因為為個人創業,故創業者可將4500元放進自己的口袋); 但本例中, 創業者決定將4500元留在公司裡,俾投資在事業上,故說盈餘"保留"下來
        • 保留盈餘加上原始10萬元的投資,故公司現在價值104,500元,此為第一年年底的股東權益
        • 又創業者發給自己1萬股股票,現在每股價值10.45元 (104,500元/10000股),此為公司的"每股淨值"或"帳面價值"
        第二年
        • 業務增加,賣出更多產品,應收帳款和存貨繼續增加
        • 負債增加121,000元的銀行債務,由公司負責借錢 (非由創業者自己借錢,公司需要錢擴張,購買新機器,增加存貨,雇用新員工)。
        • 銀行債務不會當成股東權益,銀行貸款給企業時,不會變成企業的所有人;若有個人購買公司所發行的債卷,亦不會變成公司的所有人
        • 連續二年保留盈餘後,他的股東權益增加到114,500元
        • 創業者仍擁有公司全部的1萬股股票,
        第五年
        • 公司有了長足的發展,公司擁有18萬元現金,加上其他流動資產,流動資產合計增加到74.45萬元
        • 資本支出增加,固定資產(工廠與設備的總值)從第二年的12萬,躍增到第五年的50萬元; 因其設立了小型工廠, 購買了新機器。(公司類別不同,需要的資本支出水準也不同,例如鋼鐵廠必須支出巨額的費用,因為維持和更新鋼鐵廠要花很多錢;油井一開鑿,開始生產石油後,需要的資本支出就很少;廣告公司只需要辦公室和一堆桌子,幾乎沒有資本支出)
        • 增購設備後,折舊跟著增加為25萬元
        • 在負債部分,公司已清償了銀行債務, 公司在何處拿到錢還債? ---在股東權益下, 實收資本額從10萬元躍增到70萬元,因創業者發行及賣掉了一些股票, 流通在外股票增加, 過去有1萬股(全部由創業者擁有), 現在變成1.5萬股
        • 另一位投資人買了公司的股票,在實收資本額下有70萬元,這位投資人付了60萬元,取得公司新發行的5000股, 擁有公司1/3的股權,以每股120元的價格,買下該公司股票
        • 第五年底每股淨值躍增為59.63元 (894500/15000=59.63)
        • 公司現在每股的帳面價值為59.63元,創業者擁有的1萬股現在價值為59.63萬元
        • 在下面的損益表中可發現: 一年後,每股盈餘0.45元,兩年後為1元,五年後為6元
        • 股價 (120元)/盈餘(6元)=20 (本益比為60倍); new york stock exchange股票的平均本益比為15到16倍,故另一位投資人購買該公司的股權時,付出的價格比一般投資人購買公開上市股票貴了一點,他如此作,乃因其知道小公司快速成長的潛力
        • 創業者若能選擇,他應該不會賣1/3公司股權,其如此作,乃因其需要錢壯大公司,應付保持存貨及應收帳款,及發薪水的成本,其成功造成了現金危機,賣股票是籌募現金最簡單的方式; 其放棄1/3的股權,以確保公司能繼續生存,他認為擁有資金充足企業的67%股權,勝過擁有資金短缺,不能發揮潛力的公司之100%股權
        • 再過幾年後,創業者會走到需要更多錢的地步,那時可能是公開上市的好時機; 在公開上市前, 創業者做了很大的犧牲,把全部時花在公司中,領很少的薪水, 他一開始拿房子去抵押借錢,才能投資公司





        • 一年後,每股盈餘0.45元,兩年後為1元,五年後為6元
        • 損益表用來了解公司的營運細節,知道公司賺多少錢,怎麼用錢
        • 第一年,在銷貨收入 (公司賣出價值20萬元的產品), 存在公司儲蓄帳戶裡的現金賺到2500元利息, 故公司第一年營業總收入為20.25萬元, 全部收入叫作"營業收入"
        • 大部分營業收入花在什麼地方? 可看成本部分: 原料與製造成本, 經營事業與促銷產品所用的銷售,管理,一般成本
        • 第一年花了2萬元研究發展費
        • 並非所有公司都要花費很多的研發費,在你投資任何股票前,必須考慮: 公司是否屬於資本密集產業? 是否需要支付巨額的銷售與研發費用?若如此, 原本可以送到投資人口袋裡的很多錢,會變成費用用掉
        • 若你投資生產砂石公司,研發成本為零, 銷售成本也低
        • 有些類型公司,若不進行研發, 若不更新工廠和機器(資本支出),可能會被淘汰
        • 另一方面,若企業經理人刪減資本支出和研發費用,盈餘短期內會急劇上升,盈餘成長會拉抬股價,讓股東高興,若公司不把錢用在改善上,就可以發放更優厚的股息,股東會更高興;但若此公司喪失競爭優勢, 這種高興只能維持短時間, 公司的業務會減少, 盈餘會下降, 不久之後, 公司會窮到發不出股息
        • 創業者若取消研發和資本支出, 可走輕鬆路線,發給自己豐富股息,他可以用提高短期盈餘的方式, 讓自己公司顯得獲利更高, 以便吸引買主, 購買股票, 他可將公司賣掉,打高爾夫球
        • 稅前盈餘 (稅前利益): 公司第一年稅前賺了7500元, 其中40%(3000元)須交稅給政府,剩下的4500元即為純益, 若公司不配發股,純益即等於保留盈餘, 即為利潤
        • 第五年底, 公司賣出產品價值190萬元, 原料及勞工支出100萬元,研發費21萬元,公司一年賺9萬元的利潤 (純益)


        • 現金流量表用來追蹤資金去向
        • 資金來源部分: 第一年4500元純益, 折舊項下消失的1萬元, 創業者原始1萬股的10萬元,應付帳款1萬元,資金來源合計12.45萬元 (現金流入)
        • 資金運用部分: 花了5萬元在工廠和設備上, 3萬元在存貨上, 1.95萬元在應收帳款,加總為9.95萬 (現金流出)
        • 12.45萬元 (現金流入)減9.95萬元(現金流出)=2.5萬元 (期末現金)








        選股票, 基金工具


        • 研究公司自行發布的季報與年報
        • 深入研究 value line 的出版品, http://www.valueline.com/
        • Standard and Poor's 的報告
        • morningstar
        • 理柏的基金排名, 每年會在 Barron 週刊刊出二次, 在wall street journal上刊出四次 
        • https://www.bloomberg.com/
        • investor in touch
        • IRIN, investor relations information network
        • Financial fax
        • stocks on call
        • investquest, Inc.
        • value line investment survey
        • Nelson's directory of investment research
        • Nelson's catalog of institutional research reports
        • investment company institute's directory of mutual funds
        • mutual fund fact book
        • morningstar mutual funds
        • wall street journal --共同基金每季檢討
        • wall street journal -- 凡公司名稱有梅花符號的公司,免費提供年報

        企業英雄榜

        big company

        1. allied signal, Inc
        2. American Express
        3. Boeing Co
        4. Caterpillar Inc
        5. Chrysler Cop
        6. Citicorp
        7. Coca-cola Co
        8. Colgate-Palmolive Co
        9. Deere & Co
        10. Emerson Electric Co
        11. Exxon Corp
        12. Federal Natl Mortgage
        13. General Electric Co
        14. Gillette Co
        15. Goodyear Tire % Rubber Co
        16. Hewlett-Packard Co
        17. Intl Business Machines Corp
        18. ITT corp
        19. Johnson & Johnson
        20. MacDonald's corp
        21. Merck & Co
        22. Motorola Inc
        23. Raytheon Co
        24. Walgreen Co
        25. Xerox Corp
        small company

        1. Amgen Inc
        2. Automatic Data Processing
        3. Cabletron Systems
        4. Cabot Corp
        5. Capital Cities/ABC Inc
        6. Circuit City Stores Inc
        7. Compaq Computer Corp
        8. Disney (Walt) company
        9. EMC
        10. Federal Express Corp
        11. Gap Inc
        12. EDS
        13. Home Depot Inc
        14. Intel Corp
        15. MCI Communications
        16. Microsoft Corp
        17. Nucor Corp
        18. Oracle Corp
        19. Shaw Industries Inc
        20. Southwest Airlines
        21. Staple Inc
        22. Tele-Comm (TCI)
        23. Thermo Electron Corp
        24. Toys R Us Inc
        25. Wal-Mart Stores






        bull market, bear market, 多頭, 空頭

        在正常的交易日裡, 很多股票價格會上漲, 很多股票價格會下跌,但偶爾幾千檔股票的價格會一面倒, 向同樣的方向前進

        1. 若前進的方向是上坡, 則稱為bull market或多頭市場 ----股票創新高價記錄, 大家擁入市場, 全力大買股票
        2. 股價從最近的高峰下跌10%時, 叫作"修正" (Share price correction), 美國股市平均每二年修正一次; 每2,3年會出現一次"回檔", 下跌10%或以上
        3. 股價下跌20%/25%或以上時, 叫作 bear market 或空頭市場, 美國股市平均六年有一次空頭市場
        4. 對付空頭市場的策略---定出時間表, 每個月或每隔4個月或半年, 拿出少量資金, 購買股票或股票型基金, 這樣就可以擺脫多頭與空頭的影響
        5. 大空頭---下跌30% 或以上

        經濟復甦, 經濟衰退, 通貨膨脹, federal reserve

        經濟衰退, 通貨膨脹, 對股市不利

        經濟熾熱與過度繁榮→通貨膨脹 (物價上漲)
        • 對產品與服務的需求居高不下→原料短缺 (原料價格上漲, 商家提高價格), 勞工不足
        • 物價上漲→員工要求加薪
        • 企業成本提高 (原料,勞工等), 員工薪水增加 (但東西都變貴了, 故買不了太多東西), 房東提高房租 (以應付上升的成本)
        • 通貨膨脹 (物價上漲)
        • 很多消費者利用信用卡借錢, 支付所購買的東西→銀行的貸款需求增加
        • 各地紛建商店, 擴建工廠, 很多公司為了推動營建計劃, 必須向銀行借錢
        • 銀行看到大家排隊爭取貸款, 乃提高貸款利率----資金成本上漲
        • 一般物價和資金成本上漲, 但股票和債券價格下跌---投資人出脫股票, 因為擔心企業的盈餘成長速度會趕不上通貨膨脹; 通貨膨脹期間, 股票和債券價格都大跌
        • 通貨膨脹, 可能造成股價下跌
        • 美國經濟復甦平均延續50個月
        熾熱經濟不可能永遠保持熱度→經濟衰退
        • 資金成本升高, 住宅貸款, 信用卡貸款, 各種貸款的利率都上升, 利率高, 買房子,汽車,及各種產品的人減少
        • 汽車業務減少, 庫存車不易賣出, 汽車廠商打折/降價賣車, 汽車價格下跌, 汽車人遭到裁員, 領失業救濟金者增多, 失業者買不起東西, 很少消費
        • 人們不再旅遊, 旅館生意變差; 人們不再買衣服, 成衣業失去顧客, 貨架上堆滿了賣不出去的東西, 家庭減少開支
        • 經濟衰退
        • 銷售軟性飲料, 漢堡, 藥品的公司能熬過經濟衰退, 不受損傷, 因這些東西為不可或缺或大家買得起的產品
        • 銷售高價產品如汽車, 冰箱, 住宅的公司碰到經濟衰退, 會碰到嚴重的問題,可能虧損重大, 除非他們的銀行裡有足夠的資金, 可以熬過經濟衰退, 否則就可能破產
        • 很多投資人學會建立"能夠對抗經濟衰退"的投資組合, 只買macdonald, coca cola, johnson, 在經濟不佳時通常會有優異表現的"消費成長"公司; 不理會通用汽車, reynolds metals, US. Home Corp之類的股票(此類公司為"循環性"企業的代表,在經濟不佳時受苦受難, 循環性公司銷售昂貴的產品、製造昂貴產品的零件、生產昂貴的產品所需要的零件), 碰到經濟衰退時, 消費者不會買昂貴的產品
        • 美國經濟衰退平均延續11個月
        • 經濟衰退, 可能造成股價下跌
        • 每5年會出現一次經濟衰退
        聯邦政府保持經濟不過熱或過冷
        federal reserve 為控制貨幣供給的中央銀行系統

        當經濟過度冷卻時, federal reserve 會作二件事
        1. 降低銀行向政府借錢所必須支付的利率→促使銀行降低民眾之貸款利率→民眾可辦理更多貸款, 購買更多的汽車和房子, 經濟會開始加溫
        2. 直接把資金注入銀行體系, 讓銀行有更多錢可以放貸, 如此挹注資金也會造成利率下降
        3. 在某些情形下, 政府可大肆花費, 刺激經
        當經濟過熱時, federal reserve 會採相反的作法
        1. 提高利率
        2. 把資金從銀行間抽走→貨幣供給縮小, 利率上升
        3. 銀行貸款變得太貴, 民眾不再買車子和房子, 經濟開始冷卻, 企業的業務開始流失, 勞工失業, 商店必須降價吸引顧客

        divestment 撤資

        撤資是指將公司中的一部份出售給第三者。公司出售資產、生產線、子公司、或營運部門,以換取現金或証券。買者往往對資產進行評估。
        近年來40%的購併是其他公司的撤資。

        Wednesday, January 18, 2017

        how to read NYSE Stock Exchange closing stock prices





        • 股東每天早上看公司昨天的收盤價 (closing price)--下午4點, 交易結束時, 每檔股票都有當天的最後一筆交易, 最後這筆交易的價格叫作收盤價
        • High 當天最高價
        • Low 當天最低價
        • Close 當天收盤價
        • 52 Week High 過去52個周內,  最高成交價
        • 52 Week Low  過去52個周內,  最低成交價
        • Net Chg 和前一個交易日的收盤價相比, 股價上漲或下跌
        • Div股利 (dividend), 有些公司發放很多股利, 有些很少股利, 有的完全不發放股利; American Express Div 1.28, 表示 1美元及 28 cents, 你持有的每一股, 可以得到 1美元及 28 cents 的股利
        • (dividend)Yield 殖利率, 計算方式為: American Express當年發放的股利1.28/(除)當天收盤價77.49 = 0.0165= 1.65 %, 代表若你以目前的價格投資American Express, 你的投資會得到這樣的報酬率1.65 %。Yield 殖利率可以拿來和儲蓄存款帳戶或債券的殖利率相比較; 若儲蓄存款帳戶利率為 2.5%, American Express只有1.65 %, 看來利率不高, 然而, American Express不是你買來只想分配股利的股票。當股價上漲時, (dividend) yield 會下降: 同樣以股利5 元來說, 當股價為50元時, yield 為10%; 當股價為100元, yield為5%
        • PE (price-earning ratio) 本益比--- 股價除以公司的年度盈餘, 得到本益比, 報紙上每天都會刊出本益比; 在考慮是否買某家公司的股票時, 本益比有助於投資人判斷這檔股票是便宜或是貴; 不同產業的本益比大不相同, 不同公司的本益比也不同---宜比較一家公司當年的本益比和歷史本益比; 若一般股票的平均本益比大約為16倍, Disney本益比為23倍, 和一般股票相比, 顯得貴了一點; 但因過去15年內, Disney 的本益比在12到40之間起伏, 以歷史標準來看, 目前23倍的本益比並不離譜, Disney比一般股票貴, 是因為其善於創造優異的表現
        • Vol 成交量, 昨天股票交易所中, 某公司股票的買賣股數, 是否知道這個數字並非很重要, 但可以讓你了解股市交易有多熱絡