Wednesday, July 18, 2018

for cohort replacement effects on a number
of different topics, including church attendance (Alwin & McCammon, 2003; Chaves,
1989; Firebaugh & Harley, 1991; Greeley, 1989; Hout & Greeley, 1987), religious orientations (Roof, 1999), belief in an afterlife (Greeley & Hout, 1999),


sex role beliefs and attitudes (Alwin, 2002b; Alwin, Scott, & Braun, 1996; Alwin,
2002b; Brewster & Padavic, 2000; Mason & Lu, 1988; Neve, 1992, 1995; Scott, Alwin, &
 Braun, 1996),

post-materialism values (lnglehart, 1977, 1986, 1990),

 intergenerational obligations (Bengtson & Cutler, 1976; Rossi & Rossi, 1990),

Davis has found a general trend
in the liberal direction across cohorts-a broad shift he calls the "great 'liberal' shift since
World War II".(Davis, 1992, 1996

Alwin, D. F. ( 1998b ). The political impact of the baby boom: Are there persistent generational differences in political beliefs and behavior? Generations, 22, 46-54.
Inglehart, R. ( 1977). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among western publics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Inglehart, R. (1986). Intergenerational changes in politics and culture: The shift from materialist to postmaterialist value priorities. In R. G. Braungart & M. M. Braungart (Eds.), Research in political sociology (pp. 81-105). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

lnglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Lyons, S., Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C. (2005). An empirical assessment of generational differences in work-related values. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada Human Resources Management, 26, 62–71.

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Inglehart, R.
1981 ‘‘Post-materialism in an environment of insecurity.’’ American Political Science
Review, 75: 880–990.

Giuliano, P., and A. Spilimbergo
2009 ‘‘Growing up in a recession: Beliefs and the macroeconomy.’’ Working Paper
15321, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.

Inglehart, R.
1997 Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change
in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Malmendier, U., and S. Nagel
2011 ‘‘Depression babies: Do macroeconomic experiences affect risk-taking?’’ Quarterly
Journal of Economics, 126: 373–416

Malmendier, U., G. Tate, and J. Yan
2011 ‘‘Overconfidence and early-life experiences: The impact of managerial traits on
corporate financial policies.’’ Journal of Finance, 66: 1687–1733.


Monday, July 16, 2018

race, spirituality

Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 469-486. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00026-6

Gray-Little, B., & Hafdahl, A. R. (2000). Factors influencing racial comparisons of self-esteem:
A quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 26–54.

Twenge, J. M., & Crocker, J. (2002). Race and self-esteem: Meta-analyses comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians and Comment on Gray-Little and Hafdahl (2000).
Psychological Bulletin, 128, 371–408.
age differences in a cross-sectional study might also be due to
birth cohort (Schaie, 1965; Twenge, 2002).

Schaie, K. W. (1965). A general model for the study of developmental problems. Psychological Bulletin, 64, 92–107.

Twenge, J. M. (2002). Birth cohort, social change, and personality: The interplay of dysphoria and
individualism in the 20th century. In D. Cervone, &W. Mischel (Eds.), Advances in Personality Science (pp. 196–218). New York: Guilford

Sunday, July 15, 2018

Troeltsch, Ernst. 1931. The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches. New York: Macmillan. 2
vols.
McLellan, David. 1987. Marxism and religion. London: Macmillan
lannaccone, Laurence

1990. Religious practice: A human capital approach. Journa1,fbr the Scientific Sttrdv ojReligiori 29:297-3 14.
. 1992. Religious markets and the economics of religion. Social Conipass 39( I): 123-31.
. 1994. Why strict churches are strong. American Jour*nal ofSociology 99: 11 80-12 1 1 .
Amar A. 2004. Motivating knowledge workers to innovate:
a model integrating motivation dynamics and
antecedents. European Journal of Innovation Management
7(2): 89–101.


Blackler F. 1995. Knowledge, knowledge work and organizations:
an overview and interpretation. Organization
Studies 16(6): 1021–1046.

Bogdanowicz M, Bailey E. 2002. The value of knowledge
and the values of the new knowledge worker: generation
X in the new economy. Journal of European Industrial
Training 26(2/3/4): 125–129.

Garud R. 1997. On the distinction between know-how,
know-why, and know-what. Advances in Strategic Management
14: 81–101.

Goh ALS. 2005. Harnessing knowledge for innovation: an
integrated management framework. Journal of Knowledge
Management 9(4): 6–18

Guzman G, Wilson J. 2005. The ‘‘soft’’ dimension of
organizational knowledge transfer. Journal of Knowledge
Management 9(2): 59–74.

Leonard D, Sensiper S. 1998. The role of tacit knowledge in
group innovation. California Management Review 40(3):
112–132.

Syed-Ikhsan S, Rowland F. 2004. Knowledge management
in a public organization: a study on the relationship
between organizational elements and the performance
of knowledge transfer. Journal of Knowledge Management
8(2): 95–111.

von Hippel E. 1994. Sticky information and the locus of
problem solving: implications for innovation. Management
Science 40(4): 429–439

Wiig K. 2003. A knowledge model for situation-handling.
Journal of Knowledge Management 7(5): 6–24


Religious identification in the United States is ranked
according to membership size and degree of perceived
prestige, with low-ranked cults of atheism and agnosticism
competing with intermediate-ranked Judaism and Roman
Catholicism vis-a-vis high-ranked Protestantism.
Carrette, J., and R. King 2005. Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion. New York:
Routledge

Lyon, D. 2000. Jesus in Disneyland: Religion in Postmodern Times. Cambridge, UK: Polity

Elder, G. H., (1974). Children of the Great Depression. Chicago, IL: Chicago

Harkin, J., & Huber, J. (2004). Eternal youths: How the Baby Boomers are having their time again.
London, UK: Demos

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self identity. Oxford: Polity Press.

Kaufman, S. (1995). Ageless self: Sources of meaning in late life. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Press

Bellah, R. N. 1976. New religious consciousness and the crisis in modernity. In The new religious consciousness, edited by C. Y. Glock and R. N. Bellah, 333-352. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press

Melton, J. G., and R. L. Moore. 1982. The cult experience: Responding to the new religious pluralism. New York: The Pilgrim

Twenge, J.M. (2007), Generation Me: Why Today’s Young Americans Are More Confident,
Assertive, Entitled- and More Miserable than Ever Before, The Free Press, New York, NY.

Zemke, R., Raines, C. and Filipczak, B. (2000), Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of
Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace, AMACOM, New York, NY
Luckmann, T. 1967. The invisible religion: The problem of reli~on in modern societies. New York:
Macmillan.

Martin, D. 1979. A general theory of secularization. Oxford: Blackwell.

Stark, R., and W. S. Bambridge. 1985. The future of reli~on: Secularization, revival, and cult
format/on. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press.

Wilson, B. 1966. Religion in secular society. London: C.A. Watts

Saturday, July 14, 2018

Thau, R.D. and Heflin, J.S. (1997), Generations Apart: Xers vs. Boomers vs. The Elderly,
Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY.
Modernity is characterized by the increased presence and availability of
many religious, philosophical, and scientific traditions. This variety has created a
"spiritual marketplace," (Roof 1999); that is, a situation in which people can
participate in meaning systems much as they participate in the rationalized
economic system of modem capitalism
Tulgan, B. (1996), Managing Generation X: How to Bring out the Best in Young Talent,
Oxford: Capstone
The silent revolution in Europe: intergenerational change
in post industrial societies.  Inglehart (1971)

Reich’s (1970)
Consciousness I, II, and III.
REICH, C. (1970) The Greening of America. New York: Random House.

HOCHSCHILD, A. R. (1973) "A review of sex role research." Amer. J. of Sociology
78, 4: 1011-1029.

MEAD, M. (1970) Culture and Commitment: A Study of the Generation Gap. New
York: Langman.

REICH, C. (1970) The Greening of America. New York: Random House.

TOFFLER, A. (1970) Future Shock. New York: Random House.

SLATER, P. E. (1970) The Pursuit of Loneliness. Boston: Beacon.

FLACKS, R. (1971) Youth and Social Change. Chicago: Markham.''

KELLEY, E. L. (1955) "Consistency of adult personality." Amer. Psychologist 10:
659-681

MORRIS, C. and I. SMALL (1971) "Changes in conceptions of good life by
American college students from 1950 to 1970." J. of Personality and Social
Psychology 20, 2: 254-260.

Baltes and Nesselroade (1972),
BALTES, P. and J. NESSELROADE (1972) "Cultural change and adolescent
development: An application of longitudinal sequences." Developmental Psychology
7, 11: 244-256.


Elder’s (1974) study called Children of the Great Depression, group interests were stronger among the offspring of economically deprived families than among the nondeprived children.
Group interests (versus self-interests) were correlated with relative income loss between 1929 and
1933-again suggesting the impact of historical events on values.



Altbach, P. G., & Laufer, R. S. (Eds.) The new pilgrims: Youth protest in transmission. New York: David McKay, 1972.

From Generation to Generation: Age Groups and Social Structure
Book by Shmuel Eisenstadt

The conflict of generations: The character and significance of student movements
LS Feuer - 1969

Youth and social change
R Flacks - 1971

Coming of age in America
EZ Friedenberg - 1965

Social movements
R Heberle -

Social movements; an introduction to political sociology
by Heberle, Rudolf, b. 1896
https://archive.org/details/socialmovementsi00hebe

 Keniston, K. (1966). The
uncommitted: Alienated youth in American society.

 Young Radicals Notes on Committed Youth
K Keniston - 1968

Youth and dissent: The rise of a new opposition
K Keniston - 1971

Marias, J. Generations: The concept. Intemtional encyclopedia of social sciences.
New York: Free Press, 1968.

Mead, M. Culture and commitment: A study of the generation gap. New York:
Basic Books, 1970.

Mill, J. S. A system of logic, ratio inactive and inductive. London: Longmans,
1961. (Orig. published 1843.)

Musgrove, F. Youth and the social order. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1965.

Ortega y Gasset, J. The modern theme. New York: W. W. Norton, 1923.

Parsons, T. Youth in the context of American society. In E. H. Erikson
(Ed.), Youth: Change and challenge. New York: Basic Books, 1963.

Parsons, T., 8c Bales, R. F. Family socialization and interaction process. New
York: The Free Press, 1955.

Parsons, S. T., & Platt, A. M. Higher education and changing socialization.
In M. W. Riley (Ed.), Aging and society: A sociology of age stratification.
Vol. 3. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 197

Seely, J. Youth in revolt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Slater, P. The pursuit of loneliness. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970







Friday, July 13, 2018

2017年,是21世纪

21世纪是2000年, 而不是2100

Thursday, July 12, 2018

Durkheim, social cohesion depends upon the
degree of interaction among persons. "The
integration of a social aggregate can only
reflect the intensity of the collective life circulating
in it. It is more unified and powerful
the more active and constant is the intercourse
among its members. Thus to translate
Durkheim with respect to our problem, the
more numerous the activities and interests
shared by the generations, the stronger the
bonds linking them. This linkage of the
generations will result in more elements of
the cultural heritage being transmitted through
the family line. Where cohesiveness is lacking
in the family group, there will be barriers
to interaction between parents and
children. The individual will be less committed
to family ways and will be more likely to
acquire the ways of outsiders, thus minimizing
or preventing intergenerational continuity altogether.

Emile Durkheim, Suicide: A Study in Sociology
(trans.) John A. Spaulding and George
Simpson (Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1951),
p. 202.
FEUER, L. (1969) The Conflict of Generations: The Character and Significance of Student Movements. New York: Basic Books

MEAD, (1970) Culture and commitment: a Study of the Generation Gap
https://archive.org/details/culturecommitmenmeadrich

Neugarten has suggested that a shift in time perspective occurs in middle age
when time left to live becomes the life-cycle yardstick.
Fear of loss (if I don’t watch out, I am going to lose…), Developmental stake (if the young reject my values, my life has come to nothing). 


Bengtson, V. L., & Kuypers, J. A. (1971). Generational difference and the developmental stake. Aging and Human Development, 2(4), 249-260. doi: 10.2190/AG.2.4.b

In line with the implications from Bengtson and Kuypers’ (1971) concept of “developmental stake,” the younger Jesus People may have a greater investment in the creation of viable religious values and strategies, while the older generation fundamentalists have a greater investment in validating religious values and strategies


Yu, H. C., & Miller, P. (2003). The
generation gap and cultural influence—
A Taiwan empirical investigation. Cross
CulturalManagement, 10, 23–41.

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

The Jesus People Movement: A Story of Spiritual Revolution Among the Hippies Paperback – February 13, 2014
by Richard A. Bustraan

The generation of children born in the post-WWII economic recovery is the baby boomers, the generation of the hippies and the Jesus People. Growing in this period of uninterrupted economic growth and prosperity, the baby boomer generation stood in stark contrast to the generation of their parents who had gone through the deprivation of the Great Depression.



https://www.premierchristianity.com/Past-Issues/2017/September-2017/The-Jesus-People-Revolution-the-60s-hippies-who-changed-the-world

https://wrldrels.org/2016/10/24/jesus-people-movement/  --- with book lists

Enroth, Ronald M., Edward E. Erickson, Jr., and C. Breckinridge Peters. 1972. The Jesus People: Old Time Religion in the Age of Aquarius. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Eskridge, Larry. 2013. God’s Forever Family: The Jesus People Movement in America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Smith, Kevin John. 2011. The Origins, Nature, and Significance of the Jesus Movement. Lexington, KY: Emeth Press.

Streiker, Lowell D. 1971. The Jesus Trip: Advent of the Jesus Freaks. Nashville: Abingdon.

Bookman, Sally Dobson. 1974. “Jesus People: A Religious Movement in a Midwestern City.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California.

Di Sabatino, David. 2004. The Jesus People Movement: An Annotated Bibliography and General Resource. Lake Forest, CA: Jester Media, Second Edition

Ellwood, Robert S., Jr. 1973. One Way: The Jesus Movement and Its Meaning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.




development stake, developmental stake

Bengtson, V. L., & Kuypers, J. Generational differences and the development
stake. Aging and Human Development, 1971, 2, 249-260.

developmental stake, the younger Jesus People may have a greater investment in the creation of
viable religious values and strategies, while the older generation fundamentalists have a greater investment in validating religious values and strategies
Christian fundamentalism-- subjectivism, suspicious of rationalism (modern scientific thought), anti-intellectualism in early 1900s, suspicion of secular education which relies upon the scientific method, negation of modernism; abstain from worldliness

Modernism-- man is not sinful by nature, utopia could be achieved on the earth merely by correcting an evil social structure
Modernism was shaken by world war I, world war II, great depression--decline of modernism


Testing Pluralism: Globalizing Belief,
Localizing Gods, edited by GIUSEPPE
GIORDAN and WILLIAM H.
SWATOS, JR. Leiden: Brill, 2013,

Spiritual Capital

Baker, Chris, and Jonathan Miles-Watson. 2008. “Exploring Secular Spiritual Capital; An
Engagement in Religious and Secular Dialogue for a Common Future.” International
Journal of Public Theology 2, no. 4:442–64.

Baker, Chris, and Hannah Skinner. 2006. Faith in Action—The Dynamic Connection Between
Religious and Spiritual Capital. Manchester, UK: William Temple Foundation.

Montemaggi, Francesca E. S. 2011. “The Enchanting Dream of Spiritual Capital.” Implicit
Religion 14, no. 1:67–88.

Park, Jerry Z., and Christian Smith. 2000. “‘To Whom Much Has Been Given. . .’:
Religious Capital and Community Voluntarism among Churchgoing Protestants.”
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 39, no. 3:272–86.

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

generation events

The creation of a sacred space wherein sacred places (i.e. Woodstock)
sustain a collective memory


Paul M. Arsenault, (2004),"Validating generational differences", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 25 Iss 2 pp. 124 - 141

generation books

Zemke R, Raines C, Filipczak B (2000). Generations at work: Managing
the clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers and Nexters in your workplace
(2nd Ed). American Management Association, New York, NY.

Lancaster, L.C. and Stillman, D. (2002), When Generations Collide: Who They Are. Why They
Clash. How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work, HarperCollins, New York, NY.

Wyatt, D. (1993), Out of the Sixties: Storytelling and the Vietnam Generation, University Press,
Cambridge, MA.

Hughes, M. E., & O’Rand, A. M. (2004). The lives and times of the Baby Boomers. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau.

Wednesday, July 04, 2018

sociology, religion, spirituality

Max Weber’s early twentieth-century studies of the great world religions focused on the distinctive ideas of those religious systems, to be sure, but he was also interested in their social psychology
and ethos, that is, the patterns of life they engendered (Weber 1922 [1946]). The “Protestant Ethic” is not just Calvinist beliefs about salvation, it is also the everyday habits of discipline and humility those beliefs encouraged (Weber 1958).
Weber said Protestants have distinct  economic behaviors

Weber, Max. 1922 [1946]. “The Social Psychology of the World Religions.” In From Max
Weber, edited by H. Gerth, and C.W. Mills, 267–301.
———. 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, translated by T. Parsons.
New York: Scribner. Original edition, 1930.

***
Emile Durkheim’s focus was on social solidarity, but he pointed in vivid detail to the lived experience of ritual participation—what he called “collective effervescence” (Durkheim 1964).
Durkheim said religious group membership is linked to social solidarity

Durkheim, Emile. 1898 (1975). “Individualism and the Intellectuals.” In Durkheim on
Religion, edited byW. S. F. Pickering, 59–73. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
———. 1964. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, translated by J.W. Swain. New York:
Free Press

Sociological attention to the study of “spirituality” increased significantly with the cultural
shifts of the 1960s (Albanese 2001; Wuthnow 1976). Studies of seekers (Roof 1993;
Wuthnow 1998) and the “spiritual marketplace” (Roof 1999)

Berger’s (1969) classic exposition of secularization and privatization
“secularization theory” has argued that religion could survive the modern world as
a certain form of individual consciousness (Berger 1969). This was Luckmann’s
“Invisible Religion” (Luckmann 1967), and it is essentially where Durkheim ends
up in his essay on “Individualism and the Intellectuals” (Durkheim 1898 [1975]).
Luckmann and the functionalists solve the problem of modern religion by positing
“meaning” and “worldview” as quasi-religious human universals carried in individual
consciousness (Parsons 1964).

Berger, Peter L. 1969. The Sacred Canopy. Garden City, NY: Anchor Doubleday.
——— 1999. “The Desecularization of the World: A Global Overview.” In The
Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics, edited by P. L. Berger,
1–18. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Luckmann, Thomas. 1967. The Invisible Religion. New York: Macmillan

Durkheim, Emile. 1898 (1975). “Individualism and the Intellectuals.” In Durkheim on
Religion, edited byW. S. F. Pickering, 59–73. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
———. 1964. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, translated by J.W. Swain. New York:
Free Press.

Parsons, Talcott. 1964. “Religion and Modern Industrial Society.” In Religion, Culture, and
Society, edited by L. Schneider, 273–98. New York:Wiley

Secularization theories predicted that religion would
become a remote and forgotten abstraction, and for much of our field, that
remains pragmatically the case (Ecklund and Scheitle 2007).

worldwide resurgence (or rediscovery) of
religious vitality that emerged in the 1960s and beyond (Berger 1999)

to Bellah and colleagues’ Habits
of the Heart (1985), the discipline has been guided by the notion that the differentiation of
modern societies has shrunk the domain of religion to sectarian “sheltering enclaves” and to
individual consciousness, an argument that echoes Durkheim’s ([1898] 1975) observations from
earlier in 20th century. In Europe, where the declines in religious belief and participation are
far more dramatic than in the United States (Davie 2000), sociologists of religion have increasingly
turned their attention to the new and revived spiritualities that are present in the wake
of Christianity’s apparent demise (Flanagan and Jupp 2007). Heelas and Woodhead (2004), for
example, document a “holistic milieu” including yoga classes, Reiki practitioners, and more,
speculating that spiritual loyalties are being transferred from old institutions (churches) to new
ones.


Albanese, Catherine L. 1990. Nature religion in America: From the Algonkian Indians to the new age. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
———, ed. 2001. American spiritualities: A reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Wuthnow, Robert. 1976. The consciousness reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Berger, Peter L. 1969. The sacred canopy. Garden City, NY: Anchor Doubleday.
———. 1970. A rumor of angels: Modern society and the rediscovery of the supernatural. Garden City, NY: Anchor.

Bellah, Robert N., Richard Madsen,William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton. 1985. Habits of the heart.
Berkeley: University of California Press.

Chaves, Mark. 2011. American religion: Contemporary trends. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Davie, Grace. 2000. Religion in modern Europe: A memory mutates. New York: Oxford University Press

Durkheim, Emile. [1898] 1975. Individualism and the intellectuals. In Durkheim on religion, edited by William S. F.
Pickering, pp. 59–73. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
———.[1912] 1964. The elementary forms of the religious life. Translated by JosephWard Swain, New York: Free Press

Flanagan, Kieran and Peter C. Jupp, eds. 2007. A sociology of spirituality. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Hammond, Phillip E. 1992. Religion and personal autonomy: The third disestablishment in America.Columbia: University
of South Carolina Press.

Heelas, Paul and Linda Woodhead. 2004. The spiritual revolution: Why religion is giving way to spirituality. Malden,
MA: Blackwell.

Hoge, Dean R., Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens. 1994. Vanishing boundaries: The religion of mainline Protestant
baby boomers. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox.

Roof, Wade Clark. 1993. A generation of seekers. San Francisco: Harper.
———. 1999. Spiritual marketplace: Baby boomers and the remaking of American religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
———. 2003. Religion and spirituality: Toward an integrated analysis. In Handbook of the sociology of religion, edited by Michele Dillon, pp. 137–48. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schmidt, Leigh Eric. 2005. Restless souls: The making of American spirituality. San Francisco: Harper.

Seligman, Adam. 2000. Modernity’s wager: Authority, the self, and transcendence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Smith, Christian. 2009. Souls in transition: The religious and spiritual lives of emerging adults. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sutcliffe, Steven. 2003. Children of the new age: A history of spiritual practices. New York: Routledge.

Taylor, Charles. 2007. A secular age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Weber, Max. [1922] 1963. The sociology of religion. Boston: Beacon

Weber, Max. [1922] 1963. The sociology of religion. Boston: Beacon.

Wuthnow, Robert. 1976. The consciousness reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———. 1998. After heaven: Spirituality in America since the 1950s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
———. 2001. Creative spirituality: The way of the artist. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Zinnbauer, Brian J., Kenneth I. Pargament, Brenda Cole, Mark S. Rye, Eric M. Butter, Timothy G. Belavich, Kathleen M. Hipp, Allie B. Scott, and Jill L. Kadar. 1997. Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36(4):549–64.

Zinnbauer, Brian J., Kenneth I. Pargament, and Allie B. Scott. 1999. The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality 67(6):889–919.



Amato, P., & Booth, A. (1997). Generation at risk: Growing up in an era of family upheaval.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press


Generation X. Coming of age in the 1980s and ’90s, they hail from families in flux, from an intimate landscape changing faster and more profoundly than ever before. This book is the first to give us a clear, close-up picture of these young Americans and to show how they have been affected and formed by the tremendous domestic changes of the last three decades.
Studying Baby Boom Cohorts Within a Demographic and Developmental Context: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

The Baby Boomers Grow Up
Contemporary Perspectives on Midlife
Edited By Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Sherry L. Willis
generational identities is presented by Zhou and Hou (1999) who
studied the effects of the “send down” policy that occurred during the Cultural
Revolution in China, which resulted in a massive movement of educated urban
youth to rural areas to work. Zhou and Hou examined how this large-scale social
policy aimed at social redistribution was carried out and what factors influenced
who was sent down and who was allowed to return and how state policy shaped
and altered individual life courses. In some ways, this policy backfired because
the cohorts who experienced the send down policy (some 17 million young
people over a 12-year period) produced a Generation of reformers who were
the instigators of the reform of the Chinese agricultural production system and
provided the roots of a movement toward market economies in China. What is
unique about the Zhou and Hou research is that it demonstrates Mannheim’s
(1927/1952) notion of the stratification of experience and illustrates Mannheim’s
distinction between generational location and generation in actuality.

Zhou, X., & Hou, L. (1999). Children of the cultural revolution: The state and the life course in the
People’s Republic of China. American Sociological Review, 64, 12–36.
Brokaw’s (1998) The Greatest Generation, which has become a quite
popular descriptor for those people who came of age during the Depression
and World War II and experienced the years of prosperity that followed. They
are often contrasted with those who grew to maturity during the 1960s and
1970s (their children) who ushered in an era of rebellion and tolerance
Austrian-Jewish existential
theologian Martin Buber (1923=1958), a student of Dilthey, further delineated
human relations as a triad composed of society, spirit, and nature, all of
which involve some profound relations between humans and the objects
in their perceived reality, be it nature or supernature.

From a metaphysical perspective, ontological differences regarding the
nature of the entities or perceived reality to which we are tied, can further
divide Buber’s (1923=1958) triad into two levels of human relations corresponding
to physical and non-physical realities.

The primary human relation
concerns a link with nature and society, a physical reality shared by all
humans.

The secondary human relation has to do with spirit, a non-physical
reality that is diversely conceptualized in various religious and spiritual
worldviews.

Derived from either or both levels of such realities, a sense of
deep interconnectedness can offer motivating power for life (Ai, Tice, &
Kelsey, 2009). Based on one’s worldviews, each of these relations can forge
a sacred interconnectedness, if it is deeply meaningful. For example, a
religious relation with spirit may convey a sense of spiritually complete
dependence on God (Schleiermacher, 1821=1969) in monotheist faiths; or,
in other faiths, it may increase dependence on other entities (e.g., ancestor
spirits, cosmic forces, angels, Buddha). On the other hand, the humans’ interplay
with society or nature may nourish the feeling of deep interdependence
with the world-at-large (Ai et al., 2009).

After Heaven: Spirituality in America Since the 1950s, Wuthnow,

evolution of Americans’ faith over the past
60 years, from a more conventional phase in the ‘‘dwelling-focused’’ religiousness
to a diverse ‘‘spirituality-seeking’’ phase encouraged by the booming
religious freedom during the 1960s, and, then, to a ‘‘practice-centered’’ phase in the current decade

‘‘seeking-oriented’’ spirituality was brought about by the Baby
Boomer generation who were deeply influenced by the Civil Rights
Movement and other significant socio-political-economic shifts in both the
USA and around the globe when they were young (Wuthnow, 1998). In contrast
to the conventional religious dwellers, new spiritual seekers in this and
the coming generations tend to emphasize non-traditional ways of relating
to transcendence and make sense of their lives without invoking
religious resources

Wuthnow (1998) defined the three terms as follows: ‘‘A spirituality of dwelling emphasizes habitation: God occupies a definite place in the universe and creates a sacred space in which humans too can dwell; to inhabit sacred space is to know its territory and to feel secure. A spirituality of seeking emphasizes habitation: Individuals search for sacred moments that reinforce their conviction that the divine exists, but these moments are fleeting: rather than knowing the territory, people explore new spiritual vistas, and they may have to negotiate among complex and confusing meanings of spirituality. . . .
In Western religion, habitation spirituality is suggested in stories of the Garden of Eden and of the Promised Land: it consists of temple religion; and it occurs in the time of kings and of priests. A spirituality of seeking is tabernacle religion, the faith of pilgrims and sojourners; it clings to the Diaspora and to prophets and judges, rather than to priests and kings. . . .
In social theory, a spirituality of dwelling is reminiscent of Aristotle’s insistence that the patriarchal family supplies the fundamental model of social order and of Emile Durkhiem’s definition of religion as beliefs and practices that ‘‘unite into one single moral community’’ those who adhere to them. A spirituality of seeking is more akin to Plato’s emphasis on the origins of society in the varied gifts of the individual and in Max Weber’s metaphor of religion as a ‘‘switchman’’ guiding the ethical inclinations of individuals in their contemplative activities or in their worldly occupations . . ..’’ (Wuthnow, 1998, pp. 3–4).
‘‘In my view the ancient wisdom that emphasizes the idea of spiritual practices needs to be rediscovered; indeed, a practice-oriented spirituality should be considered seriously as an alternative both to dwelling and to seeking. . . .
Practice-oriented spirituality preserves some of what has always attracted people to a spirituality of
dwelling, for it too requires the setting aside of a space in which to meditate, to pray, and to worship,
and in the confusion of everyday life such a space may be possible only by carefully demarcating it from its surroundings. Yet, these spaces are negotiable, changeable, and the point of engaging in spiritual practice is not merely to feel secure in a sacred space but to grow increasingly aware of the mysterious and transcendent aspects of the sacred as well . . . . (pp. 14–15).
@Ai2010
Millennials are the largest generation in the U.S. labor force

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/04/11/millennials-largest-generation-us-labor-force/

generation units, Mannheim

some members of an age span experience historical events
much more acutely than others; they will be more directly exposed
to events or more capable of giving them age-related meaning than
their peers. And where such minorities have opportunities for
mutual communication and association they may become the
articulators of new perspectives for their age span as a whole - the
class of 1938 in the Egyptian Military Academy would be an
example. These minorities who serve as the vanguard of generations
and potential generations constitute what Mannheim called
generation units. The point of importance about such units is that
their location in the social system cannot be adequately specified on
the basis of age alone. Age is a necessary but not a sufficient condition
for their development. Other variables such as class, status,
religion, occupation, institutional milieu, in short the traditional
categories of social structural analysis, must be introduced to explain
their unique sensitivity to common historical experiences.
@Abrams, P. (1970). Rites de Passage:The Conflict of Generations in Industrial Society. Journal of Contemporary History, 5(1), 175-190. doi: 10.1177/002200947000500112

Generational units --- individuals within such generations who shared a common outlook on the basis of their common experience
Generational units as agents of social change
Fresh contact: each generational unit makes with the society at the time its members reach maturity; Over time, a succession of waves of new individuals reach adulthood, coming at that time into contact with the prevailing culture and remodeling what they find;  
@(Kertzer, 1983)

Karl Mannheim (1952()

Mannheim (1927/1952) used the term generation
to describe what he referred to as a group that shares “a common location in
the social and historical process (which exposes them) to a specific range of
potential experience [italics added], predisposing them for a certain characteristic
model of thought and experience, and a characteristic type of historically-relevant
action” (p. 291).
Mannheim’s (1927/1952) argument is that these early formative influences
contributing to a particular Zeitgeist (or worldview) are strong and that youth is a
particularly impressionable period in the life span in which there is considerable
more openness to change compared to other stages in life. Many believe that not
only is youth a period of “plasticity” but that these early experiences are the most 
powerful in terms of their lasting influences on human tendencies 

Mannheim, K. (1952). The problem of generations. In P. Kecskemeti (Ed.), Essays in the sociology
of knowledge (pp. 276–322). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1927)

generational unit, meaning a group of people identified by themselves and others as part of a social movement or organizational unit that produces social changes in culture, norms, and behavior

the unique historical and
social events happening during the period of youth undoubtedly play a strong
role in shaping human lives. This does not mean, however, that all people
growing up during a particular time period are influenced by those historical
and social events or that they are influenced in the same ways. Certainly, some
eras and social movements provide potentially potent experiences for youth
during particular times. The political ideologies formed during Roosevelt’s New
Deal in the 1930s and 1940s, the Civil Rights and Feminist movements of
the 1960s and 1970s, the 1973 pro-choice Supreme Court decision in Roe
vs. Wade, or the environmentalist movement of the 1970s and 1980s are all
examples of particular historical stimuli to the development of such worldviews
during specific historical periods (see Alwin & McCammon, 2003, pp. 40–41).
It is not, however, simply the influence of these historical and social events
on society that interests us here—it is their distinctive impact on the youth

of the period.

Tuesday, July 03, 2018

Sociology of age

https://www.popline.org/node/360429.

Age Stratification

Aging and Society, Volume 3: A Sociology of Age Stratification
edited by Matilda White Riley, Marilyn Johnson, Anne Foner

https://books.google.com.tw/books?hl=en&lr=&id=-g6GAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=aging+and+society+a+sociology+of+age+stratification&ots=As8LHEWUPu&sig=dP7OQZN8hhiLXnCEl6ajAXjMOE8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=aging%20and%20society%20a%20sociology%20of%20age%20stratification&f=false
THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF AGE AND AGEING

http://www.newbooks-services.de/MediaFiles/Texts/6/9780521533706_Intro_001.pdf

PART FOUR . THE AGEING SELF
Self and Identity 275
Reminiscence: Developmental, Social and Clinical Perspectives 301
Listening to the Past: Reminiscence and Oral History 316
Religion, Spirituality, and Older People 363
Death and Spirituality 394

Monday, July 02, 2018

Naturally Ambivalent: Religion’s Role in Shaping Environmental Action
Brandon Vaidyanathan, Simranjit Khalsa, Elaine Howard Ecklund
Sociology of Religion, srx043, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srx043
Does Economic Insecurity Predict Religiosity? Evidence from the European Social Survey 2002–2014
Ingrid Storm
Sociology of Religion, Volume 78, Issue 2, 1 June 2017, Pages 146–172, https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srw055

Sunday, July 01, 2018

spirituality of elders is higher than that of middle-aged and young adults (Moberg,

1997). 

《舌尖上的中国》第三季 第五集 食 | CCTV纪录

Saturday, June 30, 2018

Variation on the Word Sleep

Margaret Atwood, 1939

 I would like to watch you sleeping,
which may not happen.
I would like to watch you,
sleeping. I would like to sleep
with you, to enter
your sleep as its smooth dark wave
slides over my head

and walk with you through that lucent
wavering forest of bluegreen leaves
with its watery sun & three moons
towards the cave where you must descend,
towards your worst fear

I would like to give you the silver
branch, the small white flower, the one
word that will protect you
from the grief at the center
of your dream, from the grief
at the center. I would like to follow
you up the long stairway
again & become
the boat that would row you back
carefully, a flame
in two cupped hands
to where your body lies
beside me, and you enter
it as easily as breathing in

I would like to be the air
that inhabits you for a moment
only. I would like to be that unnoticed
& that necessary.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

表格size

橫 11
直 19
 治道有人治與法治之爭。人治是治於人,也就是治於德。治於德,就是政治以道德為價值規範。然德治的運作,是通過禮的客觀軌道進行,故德治是就價值原則說,禮治是就事實推展說。
 
        孔子說:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格。」(論語為政篇)前者是法治,後者是德治,政令刑施的法治,自有嚇阻犯罪及齊一步調的效果,然道德根源不立,價值穩不住、開不出,德化禮治的治道,能開顯自覺心,挺立生命的莊嚴。
 
       「道之以德」,是「為政以德」(論語為政篇),為政之道,在引導人性的善,實現人生的德。問題在如何引導?就在「齊之以禮」。齊是齊一,故禮是客觀的制度,也是行為的規範,儒家就從「齊之以禮」說禮治
 
        禮與法就政治制度言,都是客觀的規範,然禮治與法治的最大分別,在禮治是人文教化,以開顯人的主體生命為終極理想,而與法治以建立客觀秩序為首要的功利衡量不同。
 
        禮專指周文禮樂而言,儒家的修養工夫,在「博學於文,約之以禮」(論語雍也篇),分開說,詩、書、禮、樂都是文,統貫說則是禮。孔子說:「興於詩,立於禮,成於樂。」(論語泰伯篇)生命就在詩教中興起,在禮教中穩立,在樂教中圓成。有子說:「禮之用,和為貴,先王之道,斯為美。」(論語學而篇)禮治的效用在和諧,故先王德化禮教的治道,可謂美善。
 
        由是而言,德治與禮治是不可分的,為政之道,在成就天下百姓的德行人格,而天下百姓的德行人格,就在詩、書、禮、樂的教化中實踐完成。
 
        禮治的推展,首在正名。所謂「名位不同,禮亦異數」(左傳莊公十八年),禮主敬,所以別上下之分,故孔子以「必也正名乎」為先務。正名,一在正名分,有其名必有其分,此為倫理道德的意義;一在正名實,有其名必有其實,此為腳色功能的意義。孔子說:「克己復禮為仁。」(論語顏淵篇)克已是修養克制自己,還歸到客觀的禮制軌道中運轉,一方面客觀秩序可以建立,另一方面主體生命也可以安頓、挺立。
 
        儒家言政治,一者以政治為道德,二者以政治為文化。前者是道之以德,為政以德,後者是齊之以禮,立於禮。故人治,與法治相對而言,實則人治就是德治與禮治的統合通貫。就價值言德治,就事實言禮治,此為儒家的政治理想。(王邦雄)

道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格
子曰:「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥;道之以,齊之以,有恥且格。」
孔子說:「以政令來管理,以刑法來約束,百姓雖不敢犯罪,但不以犯罪為恥;以道德來引導,以禮法來約束,百姓不僅遵紀守法,而且引以為榮。」
Wei Zheng:
The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."
經濟案件統計 Statistics of Discovered Economic Fraud

侵害智慧財產權 Infringement of Intellectual Property Right

違反公平交易法 Violation of the Fair Trade Act

刑事案件 Criminal Case

OECD Saving rate

https://data.oecd.org/natincome/saving-rate.htm

OECD, Hours worked

https://data.oecd.org/emp/hours-worked.htm

Tuesday, June 26, 2018

Worldwide Governance Indicators

The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) project reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for over 200 countries and territories over the period 1996–2016, for six dimensions of governance:

http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#home


Voice and Accountability
Political Stability and Absence of Violence
Government Effectiveness
Regulatory Quality
Rule of Law
Control of Corruption


Regulatory quality:
the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development


Rule of law:
the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence

Monday, June 25, 2018

Appendix A: 16-item survey questionnaire

v1. I believe there is a larger meaning to life.
v2. I am concerned about those who will come after me in life.
v3. All life is interconnected.
v4. There is a higher plane of consciousness or spirituality that binds all people.
v5. Humans are mutually responsible to and for one another.
v6. I love the blooming of flowers in the spring as much as seeing an old friend again.
v7. There is an order to the universe that transcends human thinking.
v8. It is important for me to give something back to my community.
v9. I sometimes feel so connected to nature that everything seems to be part of one living organism.
v10. There is a power greater than myself.
v11. I am easily and deeply touched when I see human misery and suffering.
v12. I believe that on some level my life is intimately tied to all of humankind.
v13. I feel that I have a calling to fulfill in life.
v14. Life is most worthwhile when it is lived in service to an important cause.
v15. I have had moments of great joy in which I suddenly had a clear, deep feeling of oneness with all that exists.
v16. I believe that death is a doorway to another plane of existence.



Source: Liu, C. H., & Robertson, P. J. (2011). Spirituality in the workplace: Theory and measurement. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20(1), 35-50
Piaget, J. (1971). Developmental stages and developmental processes. In D. R. Green, M.P. Ford, & G. B. Flamer (Eds.), Measurement and
Piaget (pp. 172–188). New York: McGraw-Hill.

This book is a collection of papers presented at the symposium, "Conference on Ordinal Scales of Cognitive Development, sponsored by the California Test Bureau. Papers include:


"The Theory of Stages in Cognitive Development" (J. Piaget)

"Two Approaches to Intelligence: Piagetian and Psychometric" (D. Elkind); "An Implicit Metric for Ordinal Scales: Implications for Assessment of Cognitive Growth" (P. M. Bentler); "Theoretical Regularities and Individual Idiosyncrasies" (R. D. Tuddenham); "Some Problems Associated with Formal Thought and Its Assessment" (K. Lovell); "The Role of Experience in the Rate and Sequence of Cognitive Development" (M. L. Goldschmid); "Does the Piagetian Approach Imply Instruction?" (S. E. Englemann); Developmental Theory and Diagnostic Procedures" (B. Inhelder);

"Developmental Stages and Developmental Processes" (H. Beilin);

"The Uses of Verbal Behavior in Assessing Children's Cognitive Abilities" (J. H. Flavell); "Closing Remarks" (B. Inhelder and J. Piaget). The following papers were not read at the conference, but were presented in written and outline form respectively: "Montonicity Analysis: An Alternative to Linear Factor and Test Analysis" (P. M. Bentler); "Assessing Cognitive Development via Measures of Optimal Performance" (J. D. Ayers). Comments and open floor discussions on each paper are included. (MS)

努力的活著,到底為了什麼?柯文哲在醫療與市政之間,得出的深刻體悟

https://www.msn.com/zh-tw/lifestyle/worklife/%E5%8A%AA%E5%8A%9B%E7%9A%84%E6%B4%BB%E8%91%97%EF%BC%8C%E5%88%B0%E5%BA%95%E7%82%BA%E4%BA%86%E4%BB%80%E9%BA%BC%EF%BC%9F%E6%9F%AF%E6%96%87%E5%93%B2%E5%9C%A8%E9%86%AB%E7%99%82%E8%88%87%E5%B8%82%E6%94%BF%E4%B9%8B%E9%96%93%EF%BC%8C%E5%BE%97%E5%87%BA%E7%9A%84%E6%B7%B1%E5%88%BB%E9%AB%94%E6%82%9F/ar-AAz1lHU?li=BBqiNIb

Saturday, June 23, 2018

移除參數_Remove Field Code

https://sites.google.com/site/taiwanendnote/endnote/cite-while-you-write_cwyw/yi-chu-can-shu_remove-field-cod

endnote, reference, times new roman

http://xken831.pixnet.net/blog/post/459864616-%5Bendnote%5D-%E4%BF%AE%E6%94%B9%E6%8F%92%E5%85%A5-word-%E7%9A%84%E5%AD%97%E9%AB%94
EndNote 找不到Times New Roman 的問題:windows 會根據語言的設定將部份字型隱藏。 請至控制台→外觀及個人化→字型,在 Times New Roman 字型上按右鍵→顯示,EndNote 裡的 Times New Roman 就回來了。也可在字型設定中將「根據語言設定隱藏字型」取消,所有字型都不會再被隱藏。
Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis, and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58,525-543.

Meredith, W. (1995). Two wrongs may not make a right.Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30, 89-94. 


  • Meredith, W. 1993. Measurement invariance, factor analysis, and factorial invariance Psychometrika, 58: 525-543.
  • Meredith, W. 1995. Two wrongs may not make a right Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30: 89-94.
  • Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthen, B. 1989. Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issues of partial measurement invariance Psychological Bulletin, 105: 456-466.

  • Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 78-90.
(Ichikawa & Konish, 1997; West, Finch, & Curran, 1995; Yung & Bentler, 1996)

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Author (Year) Citations, endnote

et al.,

In et al.,

et should not be followed by a period.

two paper, the same author, the same year

When you edit the citation (Smith 2006a, Smith 2006b), for the first citation insert a comma followed by the letter b in the Suffix field (see Image1 - which uses Agresti as the author). Then for the second citation click to select "Year" then click OK to close the Edit & Manage Citations window (See Image2).

https://community.endnote.com/t5/EndNote-How-To/how-to-merge-two-paper-of-the-same-author-in-citation/td-p/15483

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Named decades and centuries are references to unique time periods (the 1920s, the 1300s) and require the definite article the.

Incorrect Beatlemania began in 1960s.
Correct Beatlemania began in the 1960s.

The name of a specific year (1962, 264 B.C.E.) is treated like other names (John, Mr. Jones) and uses no article.

Incorrect Sales for the 2015 are expected to double.
Correct Sales for 2015 are expected to double.

Although some readers still believe it, the rule that prohibits ending a sentence with a preposition is a myth. When the preposition is redundant, though, you should leave it out. If your readers are likely to believe that ending a sentence with a preposition is always an error, consider rephrasing to avoid it.

Incorrect Where is it at?
Correct Where is it?

Controversial: That’s the building she went into.
Recommended: That’s the building she entered.

Controversial: It’s a terrible situation to find yourself in.
Recommended: It’s a terrible situation in which to find yourself. (More formal)

Uncountable nouns (such as water, sand, or information) may or may not use a determiner, but they do not use the indefinite articles a or an.

Other determiners include the definite article (the), possessive adjectives (my, his, our), possessive nouns (Joe’s, mother’s), and quantifiers (some, any).

Incorrect I’d like a milk with my dinner.
Correct I’d like milk with my dinner.
Correct I’d like a glass of milk with my dinner.

Depending on context, a noun can be either countable or uncountable.
Correct We need a light in this room.
Correct We need some light in this room.

Words that start with the prefixes ex, self, or all (ex-wife, self-interest, all-inclusive) should always be hyphenated.

The prefix non is usually hyphenated in British, Australian, and Canadian English. In American English, it can be written either as one word or with a hyphen (nonprofit or non-profit).

Prefixes are sometimes hyphenated to avoid confusion with the unhyphenated word: re-cover means to cover again and recover means to regain.

Any prefix should be hyphenated when used with a proper noun (pre-Civil War, mid-December) or date (post-1990s).

Suffixes are never hyphenated, though some words act like a suffix and should use a hyphen. These include elect (mayor-elect Smith), free (sugar-free cookies), and odd (twenty-odd examples).

Incorrect Don is self employed.
Correct Don is self-employed.

Incorrect The ex mayor will speak on Friday.
Correct The ex-mayor will speak on Friday.

British/Canadian/Australian: This non-profit organization collects clothing for disaster victims.
American: This nonprofit organization collects clothing for disaster victims.

compound predicate

A predicate tells us something about the subject. It includes a verb and any other modifiers. A compound predicate includes verbs that go with the same subject. Commas separate multiple predicates when there are three or more verb phrases, but a compound predicate with only two requires no punctuation to separate them. 

Incorrect Deb walked to the store, but forgot her wallet.
Correct Deb walked to the store but forgot her wallet.

Incorrect Carleigh loves cooking, but hates washing dishes.
Correct Carleigh loves cooking but hates washing dishes.

Incorrect Tina called her mother, and invited her to lunch.
Correct Tina called her mother and invited her to lunch.

An article (a, an, or the) is a type of determiner. Possessive adjectives (my, his, our), possessive nouns (Joe’s, mother’s), and quantifiers (each, every) are also determiners. Single countable nouns usually require a determiner. 

Incorrect I left book on table.
Correct I left a book on the table.
Correct I left the book on a table.
Correct I left Bob’s book on his table.

Incorrect Ms. Anderson, school librarian, agreed to chaperone the field trip.
Correct Ms. Anderson, the school librarian, agreed to chaperone the field trip.

, and

A compound sentence includes two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). 
In a compound sentence, the conjunction is in most cases preceded by a comma.  However, if both independent clauses are very short, it’s acceptable to omit the comma. 

Incorrect The airport is about to shut down because of the snow and if the plane doesn’t land soon, it                  will have to go on to Boston.

Correct The airport is about to shut down because of the snow, and if the plane doesn’t land soon,                     it will have to go on to Boston.

Incorrect We love to hear from our readers so you are welcome to share your thoughts, views, and                      opinions in the comment section below.
Correct We love to hear from our readers, so you are welcome to share your thoughts, views, and   
                opinions in the comment section below.

Correct Mark brought popcorn and Tina provided soda.

客家粽

https://blog.wonderfulfood.com.tw/2017/05/26/%E5%AE%A2%E5%AE%B6%E7%B2%84%E7%B2%BD%EF%BC%8C%E8%87%AA%E5%B7%B1%E5%8C%85%E7%9C%9F%E7%B0%A1%E5%96%AE/

客家粽分兩種,一是米粽,將蒸過的糯米飯,包入蝦米、紅蔥頭、菜脯、香菇絲、豬肉等材料,以曬乾的麻竹葉包裹再蒸熟食用;

二是粄粽,糯米經泡水後研磨成米漿,瀝乾水分搓揉成粄糰,加入菜脯香料再用麻竹葉包上蒸熟,在製作上比較耗時,風味也更特殊。

邱炳坤表示,客家粽好吃的關鍵在於米,米粒要分明、咬勁要Q彈,餡料一定要用紅蔥頭爆香,傳統客家米粽的材料是利用祭祀所用的牲品,例如豬肉為主要材料,佐以菜脯、蝦米、香菇等做配料,並就地取材隨手善用周邊的自然資源,採用麻竹葉作粽葉,有些則會利用月桃葉增加風味。

很多人不知粄粽蒸法與吃法,來教一下大家粄粽蒸法:
冷凍先退冰:用電鍋蒸(約4/1罐養樂多)蒸煮約5-8分鐘跳起後悶10分鐘(如按下去未Q再做一次) 注意:粄粽勿蒸過久,蒸太久粄會流出變形喔!

30秒看完粄粽吃法讓你變吃粄達人
粄粽外皮是由逢萊米+糯米依比例磨成漿壓乾製成粄,粄在蒸煮過程會膨脹1倍,所以用粄包成粄粽不能持續蒸要用悶的方式避免粄因膨脹空間不足而流出,吃粄粽就跟吃麻糬一樣,冷的吃才夠Q,粄粽也會越嚼越夠味,非常適合炎熱的夏天食用,因此都是上午蒸中午吃或中午蒸下午吃點心。

小撇步:
打開粄粽不能像一般肉粽一樣直接開,不然會因粄黏在葉子上而不完整,在開葉時要先用拇指把前面粄跟葉子黏住的地方稍微撥一下,就可以輕鬆打開吃到完整的粄粽呦。

「阿嬌姐客家粽」、「黃記傳統客家米食」、「傳陳客家米食坊」、「謝太美食坊」、「木蓮嫂客家粽」、「春梅姐客家粽」、「滿意美食」、「徐秋蘭客家粽」八家苗市客家粽,店家資訊在苗栗市公所全球資訊網及苗栗市公所臉書粉絲專頁

阿嬌姐、鍾春梅、邱志明、鍾秀梅、傳陳客家米食坊等五名優勝者為苗栗市代言


1 阿嬌姐客家粽
(傳統客家粽) 037-333550
0939-581200   $25

2 黃記傳統客家米食
(傳統客家粽) 037-322192
0919-705985 苗栗市福麗里至公路429巷23號 $35

3 傳陳客家米食坊
(傳統客家粽) 037-335659
0911-135314 苗栗市建功里莊敬街25號 $20

4 謝太美食坊
(經典粽)、(豪華粽) 037-328698 苗栗市維新里4鄰新庄街39巷22號 $30、$45

5 木蓮嫂客家粽
(傳統客家粽) 037-323436 苗栗市維新里4鄰維祥街32號 $25

6 春梅姐客家粽
(月桃葉古早味客家粽) 0932-960615 苗栗後站星光大道 $30

7 滿意美食
(傳統客家粽) 0916-940587
0923-236636 $30

8 徐秋蘭客家粽
(傳統客家粽) 037-329210
0989-792398 南苗市場文昌廟雜貨店 $25


阿嬌姐客家粽 037-333550 0939-581200 25
黃記傳統客家米食 037-322192 0919-705985 苗栗市福麗里至公路429巷23號 30
楊屋客家粽 037-352413 0933-571977 苗栗市維新里6鄰新庄街269號 30
秀梅姐養生粽 037-264405 0982-480403 30
傳陳客家米食坊 037-335659 0911-135314 苗栗市莊敬街25號 20
謝太美食坊 037-328698 苗栗市維新里4鄰新庄街39巷22號 30
木蓮嫂客家粽 037-323436 苗栗市維新里4鄰維祥街32號 25
春梅姐客家粽 0932-960615 30

In a compound subject or object, most pronouns precede a noun. The exceptions are I, me, we and us, which should come last.

Incorrect Her children and she will visit Aunt Polly in Seattle.
Correct She and her children will visit Aunt Polly in Seattle.

Incorrect The boss wants to meet with me and a coworker.
Correct The boss wants to meet with a coworker and me.

Monday, June 18, 2018

Spiritual development is associated with cognitive development (Sinnott, 1994), Fowler’s faith development, Kohlberg’s moral development, and Loeginger’s ego development (Shulik, 1988).

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Zacher, H., & Rudolph, C. W. (2017). Successful Aging at Work and Beyond: A Review and Critical Perspective. In S. Profili, A. Sammarra & L. Innocenti (Eds.), Age Diversity in the Workplace (Vol. 17, pp. 35 - 64): Emerald Publishing Limited.

https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/S1877-636120170000017004?fullSc=1
Allport's (1961) conception of maturity. Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.199562
Fromm



Theory of self-transcendence
 Reed (2008) developed a midrange nursing theory of self-transcendence. She described self-transcendence as an inherent process that was a gradual, nonlinear expansion of conceptual boundaries, that is, one’s personal limits or internal rules and expectations of oneself, others, and the world. Expansion of boundaries transpired within four dimensions. Expansion of intrapersonal boundaries involved a greater awareness of one’s own philosophy, values, and dreams. Interpersonal boundaries related to interactions with others and with the environment. Temporal boundaries expanded to allow integration of one’s past and future to make sense of the present. Expansion of transpersonal boundaries related to a connection with dimensions beyond the here and now One’s perspective was intrinsically different from midlife; transcendent individuals were able to tolerate greater ambiguity and uncertainty (Reed, 2008).
Reed argued that although self-transcendence was an inherent process of maturation and development, self-transcendence could also be achieved by individuals of any age when faced with a loss, trauma, or illness that created a sense of vulnerability and awareness of mortality. The outcome of self-transcendence was well-being, marked by life satisfaction, positive self-concept, hopefulness, and a sense of meaning in life (Reed, 2009). Reed suggested factors that might promote  development of self-transcendence, including altruism, generativity, introspection, spirituality, lifelong learning, group therapy, creativity, journaling, meditation, and sharing wisdom with others.

Overall, a change from a relatively compact, concentrated, self-centred ego to a

more open, fluid, blurred self. "The change in the perception of objects can include an elimination of the borders between "you" and "me", and between "us" and "them". An impression of being «one all together» becomes dominant. As a consequence, the degree of self-centeredness will diminish. To a certain extent the enclosed self is disaggregated and substituted with a cosmic self."; Progression from egocentricity toward awareness of a dimension greater than the self and a sense of being an integral part of the universe; characterized by Broadened personal boundaries within interpersonal, intrapersonal, transpersonal, and temporal dimensions (Reed, 2008, 2009).

Reed, P. G. (2008). The theory of self-transcendence. In P. R. Smith & M. J. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (2nd ed., pp. 105-130). New York, NY: Springer.

Reed, P. G. (2009). Demystifying self-transcendence for mental health nursing practice and research. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 397-400.

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Bernice Neugarten termed this a shift toward greater 'interiority' of the personality in old age in which there was an increasing reverence toward living and toward existence.
Gutmann similarly observed this among older men in his cross-cultural studies of ageing and described it as a turning toward the sacred and elemental aspects of life and away from competition, accumulation, and achievement

Erich Fromm identified this as a distinction between 'being' and ' having' in life. He noted, ' In the having mode of my existence of my relationship to the world is one of possessing and owning, one in which I want to make everybody and everything, including myself, my
property. On the other hand, the being mode is equated with the concept of process, activity, and movement as an element in being... the idea that being implies change, i.e., that being is becoming

Fromm claimed that the writings of Meister Eckart represented one of the clearest positions against the 'having' mode. The essence of Eckhart's concept of non-attachment was the idea that the person who wants nothing is the person who is not greedy for anything. As Fromm
says, 'this does not mean that we should neither possess anything nor do anything; it means we should not be bound, tied, and chained, to what we own and what we have...

人走,茶涼,緣滅,生命從不等候

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and religion. In G. Adler (Ed.), Collected works of C. G. Jung
(Vol. 11: Psychology and religion: West and East; R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press.

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

太陽眼鏡

太陽眼鏡挑選:記得UV400

太陽眼鏡不只是時尚配件,更是生活中維護眼睛健康的重要日常用品,永和大學眼科診所院長鐘珮禎醫師指出,太陽眼鏡主要有三個功能,分別為「阻絕有害的紫外線、降低可見光的強度及預防空氣汙染造成的眼睛病變」。

阻絕有害的紫外線
鐘珮禎醫師說明,紫外線依不同波長可分為:UVA、UVB及UVC。UVA會造成眼睛白內障及黃斑部病變;UVB則容易導致眼翳或光角膜炎,上述都是會嚴重影響視力的疾病,好的太陽眼鏡就能有效杜絕有害的紫外線。

降低可見光的強度
如果在很亮的環境下待了一段時間,會覺得眼睛有一點昏花,看東西變得不太清楚,鐘珮禎醫師表示,這是因為可見光太強,會讓眼睛容易疲勞,因此太陽眼鏡的另一個功能,就是降低可見光的強度,提升我們看東西的視覺品質及對比度,舒緩眼睛疲勞。

預防空氣汙染造成的眼睛病變
現在空氣汙染愈來愈嚴重,鐘珮禎醫師指出,太陽眼鏡也能當成防護鏡,讓眼睛隔絕有害的懸浮微粒。

太陽眼鏡可以保護眼睛,但當心挑錯反而白花錢又傷眼。鐘珮禎醫師提醒,挑選太陽眼鏡記得一個口訣:「UV400」。她進一步解釋,400指的是波長400奈米,因為理論上,太陽眼鏡應該要能99%~100%的阻絕在此波長以下的光線,但因為肉眼看不到紫外線,所以我們無法從鏡面深度判斷眼鏡有沒有UV400的功能。

一般需要透過儀器檢測才能確認,不過在購買時也有能注意的地方,鐘珮禎醫師表示,可以留意商品標籤、保卡或保證書上面有沒有標註UV400,才是合格、有效的太陽眼鏡

太陽眼鏡鏡片顏色別選藍色

除了購買時要注意UV400外,其實鏡片的顏色及深度也大有學問。鐘珮禎醫師表示,太陽眼鏡會過濾掉與它對比的顏色,而最不推薦的鏡片顏色就是「藍色」,因為藍色鏡片會過濾掉它的對比、波長較長的光線,例如:黃光,並反而讓短波的藍光進入眼睛,而波長愈短的光線能量愈強,久了就容易造成眼睛病變。

究竟太陽眼鏡該選什麼顏色的鏡片才好?鐘珮禎醫師也推薦大家以下三個色系,分別是「灰色、黃褐色及墨綠色」。

灰色系
鐘珮禎醫師說明,灰色阻絕各個顏色的波長較均勻,比較不會降低眼睛對顏色真實度的判斷力,她舉例,當我們在開車時,看紅綠燈號誌時就比較不容易出錯,因此灰色是一個不錯的選擇。

黃褐色系
由於太陽眼鏡會過濾掉與鏡片本身對比的顏色,因此黃色的對比色是藍色,可以過濾短波的藍光。鐘珮禎醫師舉例,很多從事戶外運動的運動員,例如:高爾夫球選手,都會配戴黃色系的太陽眼鏡。此外,黃色系鏡片還能增加對比的敏感度,在運動或看球時的判斷力會比不戴來得更好。

墨綠色系
鐘珮禎醫師表示,綠色的對比色是紅色,墨綠色系、UV400的太陽眼鏡除了過濾紫外線,另一個就是可過濾紅外線,讓波長550奈米的光線進入眼睛,這也是能讓眼睛較舒適的波長光。

太陽眼鏡挑選:深度也是一重點

太陽眼鏡的深度也是另一個挑選重點,鐘珮禎醫師指出,若是日常生活中使用的太陽眼鏡,可選擇可見光阻絕率60%、戴上後深度大概是「看不清楚眼睛細部輪廓」的程度。她建議,日常外出可常備一副太陽眼鏡在包包中,就能隨時保護眼睛。

若是要從事戶外活動,例如水上、雪上、登山或釣魚等,由於紫外線強度較強,此時可選擇可見光阻絕率達到8至9成、戴上後不但「細部輪廓看不到,連眼睛都看不太清楚」如此的深度。 

鐘珮禎醫師也補充,應盡量選擇大一點的鏡面,包覆力較強,因為光線不只從前方來,還會有上下左右的反射光,若是包覆度夠大,就能夠阻絕一些散射、折射的光線。此外,鏡面的包覆性越強,眼睛接觸到pm2.5懸浮微粒的機率也較低,能夠提供眼睛更好的保護。 

孩童更需戴太陽眼鏡 

對於有部分人戴太陽眼鏡一段時間後,容易產生頭暈、眼前影像與不戴時有差距等現象,鐘珮禎醫師回應,在挑選太陽眼鏡時,應注意鏡面是「清澈且對稱均勻的」。她也傳授一個檢測方法,可將太陽眼鏡拿在一張畫有格子或直線的紙張上方,並上下左右移動,觀察從鏡面看出去的影像有沒有扭曲。若是在移動中,直線仍然保持直線沒有扭曲,如此的鏡片戴上去後自然會比較舒服,不易頭暈也戴得更久。 

不只大人需要太陽眼鏡,小孩也不能輕忽。鐘珮禎醫師指出,防曬須從小就做起,建議小朋友出門也戴上太陽眼鏡,尤其是從事戶外活動時。她說明,小孩的水晶體相較大人而言較透明、清澈,所以如果沒有適度保護,紫外線暴露量反而比成人來得多。近視或使用散瞳藥水治療的學童,更建議戴太陽眼鏡,並外加一頂寬沿的帽子,做好全面防護。



Oser and Gmunder (1991), relation of humanity to the Divine, individuals’ construction of their relationship with a higher power, development of religious judgment in relational context, age-related developmental changes in religious cognition

Sunday, June 10, 2018

Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.

It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.
social identity approach to examine experiences and behavior of older adults outside
of the work context, for instance in retirement and in aged care facilities
(e.g., Gleibs et al., 2011; Haslam et al., 2010; Steffens, Cruwys,
C. Haslam, Jetten, & S. A. Haslam, 2016; Weiss & Lang, 2009).

Gleibs, I. H., Haslam, C., Jones, J. M., Haslam, S. A., McNeil, J., &
Connolly, H. (2011). No country for old men? The role of a
Gentlemen’s Club in promoting social engagement and psychological
well-being in residential care. Aging and Mental Health, 15,
456–466. doi:10.1080/13607863.2010.536137

Haslam, C., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Bevins, A., Ravenscroft, S., &
Tonks, J. (2010). The social treatment: Benefits of group reminiscence
and group activity for the cognitive performance and wellbeing
of older adults in residential care. Psychology and Aging, 25,
157–167. doi:10.1037/a0018256

Steffens, N. K., Cruwys, T., Haslam, C., Jetten, J., & Haslam, S. A.
(2016). Social group memberships in retirement are associated
with reduced risk of premature death: Evidence from a
longitudinal cohort study. BMJ Open, 6, 1–8. doi:10.1136/
bmjopen-2015–010164

Weiss, D., & Lang, F. R. (2009). Thinking about my generation:
Adaptive effects of a dual identity in later adulthood. Psychology
and Aging, 24, 729–734. doi:10.1037/a001633

Friday, June 08, 2018

aging and performance
(Bajor & Baltes, 2003; Ng & Feldman, 2008; Zacher & Frese, 2009; Zacher, Heausner,
Schmitz, Zwierzanska, & Frese, 2010

Bajor, J. K., & Baltes, B. B. (2003). The relationship between selection optimization with compensation,
conscientiousness, motivation, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63,
347–367. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00035-0

Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2009). Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between
age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective. Psychology and Aging,
24, 487–493. doi:10.1037/a0015425

Zacher, H., Heusner, S., Schmitz, M., Zwierzanska, M. M., & Frese, M. (2010). Focus on
opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity, and work
performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 374–386. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2009.09.001

Seijts, G. H. (1998). The importance of future time perspective in theories of work motivation.
The Journal of Psychology, 132, 154–168'

Bal, Jansen, Van der Velde, De Lange,
& Rousseau, 2010

Kooij and Van De
Voorde (2011),

Kooij, D., & Van De Voorde, K. (2011). How changes in subjective
general health predict future time perspective, and development and
generativity motives over the lifespan. Journal of Occupational and
Organizational Psychology, 84, 21%-241. doi: 10.111 l/j.2044-8325
.2010.02012.x

Jonas, E., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002).
Jonas, E., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002). The scrooge effect: evidence that mortality salience increases prosocial attitudes and behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1342–135