Saturday, June 23, 2018

移除參數_Remove Field Code

https://sites.google.com/site/taiwanendnote/endnote/cite-while-you-write_cwyw/yi-chu-can-shu_remove-field-cod

endnote, reference, times new roman

http://xken831.pixnet.net/blog/post/459864616-%5Bendnote%5D-%E4%BF%AE%E6%94%B9%E6%8F%92%E5%85%A5-word-%E7%9A%84%E5%AD%97%E9%AB%94
EndNote 找不到Times New Roman 的問題:windows 會根據語言的設定將部份字型隱藏。 請至控制台→外觀及個人化→字型,在 Times New Roman 字型上按右鍵→顯示,EndNote 裡的 Times New Roman 就回來了。也可在字型設定中將「根據語言設定隱藏字型」取消,所有字型都不會再被隱藏。
Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis, and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58,525-543.

Meredith, W. (1995). Two wrongs may not make a right.Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30, 89-94. 


  • Meredith, W. 1993. Measurement invariance, factor analysis, and factorial invariance Psychometrika, 58: 525-543.
  • Meredith, W. 1995. Two wrongs may not make a right Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30: 89-94.
  • Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthen, B. 1989. Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issues of partial measurement invariance Psychological Bulletin, 105: 456-466.

  • Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 78-90.
(Ichikawa & Konish, 1997; West, Finch, & Curran, 1995; Yung & Bentler, 1996)

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Author (Year) Citations, endnote

et al.,

In et al.,

et should not be followed by a period.

two paper, the same author, the same year

When you edit the citation (Smith 2006a, Smith 2006b), for the first citation insert a comma followed by the letter b in the Suffix field (see Image1 - which uses Agresti as the author). Then for the second citation click to select "Year" then click OK to close the Edit & Manage Citations window (See Image2).

https://community.endnote.com/t5/EndNote-How-To/how-to-merge-two-paper-of-the-same-author-in-citation/td-p/15483

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Named decades and centuries are references to unique time periods (the 1920s, the 1300s) and require the definite article the.

Incorrect Beatlemania began in 1960s.
Correct Beatlemania began in the 1960s.

The name of a specific year (1962, 264 B.C.E.) is treated like other names (John, Mr. Jones) and uses no article.

Incorrect Sales for the 2015 are expected to double.
Correct Sales for 2015 are expected to double.

Although some readers still believe it, the rule that prohibits ending a sentence with a preposition is a myth. When the preposition is redundant, though, you should leave it out. If your readers are likely to believe that ending a sentence with a preposition is always an error, consider rephrasing to avoid it.

Incorrect Where is it at?
Correct Where is it?

Controversial: That’s the building she went into.
Recommended: That’s the building she entered.

Controversial: It’s a terrible situation to find yourself in.
Recommended: It’s a terrible situation in which to find yourself. (More formal)

Uncountable nouns (such as water, sand, or information) may or may not use a determiner, but they do not use the indefinite articles a or an.

Other determiners include the definite article (the), possessive adjectives (my, his, our), possessive nouns (Joe’s, mother’s), and quantifiers (some, any).

Incorrect I’d like a milk with my dinner.
Correct I’d like milk with my dinner.
Correct I’d like a glass of milk with my dinner.

Depending on context, a noun can be either countable or uncountable.
Correct We need a light in this room.
Correct We need some light in this room.

Words that start with the prefixes ex, self, or all (ex-wife, self-interest, all-inclusive) should always be hyphenated.

The prefix non is usually hyphenated in British, Australian, and Canadian English. In American English, it can be written either as one word or with a hyphen (nonprofit or non-profit).

Prefixes are sometimes hyphenated to avoid confusion with the unhyphenated word: re-cover means to cover again and recover means to regain.

Any prefix should be hyphenated when used with a proper noun (pre-Civil War, mid-December) or date (post-1990s).

Suffixes are never hyphenated, though some words act like a suffix and should use a hyphen. These include elect (mayor-elect Smith), free (sugar-free cookies), and odd (twenty-odd examples).

Incorrect Don is self employed.
Correct Don is self-employed.

Incorrect The ex mayor will speak on Friday.
Correct The ex-mayor will speak on Friday.

British/Canadian/Australian: This non-profit organization collects clothing for disaster victims.
American: This nonprofit organization collects clothing for disaster victims.

compound predicate

A predicate tells us something about the subject. It includes a verb and any other modifiers. A compound predicate includes verbs that go with the same subject. Commas separate multiple predicates when there are three or more verb phrases, but a compound predicate with only two requires no punctuation to separate them. 

Incorrect Deb walked to the store, but forgot her wallet.
Correct Deb walked to the store but forgot her wallet.

Incorrect Carleigh loves cooking, but hates washing dishes.
Correct Carleigh loves cooking but hates washing dishes.

Incorrect Tina called her mother, and invited her to lunch.
Correct Tina called her mother and invited her to lunch.

An article (a, an, or the) is a type of determiner. Possessive adjectives (my, his, our), possessive nouns (Joe’s, mother’s), and quantifiers (each, every) are also determiners. Single countable nouns usually require a determiner. 

Incorrect I left book on table.
Correct I left a book on the table.
Correct I left the book on a table.
Correct I left Bob’s book on his table.

Incorrect Ms. Anderson, school librarian, agreed to chaperone the field trip.
Correct Ms. Anderson, the school librarian, agreed to chaperone the field trip.

, and

A compound sentence includes two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). 
In a compound sentence, the conjunction is in most cases preceded by a comma.  However, if both independent clauses are very short, it’s acceptable to omit the comma. 

Incorrect The airport is about to shut down because of the snow and if the plane doesn’t land soon, it                  will have to go on to Boston.

Correct The airport is about to shut down because of the snow, and if the plane doesn’t land soon,                     it will have to go on to Boston.

Incorrect We love to hear from our readers so you are welcome to share your thoughts, views, and                      opinions in the comment section below.
Correct We love to hear from our readers, so you are welcome to share your thoughts, views, and   
                opinions in the comment section below.

Correct Mark brought popcorn and Tina provided soda.

客家粽

https://blog.wonderfulfood.com.tw/2017/05/26/%E5%AE%A2%E5%AE%B6%E7%B2%84%E7%B2%BD%EF%BC%8C%E8%87%AA%E5%B7%B1%E5%8C%85%E7%9C%9F%E7%B0%A1%E5%96%AE/

客家粽分兩種,一是米粽,將蒸過的糯米飯,包入蝦米、紅蔥頭、菜脯、香菇絲、豬肉等材料,以曬乾的麻竹葉包裹再蒸熟食用;

二是粄粽,糯米經泡水後研磨成米漿,瀝乾水分搓揉成粄糰,加入菜脯香料再用麻竹葉包上蒸熟,在製作上比較耗時,風味也更特殊。

邱炳坤表示,客家粽好吃的關鍵在於米,米粒要分明、咬勁要Q彈,餡料一定要用紅蔥頭爆香,傳統客家米粽的材料是利用祭祀所用的牲品,例如豬肉為主要材料,佐以菜脯、蝦米、香菇等做配料,並就地取材隨手善用周邊的自然資源,採用麻竹葉作粽葉,有些則會利用月桃葉增加風味。

很多人不知粄粽蒸法與吃法,來教一下大家粄粽蒸法:
冷凍先退冰:用電鍋蒸(約4/1罐養樂多)蒸煮約5-8分鐘跳起後悶10分鐘(如按下去未Q再做一次) 注意:粄粽勿蒸過久,蒸太久粄會流出變形喔!

30秒看完粄粽吃法讓你變吃粄達人
粄粽外皮是由逢萊米+糯米依比例磨成漿壓乾製成粄,粄在蒸煮過程會膨脹1倍,所以用粄包成粄粽不能持續蒸要用悶的方式避免粄因膨脹空間不足而流出,吃粄粽就跟吃麻糬一樣,冷的吃才夠Q,粄粽也會越嚼越夠味,非常適合炎熱的夏天食用,因此都是上午蒸中午吃或中午蒸下午吃點心。

小撇步:
打開粄粽不能像一般肉粽一樣直接開,不然會因粄黏在葉子上而不完整,在開葉時要先用拇指把前面粄跟葉子黏住的地方稍微撥一下,就可以輕鬆打開吃到完整的粄粽呦。

「阿嬌姐客家粽」、「黃記傳統客家米食」、「傳陳客家米食坊」、「謝太美食坊」、「木蓮嫂客家粽」、「春梅姐客家粽」、「滿意美食」、「徐秋蘭客家粽」八家苗市客家粽,店家資訊在苗栗市公所全球資訊網及苗栗市公所臉書粉絲專頁

阿嬌姐、鍾春梅、邱志明、鍾秀梅、傳陳客家米食坊等五名優勝者為苗栗市代言


1 阿嬌姐客家粽
(傳統客家粽) 037-333550
0939-581200   $25

2 黃記傳統客家米食
(傳統客家粽) 037-322192
0919-705985 苗栗市福麗里至公路429巷23號 $35

3 傳陳客家米食坊
(傳統客家粽) 037-335659
0911-135314 苗栗市建功里莊敬街25號 $20

4 謝太美食坊
(經典粽)、(豪華粽) 037-328698 苗栗市維新里4鄰新庄街39巷22號 $30、$45

5 木蓮嫂客家粽
(傳統客家粽) 037-323436 苗栗市維新里4鄰維祥街32號 $25

6 春梅姐客家粽
(月桃葉古早味客家粽) 0932-960615 苗栗後站星光大道 $30

7 滿意美食
(傳統客家粽) 0916-940587
0923-236636 $30

8 徐秋蘭客家粽
(傳統客家粽) 037-329210
0989-792398 南苗市場文昌廟雜貨店 $25


阿嬌姐客家粽 037-333550 0939-581200 25
黃記傳統客家米食 037-322192 0919-705985 苗栗市福麗里至公路429巷23號 30
楊屋客家粽 037-352413 0933-571977 苗栗市維新里6鄰新庄街269號 30
秀梅姐養生粽 037-264405 0982-480403 30
傳陳客家米食坊 037-335659 0911-135314 苗栗市莊敬街25號 20
謝太美食坊 037-328698 苗栗市維新里4鄰新庄街39巷22號 30
木蓮嫂客家粽 037-323436 苗栗市維新里4鄰維祥街32號 25
春梅姐客家粽 0932-960615 30

In a compound subject or object, most pronouns precede a noun. The exceptions are I, me, we and us, which should come last.

Incorrect Her children and she will visit Aunt Polly in Seattle.
Correct She and her children will visit Aunt Polly in Seattle.

Incorrect The boss wants to meet with me and a coworker.
Correct The boss wants to meet with a coworker and me.

Monday, June 18, 2018

Spiritual development is associated with cognitive development (Sinnott, 1994), Fowler’s faith development, Kohlberg’s moral development, and Loeginger’s ego development (Shulik, 1988).

Sunday, June 17, 2018

Zacher, H., & Rudolph, C. W. (2017). Successful Aging at Work and Beyond: A Review and Critical Perspective. In S. Profili, A. Sammarra & L. Innocenti (Eds.), Age Diversity in the Workplace (Vol. 17, pp. 35 - 64): Emerald Publishing Limited.

https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/S1877-636120170000017004?fullSc=1
Allport's (1961) conception of maturity. Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.199562
Fromm



Theory of self-transcendence
 Reed (2008) developed a midrange nursing theory of self-transcendence. She described self-transcendence as an inherent process that was a gradual, nonlinear expansion of conceptual boundaries, that is, one’s personal limits or internal rules and expectations of oneself, others, and the world. Expansion of boundaries transpired within four dimensions. Expansion of intrapersonal boundaries involved a greater awareness of one’s own philosophy, values, and dreams. Interpersonal boundaries related to interactions with others and with the environment. Temporal boundaries expanded to allow integration of one’s past and future to make sense of the present. Expansion of transpersonal boundaries related to a connection with dimensions beyond the here and now One’s perspective was intrinsically different from midlife; transcendent individuals were able to tolerate greater ambiguity and uncertainty (Reed, 2008).
Reed argued that although self-transcendence was an inherent process of maturation and development, self-transcendence could also be achieved by individuals of any age when faced with a loss, trauma, or illness that created a sense of vulnerability and awareness of mortality. The outcome of self-transcendence was well-being, marked by life satisfaction, positive self-concept, hopefulness, and a sense of meaning in life (Reed, 2009). Reed suggested factors that might promote  development of self-transcendence, including altruism, generativity, introspection, spirituality, lifelong learning, group therapy, creativity, journaling, meditation, and sharing wisdom with others.

Overall, a change from a relatively compact, concentrated, self-centred ego to a

more open, fluid, blurred self. "The change in the perception of objects can include an elimination of the borders between "you" and "me", and between "us" and "them". An impression of being «one all together» becomes dominant. As a consequence, the degree of self-centeredness will diminish. To a certain extent the enclosed self is disaggregated and substituted with a cosmic self."; Progression from egocentricity toward awareness of a dimension greater than the self and a sense of being an integral part of the universe; characterized by Broadened personal boundaries within interpersonal, intrapersonal, transpersonal, and temporal dimensions (Reed, 2008, 2009).

Reed, P. G. (2008). The theory of self-transcendence. In P. R. Smith & M. J. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (2nd ed., pp. 105-130). New York, NY: Springer.

Reed, P. G. (2009). Demystifying self-transcendence for mental health nursing practice and research. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 23, 397-400.

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Bernice Neugarten termed this a shift toward greater 'interiority' of the personality in old age in which there was an increasing reverence toward living and toward existence.
Gutmann similarly observed this among older men in his cross-cultural studies of ageing and described it as a turning toward the sacred and elemental aspects of life and away from competition, accumulation, and achievement

Erich Fromm identified this as a distinction between 'being' and ' having' in life. He noted, ' In the having mode of my existence of my relationship to the world is one of possessing and owning, one in which I want to make everybody and everything, including myself, my
property. On the other hand, the being mode is equated with the concept of process, activity, and movement as an element in being... the idea that being implies change, i.e., that being is becoming

Fromm claimed that the writings of Meister Eckart represented one of the clearest positions against the 'having' mode. The essence of Eckhart's concept of non-attachment was the idea that the person who wants nothing is the person who is not greedy for anything. As Fromm
says, 'this does not mean that we should neither possess anything nor do anything; it means we should not be bound, tied, and chained, to what we own and what we have...

人走,茶涼,緣滅,生命從不等候

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and religion. In G. Adler (Ed.), Collected works of C. G. Jung
(Vol. 11: Psychology and religion: West and East; R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press.

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

太陽眼鏡

太陽眼鏡挑選:記得UV400

太陽眼鏡不只是時尚配件,更是生活中維護眼睛健康的重要日常用品,永和大學眼科診所院長鐘珮禎醫師指出,太陽眼鏡主要有三個功能,分別為「阻絕有害的紫外線、降低可見光的強度及預防空氣汙染造成的眼睛病變」。

阻絕有害的紫外線
鐘珮禎醫師說明,紫外線依不同波長可分為:UVA、UVB及UVC。UVA會造成眼睛白內障及黃斑部病變;UVB則容易導致眼翳或光角膜炎,上述都是會嚴重影響視力的疾病,好的太陽眼鏡就能有效杜絕有害的紫外線。

降低可見光的強度
如果在很亮的環境下待了一段時間,會覺得眼睛有一點昏花,看東西變得不太清楚,鐘珮禎醫師表示,這是因為可見光太強,會讓眼睛容易疲勞,因此太陽眼鏡的另一個功能,就是降低可見光的強度,提升我們看東西的視覺品質及對比度,舒緩眼睛疲勞。

預防空氣汙染造成的眼睛病變
現在空氣汙染愈來愈嚴重,鐘珮禎醫師指出,太陽眼鏡也能當成防護鏡,讓眼睛隔絕有害的懸浮微粒。

太陽眼鏡可以保護眼睛,但當心挑錯反而白花錢又傷眼。鐘珮禎醫師提醒,挑選太陽眼鏡記得一個口訣:「UV400」。她進一步解釋,400指的是波長400奈米,因為理論上,太陽眼鏡應該要能99%~100%的阻絕在此波長以下的光線,但因為肉眼看不到紫外線,所以我們無法從鏡面深度判斷眼鏡有沒有UV400的功能。

一般需要透過儀器檢測才能確認,不過在購買時也有能注意的地方,鐘珮禎醫師表示,可以留意商品標籤、保卡或保證書上面有沒有標註UV400,才是合格、有效的太陽眼鏡

太陽眼鏡鏡片顏色別選藍色

除了購買時要注意UV400外,其實鏡片的顏色及深度也大有學問。鐘珮禎醫師表示,太陽眼鏡會過濾掉與它對比的顏色,而最不推薦的鏡片顏色就是「藍色」,因為藍色鏡片會過濾掉它的對比、波長較長的光線,例如:黃光,並反而讓短波的藍光進入眼睛,而波長愈短的光線能量愈強,久了就容易造成眼睛病變。

究竟太陽眼鏡該選什麼顏色的鏡片才好?鐘珮禎醫師也推薦大家以下三個色系,分別是「灰色、黃褐色及墨綠色」。

灰色系
鐘珮禎醫師說明,灰色阻絕各個顏色的波長較均勻,比較不會降低眼睛對顏色真實度的判斷力,她舉例,當我們在開車時,看紅綠燈號誌時就比較不容易出錯,因此灰色是一個不錯的選擇。

黃褐色系
由於太陽眼鏡會過濾掉與鏡片本身對比的顏色,因此黃色的對比色是藍色,可以過濾短波的藍光。鐘珮禎醫師舉例,很多從事戶外運動的運動員,例如:高爾夫球選手,都會配戴黃色系的太陽眼鏡。此外,黃色系鏡片還能增加對比的敏感度,在運動或看球時的判斷力會比不戴來得更好。

墨綠色系
鐘珮禎醫師表示,綠色的對比色是紅色,墨綠色系、UV400的太陽眼鏡除了過濾紫外線,另一個就是可過濾紅外線,讓波長550奈米的光線進入眼睛,這也是能讓眼睛較舒適的波長光。

太陽眼鏡挑選:深度也是一重點

太陽眼鏡的深度也是另一個挑選重點,鐘珮禎醫師指出,若是日常生活中使用的太陽眼鏡,可選擇可見光阻絕率60%、戴上後深度大概是「看不清楚眼睛細部輪廓」的程度。她建議,日常外出可常備一副太陽眼鏡在包包中,就能隨時保護眼睛。

若是要從事戶外活動,例如水上、雪上、登山或釣魚等,由於紫外線強度較強,此時可選擇可見光阻絕率達到8至9成、戴上後不但「細部輪廓看不到,連眼睛都看不太清楚」如此的深度。 

鐘珮禎醫師也補充,應盡量選擇大一點的鏡面,包覆力較強,因為光線不只從前方來,還會有上下左右的反射光,若是包覆度夠大,就能夠阻絕一些散射、折射的光線。此外,鏡面的包覆性越強,眼睛接觸到pm2.5懸浮微粒的機率也較低,能夠提供眼睛更好的保護。 

孩童更需戴太陽眼鏡 

對於有部分人戴太陽眼鏡一段時間後,容易產生頭暈、眼前影像與不戴時有差距等現象,鐘珮禎醫師回應,在挑選太陽眼鏡時,應注意鏡面是「清澈且對稱均勻的」。她也傳授一個檢測方法,可將太陽眼鏡拿在一張畫有格子或直線的紙張上方,並上下左右移動,觀察從鏡面看出去的影像有沒有扭曲。若是在移動中,直線仍然保持直線沒有扭曲,如此的鏡片戴上去後自然會比較舒服,不易頭暈也戴得更久。 

不只大人需要太陽眼鏡,小孩也不能輕忽。鐘珮禎醫師指出,防曬須從小就做起,建議小朋友出門也戴上太陽眼鏡,尤其是從事戶外活動時。她說明,小孩的水晶體相較大人而言較透明、清澈,所以如果沒有適度保護,紫外線暴露量反而比成人來得多。近視或使用散瞳藥水治療的學童,更建議戴太陽眼鏡,並外加一頂寬沿的帽子,做好全面防護。



Oser and Gmunder (1991), relation of humanity to the Divine, individuals’ construction of their relationship with a higher power, development of religious judgment in relational context, age-related developmental changes in religious cognition

Sunday, June 10, 2018

Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.

It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.
social identity approach to examine experiences and behavior of older adults outside
of the work context, for instance in retirement and in aged care facilities
(e.g., Gleibs et al., 2011; Haslam et al., 2010; Steffens, Cruwys,
C. Haslam, Jetten, & S. A. Haslam, 2016; Weiss & Lang, 2009).

Gleibs, I. H., Haslam, C., Jones, J. M., Haslam, S. A., McNeil, J., &
Connolly, H. (2011). No country for old men? The role of a
Gentlemen’s Club in promoting social engagement and psychological
well-being in residential care. Aging and Mental Health, 15,
456–466. doi:10.1080/13607863.2010.536137

Haslam, C., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Bevins, A., Ravenscroft, S., &
Tonks, J. (2010). The social treatment: Benefits of group reminiscence
and group activity for the cognitive performance and wellbeing
of older adults in residential care. Psychology and Aging, 25,
157–167. doi:10.1037/a0018256

Steffens, N. K., Cruwys, T., Haslam, C., Jetten, J., & Haslam, S. A.
(2016). Social group memberships in retirement are associated
with reduced risk of premature death: Evidence from a
longitudinal cohort study. BMJ Open, 6, 1–8. doi:10.1136/
bmjopen-2015–010164

Weiss, D., & Lang, F. R. (2009). Thinking about my generation:
Adaptive effects of a dual identity in later adulthood. Psychology
and Aging, 24, 729–734. doi:10.1037/a001633

Friday, June 08, 2018

aging and performance
(Bajor & Baltes, 2003; Ng & Feldman, 2008; Zacher & Frese, 2009; Zacher, Heausner,
Schmitz, Zwierzanska, & Frese, 2010

Bajor, J. K., & Baltes, B. B. (2003). The relationship between selection optimization with compensation,
conscientiousness, motivation, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63,
347–367. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00035-0

Zacher, H., & Frese, M. (2009). Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between
age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective. Psychology and Aging,
24, 487–493. doi:10.1037/a0015425

Zacher, H., Heusner, S., Schmitz, M., Zwierzanska, M. M., & Frese, M. (2010). Focus on
opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age, job complexity, and work
performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 374–386. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2009.09.001

Seijts, G. H. (1998). The importance of future time perspective in theories of work motivation.
The Journal of Psychology, 132, 154–168'

Bal, Jansen, Van der Velde, De Lange,
& Rousseau, 2010

Kooij and Van De
Voorde (2011),

Kooij, D., & Van De Voorde, K. (2011). How changes in subjective
general health predict future time perspective, and development and
generativity motives over the lifespan. Journal of Occupational and
Organizational Psychology, 84, 21%-241. doi: 10.111 l/j.2044-8325
.2010.02012.x

Jonas, E., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002).
Jonas, E., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002). The scrooge effect: evidence that mortality salience increases prosocial attitudes and behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1342–135

Thursday, June 07, 2018

age, moderator

Armstrong-Stassen, M., & Schlosser, F. K. (2008). Benefits of a supportive development climate
for older workers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 419–437.

Truxillo and colleagues (2012) suggested that age moderates the effects of certain
job characteristics on job attitudes.

Truxillo, D. M., Cadiz, D. M., Rineer, J. R., Zaniboni, S., & Fraccaroli,
F. (2012). A lifespan perspective on job design: Fitting the job
and the worker to promote job satisfaction, engagement, and
performance. Organizational Psychology Review, 2, 340–360


Several studies have examined
interactions between age and job characteristics such as job complexity
and job control (Zacher & Frese, 2009, 2011; Zacher, Heusner,
Schmitz, Zwierzanska, & Frese, 2010), task variety and skill variety
(Zaniboni, Truxillo, Fraccaroli, McCune, & Bertolino, 2014; Zaniboni
et al., 2013), and job demands, control, and support (De Lange
et al., 2010; Shultz, Wang, Crimmins, & Fisher, 2010).

Wednesday, June 06, 2018

Marty, M. 1993. Where the energies go. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 553:11–26.

Roof,W. C. 1999. Spiritual marketplace: Baby boomers and the remaking of American religion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press.

Wuthnow, R. 1998. After heaven: Spirituality in America since the 1950s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hout, M. and A. Greeley. 1987. The center doesn’t hold: Church attendance in the United States, 1940–1984. American Sociological Review 52:325–45.

Hout, M. and C. Fischer. 2002. Explaining the rise of Americans with no religious preference: Politic and generations. American Sociological Review 67:165–90.

Smith, T. 2002. Religious diversity in America. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 4:577–85.
“personal religion” -- Smith 2002

emergence of a privatized and individuated spirituality with considerable concern (e.g., Bellah et al. 1985
Bellah, R., R. Madsen, W. Sullivan, A. Swidler, and S. Tipton. 1985. Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment
in American life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


because spirituality usually means that the individual has developed an awareness
of a sense of connectedness between self and others and the world at large (Underwood 1999

Underwood, L. 1999. Daily spiritual experiences. In Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research: A report of the Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging working group, pp. 11–17. Kalamazoo,
MI: John E. Fetzer Institute

Sinnott, J. 1994. Development and yearning: Cognitive aspects of spiritual development. Journal of Adult Development
1:91–99

McFadden, S. 1996. Religion, spirituality, and aging. In Handbook of the psychology of aging, edited by J. Birren and
W. Schaie, pp. 41–52. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Stokes, K. 1990. Faith development in the adult life cycle. Journal of Religious Gerontology 7:167–84.

Jung, C. editor. 1964. Man and his symbols. New York: Laurel.

Stifoss-Hanssen, H. 1999. Religion and spirituality: What a European ear hears. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 9:25–33.

Bakan, D. 1966. The duality of human existence. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Kotre, J. 1996. Outliving the self , 2nd ed. New York: Norton

MacDermid, S., C. Franz, and L. A. De Reus. 1998. Adult character: Agency, communion, insight, and the expression of generativity in mid-life adults. In Competence and character through life, edited by A. Colby, J. James, and D.
Hart, pp. 205–29. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

McAdams, D. and E. de St. Aubin. 1992. A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts,
and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62:1003–15.

Bellah et al. 1991, 1991. The good society. New York: Knopf.

McAdams, D. 1995. Power, intimacy, and the life story. New York: Guilford

Rossi, A. 2001. Caring and doing for others. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Wink and Dillon 2002
———. 2002. Spiritual development across the adult life course: Findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Adult
Development 9:79–94.
(Kotre, 1984; McAdams, Hart, & Maruna, 1998) connected generative motivation within the increasing awareness of one’s own mortality that comes with age.

Kotre, J. (1984). Outliving the self: Generativity and the interpretation of lives.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

McAdams, D. P., Hart, H. M., & Maruna, S. (1998). The anatomy of generativity. In D.
P. McAdams & E. de St.Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development: How and
why we care for the next generation (pp. 7–43). Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.

Cultural norms affect the timing of generativity (McAdams & de
St. Aubin, 1992) and ‘‘cultural demand’’ in the United States ‘‘urges
adults to assume generative roles as they move into their 30s and
40s’’ (McAdams et al., 1998, p. 17). Erikson (1963) did not state
exactly when the generative stage was supposed to end, but
cross-sectional surveys have found that people in their sixties
and early seventies score lower on measures of generative concern
than people in their late thirties, forties, and fifties (Keyes & Ryff,
1998; McAdams, de St. Aubin, & Logan, 1993).

McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (1992). A theory of generativity and its
assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in
autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1003–1015.

Keyes, C. L. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1998). Generativity in adult lives: Social structural
contours and quality of life consequences. In D. P. McAdams & E. de. St.Aubin
(Eds.), Generativity and adult development: How and why we care for the next
generation (pp. 227–263). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

McAdams, D. P., de St. Aubin, E., & Logan, R. L. (1993). Generativity among young,
midlife, and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 8, 221–230.

Stewart and Vandewater (1998) further elaborated the theory of
the life course development of generativity by dividing the concept
into generative motivation, generative capacity, and generative
achievement. They argue that generative motivation develops
completely in early adulthood and then declines; felt capacity for
generative action begins to occur in early adulthood, peaks in
mid-adulthood, and then decreases; and generative achievement
increases through adulthood and peaks late in life. They supported
this theory with quantitative coding of narrative data taken from
two longitudinal studies of female college graduates.

Stewart, A. J., & Vandewater, E. A. (1998). The course of generativity. In D. P.
McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development: How and
why we care for the next generation (pp. 75–100). Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.

(Dillon & Wink, 2004; Wink & Dillon,
2003).

Dillon, M., & Wink, P. (2004). Is spirituality detrimental to generativity? Journal for
the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 427–442

Wink, P., & Dillon, M. (2003). Religiousness, spirituality, and psychosocial
functioning in late adulthood: Findings from a longitudinal study. Psychology
and Aging, 19, 916–924.

Two cross-sectional studies have examined whether generative
concern scores vary by age. McAdams et al. (1993) tested the timing
of generativity among a sample of 152 adults, randomly
selected from the population of Evanston, Illinois. They found that
people in mid-adulthood (aged 37–42) scored higher on the LGS
than young adults (age 22–27) and older adults (age 67–72). Using
cross-sectional data from the 1995 wave of the Midlife in the United
States study, Keyes and Ryff (1998) also found statistically significant
differences in generative concern by age, with 40–59 year
olds scoring higher than those aged 24–39 or those aged 60 and
older. As both of these studies were cross-sectional, cohort differences
instead of life course development may explain the differences
found.

McAdams, D. P., de St. Aubin, E., & Logan, R. L. (1993). Generativity among young,
midlife, and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 8, 221–230.

two longitudinal studies using the LGS.
One found no significant changes in the LGS among young adults
measured first at age 19 and then at age 23 (Lawford, Pratt,
Hunsberger, & Pancer, 2005). Another used longitudinal data from
MIDUS to find correlations among family of origin factors, education,
generative concern, religiosity, and volunteering, but did not
test whether generative concern peaked in midlife (Son &
Wilson, 2011).

Lawford, H., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. M. (2005). Adolescent
generativity: A longitudinal study of two possible contexts for learning concern
for future generations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15, 261–273.

Son, J., & Wilson, J. (2011). Generativity and volunteering. Sociological Forum, 26,
644–667.

McAdams, D. P., Hart, H. M., & Maruna, S. (1998). The anatomy of generativity. In D.
P. McAdams & E. de St.Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development: How and
why we care for the next generation (pp. 7–43). Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association

Hypothesizing
that generative concern will follow the same pattern as the
big five personality traits (Specht et al., 2011), one would expect
rank-order stability in generative concern to increase until ages
40 through 60, and then decrease afterward. Alternatively, rank
order stability may peak at age 30 (Costa & McCrae, 1988;
Srivastava et al., 2003) or age 50 (Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000;
Srivastava et al., 2003) and remain high afterward

Specht, J., Egloff, B., & Schmukle, S. C. (2011). Stability and change of personality
across the life course: The impact of age and major life course events on meanlevel
and rank-order stability of the big five. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 101, 862–882.

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1988). Personality in adulthood: A six-year
longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality
Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 853–863.

Srivastava, S., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2003). Development of
personality in early and middle adulthood: Set like plaster or persistent
change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1041–1053.

Roberts, B. W., & DelVecchio, W. F. (2000). The rank-order consistency of personality
traits from childhood to old age: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies.
Psychological Bulletin, 126, 3–25.


Erikson’s (1963) theory, as elaborated by later authors
(McAdams et al., 1998), also predicts that individuals are most
focused on generativity in mid-adulthood, and this implies that
generative concern scores would peak in mid-life. Measuring
mid-life by age, one expects the mean generativity score of an
age cohort to rise as individuals reach their 30s, 40s, and 50s, when
cultural norms in the United States expect generativity to be at its
highest (McAdams et al., 1998), and then decline as people age into
their 60s and 70s


Lang and Carstensen (2002) found that when
individuals’ future time was perceived as limited, they were more likely
to choose generative actions, such as, “Leave my mark on this world”
(p. 129).


individuals
age, they focus less on themselves and more on giving back to society
and leaving a legacy (Einolf, 2014).

Grant and Wade-Benzoni (2009)
link generativity to death reflection, asserting that as individuals age,
they contemplate the meaning of their lives and reflect on how others
will see them after they have passed.

Grant, A. M., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (2009). The hot and cool of
death awareness at work: Mortality cues, aging, and self-protective
and prosocial motivations. Academy of Management Review, 34,
600–622. doi:10.5465/AMR.2009.44882929

Mor Barak (1995), in the creation
of her Meaning of Work Scale, identified generativity as one of four
factors related to the meaning of work in later life, operationalizing
generativity in work as sharing skills with younger people, teaching
and training others, using and demonstrating one’s skills and abilities,
and passing knowledge on to the next generation.

Mor Barak, M. (1995). The meaning of work and older adults seeking
employment: The generativity factor. The International Journal
of Aging and Human Development, 41, 325–344. doi:10.2190/
VGTG-EPK6-Q4BH-Q67Q

Zacher, Schmitt, and
Gielnik (2012) operationalized generativity as older entrepreneurs
having succession plans for younger family members; they found that
generativity was a powerful motivator for older German entrepreneurs,
fully mediating the positive association between age and succession
planning. The ventures that older adults begin in later life may,
as an extension of this theory, have a great deal of personal meaning to
them, enabling these entrepreneurs to leave a lasting, positive impact
on their families and society overall. Although profit would most certainly
be a motivation for many self-employed older adults, the theory
of generativity suggests that making a difference in one’s family or community
through self-employment activities may become more important
in later life than in younger years

Zacher, H., Schmitt, A., & Gielnik, M. M. (2012). Stepping into my
shoes: Generativity as a mediator of the relationship between business
owners’ age and family succession. Ageing & Society, 32, 673–
696. doi:10.1017/S0144686X11000547

relationship between age and work motivation (e.g., Bertolino, Zacher,
& Kooij, 2015; Kanfer & Ackerman, 2004; Kooij, de Lange, Jansen, &
Dikkers, 2007).

Kooij and colleagues (2007)
found that age-related factors, including chronological age, biological
age (e.g., physical health), and the sense of being “old” were negatively
associated with motivation to work.

Kooij, D., de Lange, A., Jansen, P., & Dikkers, J. (2007). Older
worker’s motivation to continue to work: Five meanings
of age. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 364–394.
doi:10.1108/02683940810869015


Ng and Feldman (2015), in a meta-analysis
of more than 400 empirical articles, reported conflicting results on the
moderating effects of age in the relationship between job autonomy
and work outcomes. Specifically, job autonomy was found to have a
stronger relationship in older workers than younger workers in relation
to job self-efficacy, self-rated job performance, and emotional exhaustion;
however, job autonomy was found to have a weaker relationship
in older workers than younger workers in relation to job satisfaction,
work engagement, job stress, and poor mental health

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2015). The moderating effects of
age in the relationships of job autonomy to work outcomes. Work,
Aging and Retirement, 1, 64–78. doi:10.1093/workar/wau003

Tuesday, June 05, 2018

goals change as people age

Bu¨hler, C., Brind, A., & Horner, A. (1968). Old age as a phase of human
life: Questionnaire study. Human Development, 11, 53–63.

Dittmann-Kohli, F., & Westerhof, G. J. (1997). The SELE-Sentence Completion
Questionnaire: A new instrument for the assessment of personal
meanings in aging research. Anuario de Psicologia, 73, 7–18

Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed: A review. New York: Norton.

Jung, C. G. (1960). The stages of life. In Collected works: Vol. 8. The
structure and dynamics of the psyche (p. 596). Oxford, England:
Pantheon.

Gutman, G. M. (1966). A note on the MPI: Age and sex differences in
extraversion and neuroticism in a Canadian sample. British Journal of
Social and Clinical Psychology, 5, 128–129.

Heron, A., & Chown, S. M. (1967). Age and function. London: Churchill.

Neugarten, B. L. (1977). Personality and aging. In J. E. Birren & K. W.
Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 626–649).
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Nurmi, J.-E. (1992). Age differences in adult life goals, concerns and their
temporal extension: A life course approach to future-oriented motivation.
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15, 487–508.

Slater, P. E., & Scarr, H. A. (1964). Personality in old age. Genetic
Psychology Monographs, 70, 229–269.

Staudinger, U. M., Freund, A. M., Linden, M., & Maas, I. (1999). Self,
personality, and life regulation: Facets of psychological resilience in old
age. In P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer (Eds.), The Berlin Aging Study: Aging
from 70 to 100 (pp. 302–328). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kennedy, Q., Fung, H. H., & Carstensen, L. L. (2001). Aging, time
estimation and emotion. In S. H. McFadden & R. C. Atchley (Eds.),
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Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (1994). Close emotional relationships in
late life: Further support for proactive aging in the social domain.
Psychology and Aging, 9, 315–324
(Heckhausen, 1997; Ogilvie et al.,
2001)

Heckhausen, J. (1997). Developmental regulation across adulthood: Primary
and secondary control of age-related changes. Developmental
Psychology, 33, 176–187.

Ogilvie, D. M., Rose, K. M., & Heppen, J. B. (2001). A comparison of
personal project motives in three age groups. Basic & Applied Social
Psychology, 23, 207–215.
Carstensen, L. L. (1993). Motivation for social contact across the life span: A theory of socioemotional
selectivity. In J. E. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: 1992, developmental
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Goals change when life's fragility is primed: Lessons learned from older adults, the September 11 attacks and sars
HH Fung, LL Carstensen
Social Cognition 24 (3), 248-278


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HH Fung, LL Carstensen, AM Lutz
Psychology and aging 14 (4), 595

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LL Carstensen, HH Fung, ST Charles
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HH Fung, LL Carstensen
Journal of personality and social psychology 85 (1), 163

the social context of of Emotional Experience
LL Carstensen, JJ Gross, HH Fung
Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Volume 17, 1997: Focus on
knowledge transfer

Knowledge Retention From Older and Retiring
Workers: What Do We Know, and Where Do We
Go From Here?
Anne Burmeister and Jürgen Deller

Monday, June 04, 2018

Wang, M., Beal, D. J., Chan, D., Newman, D. A., Vancouver, J. B., &
Vandenberg, R. J. (2017). Longitudinal research: A panel discussion
on conceptual issues, research design, and statistical techniques.
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waw033

Ployhart, R. E., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2010). Longitudinal research:
The theory, design, and analysis of change. Journal of Management,
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trying to explain variation in job performance with age alone is likely to limit
explanatory power, as age-related characteristics such as cognitive ability
and work experience may be better predictors of job performance
(Kanfer & Ackerman, 2004; Klein, Dilchert, Ones, & Dages, 2015).

Kooij, Bal, and Kanfer (2014) illustrates the usefulness of
including mediators of relationships between age and work outcomes.
These researchers showed that workers’ future time perspective and
promotion focus mediate the negative relationships of age with work-related
growth motives and motivation to continue working
Rhodes (1983) concluded
that there was no consistent relationship between age and work performance.
She found that equal numbers of studies documented declines in
performance, stability in performance, and increase in performance. Her study
relied on a qualitative review. Since her review, however, a number of metaanalyses
have been conducted to more definitively address the issue.

Rhodes, S. R. (1983). Age-related differences in work attitudes and behavior: A review and
conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 328–367.

Waldman
and Avolio (1986) examined 40 studies on the age and performance relationship.
They found that the literature does not support a decline in performance
with age, but that the age–performance relationship varied with the type of
performance measure.

Waldman, D. A., & Avolio, B. J. (1986). A meta-analysis of age differences in job performance.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1), 33–38

McEvoy and Cascio (1989), in a meta-analysis including over 30,000 people, reached the conclusion that the type of performance measure did not affect the conclusion that there is
a weak positive correlation with age.

effects of aging on managerial functioning has produced mixed results (Stagner,
1985).

Stagner, R. (1985). Aging in industry. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the
psychology of aging (pp. 789–817). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Meyer (1970) reported performance decrements with age on an
in-basket task.

Meyer, H. H. (1970). The validity of the in-basket test as a measure of managerial performance.
Personnel Psychology, 23, 297–307.


Taylor (1975) found that older managers made slower decisions
but took greater advantage of available information by considering more
problem facts.

Taylor, R. N. (1975). Perception of problem constraints. Management Science, 22–29

In a study of age and management team performance by
Streufert, Pogash, Piasecki, and Post (1991), four-person, age-homogenous
groups were assessed by using a day-long, decision-making simulation. Older
subject groups (75 and older) demonstrated significantly different performances
and strategies from middle age (45–55) and young (28–35) subject
groups. Strategy differences included asking for less additional information,
having less breadth to their overview of the simulation, using fewer avenues
to effect changes, and planning which was less effective and less optimal.
Older subject groups performed more poorly in the simulation and their
planning was less complex than other groups. Motivational differences were
not found, leading to the conclusion that cognitive processes played a role
in the differences between the older and younger managers. It cannot be
determined if these differences are related to cohort differences such as education
or age. This is an area that requires further study

Streufert, S., Pogash, R., Piasecki, M., & Post, G. M. (1991). Age and management team
performance. Psychology and Aging, 5, 551–559

A recent review by Sterns and McDaniel (1994) reviewed several large
meta-analyses including McEvoy and Cascio (1989). The relationship between
age and job performance is weak (.06). The relationship remains weak
regardless of whether performance is measured by supervisory ratings or by
more objective measures. The relationship is more positive, but still weak for
nonprofessional occupations (r  .06), while age showed a slight negative
relationship with performance for professional occupations (r  0.08). The
largest moderator of the relationship between age and job performance appears
to be the age range of the sample. With younger samples in the mid-twenties,
there was a modest relationship (r  .16). Studies using higher mean ages
found a relationship closer to 0 (r  .04). Age may be more predictive of
performance for younger workers than for older workers. It could be that for
younger workers the association between age and job tenure is greater because
of the amount of job knowledge that must be accrued to achieve satisfactory
job performance.

Sterns, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (1994). Job performance and the older worker. In S. Rix
(Ed.), Older worker: How do they measure up? An overview of age differences in costs and
performances (pp. 27–51). Washington, DC: Public Policy Institute. American Association
of Retired Persons

Older workers may be perceived as harder to train, less
able to keep up with technological change, more accident prone, and less
motivated (Rosen & Jerdee, 1976; Stagner, 1985).

Rosen, B. L., & Jerdee, T. H. (1976). The nature of job-related stereotypes. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 61, 180–183

Stagner, R. (1985). Aging in industry. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the
psychology of aging (pp. 789–817). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold

Job satisfaction shows consistently that work-related attitudes are more
positive with increasing age in surveys of employed adults (Rhodes, 1983).

Phillips, Barrett, and Rush (1978) found that older groups preferred more
responsibility, interesting work, and attention demands, whereas younger
workers preferred autonomy and social opportunities. Some studies have
shown that motivation measures predict performance more for older adults
than for younger adults. Younger workers may lack the knowledge to make
accurate judgments about likelihoods of efforts paying off. Older workers
report that job satisfaction is more closely related to intrinsic factors or internal
rewards of work.

Phillips, J. S., Barrett, G. V., & Rush, M. C. (1978). Job structure and age satisfaction. Aging
and Work, 1, 109–119

Gordon, R. A., & Arvey, R. D. (1986). Perceived and actual ages of workers. Journal of
Vocational Behavior, 28, 21–28.

Cleveland, J. N., & Hollmann, G. (1990). The effects of the age-type of tasks and incumbent
age composition on job perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 181–194.

Sterns, H. L., & Patchett, M. (1984). Technology and the aging adult: Career development and
training. In P. R. Robinson & J. E. Birren (Eds.), Aging and technology (pp. 261–277).
New York: Plenum Press

Shearer, R., & Steger, J. (1975). Manpower obsolescence: A new definition and empirical investigation
of personal variables. Academy of Management Journal, 18(2), 263–275.

McEnrue, M. P. (1989). Self-development as a career management strategy. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 34, 57–68.

Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. W., & Lipsitt, L. P. (1980). Lifespan developmental psychology. Annual
Review of Psyhology, 31, 65–110.

Super, D. F. (1980). A life span, life space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational
Behavior, 16, 282–298.

Sunday, June 03, 2018

研究樹木在35℃氣溫下,釋出的芬多精是平時10倍,一旦空氣中有一氧化氮和二氧化氮等空氣污染物時,芬多精和樹木釋出的揮發有機物異戊二烯結合後,會形成臭氧,影響健康。 美國的研究也發現,夏天洛杉磯的臭氧濃度很高,尤其靠近樹林地方。當天氣熱時,樹下的臭氧濃度最高,芬多精是在和空氣污染物結合後才會形成臭氧,這些空氣污染物多來自都市的汽機車及工廠排放出的廢氣,若在空氣清新的山區,反而可多吸收芬多精,它具減壓、恢復疲勞、有助健康。

研究樹木在35℃氣溫下,釋出的芬多精是平時10倍,一旦空氣中有一氧化氮和二氧化氮等空氣污染物時,芬多精和樹木釋出的揮發有機物異戊二烯結合後,會形成臭氧,影響健康。

美國的研究也發現,夏天洛杉磯的臭氧濃度很高,尤其靠近樹林地方。當天氣熱時,樹下的臭氧濃度最高,芬多精是在和空氣污染物結合後才會形成臭氧,這些空氣污染物多來自都市的汽機車及工廠排放出的廢氣,若在空氣清新的山區,反而可多吸收芬多精,它具減壓、恢復疲勞、有助健康。

天氣太熱時,不要在樹下乘涼,或停留在樹木附近,以免吸入臭氧。

車子在太陽下曝曬後,開車前應先搖下車窗散熱再進入車內,並將空調系統先開到車外循環,10分鐘後再開車內循環。

Friday, June 01, 2018

How a poet purges all of the men who didn’t keep promises

Why the new global wealth of educated women spurs backlash

pew research center survey

http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/

http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/religious-denomination/spiritual-but-not-religious/

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/06/more-americans-now-say-theyre-spiritual-but-not-religious/

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/01/21/americans-spirituality/

http://www.pewforum.org/2015/11/03/u-s-public-becoming-less-religious/

http://www.pewforum.org/2016/04/12/religion-in-everyday-life/

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/01/21/americans-spirituality/

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/06/more-americans-now-say-theyre-spiritual-but-not-religious/
https://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/older_workers/

https://www.bls.gov/careeroutlook/2017/article/older-workers.htm

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Markus, H. R., & Herzog, A. R. (1991). The role of the self-concept in aging.
Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 11, 110–143

Smith, J. (2001). Well-being and health from age 70 to 100: Findings from
the Berlin Aging Study. European Review: Interdisciplinary Journal of
the Academia Europaea, 9, 461–477.

Smith, J., & Baltes, P. B. (1997). Profiles of psychological functioning in
the old and oldest old. Psychology and Aging, 12, 458–472

Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time
seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist,
54, 165–181.

Johnson, C. L., & Barer, B. M. (1997). Life beyond 85 years: The aura of
survivorship. New York: Springer.

Whitbourne, S. K. (1985). The psychological construction of the life
course. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology
of aging (2nd ed., pp. 594–618). New York: Van Nostrand Reinho

Freund, A. M., & Smith, J. (1999). Content and function of the self-definition
in old and very old age. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences,
54B, P55–P67

Hooker, K. (1992). Possible selves and perceived health in older adults and college
students. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 47, P85–P95.

Hooker, K. (1999). Possible selves in adulthood: Incorporating teleonomic relevance
into studies of the self. In T. M. Hess & F. Blanchard-Fields (Eds.),
Social cognition and aging (pp. 97–122). San Diego: Academic Press.

Cross, S., & Markus, H. (1991). Possible selves across the life span.
Human Development, 34, 230–255

Troll, L. E., & Skaff, M. M. (1997). Perceived continuity of self in very old
age. Psychology and Aging, 12, 162–169

Antonucci, T. C. (1990). Social supports and social relationships. In R. H.
Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences
(3rd ed., pp. 205–227). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Bearon, L. B. (1989). No great expectations: The underpinnings of life satisfaction
for older women. The Gerontologist, 29, 772–778.

late adulthood is a period of disengagement from future planning in favor of the construction
of whole-of-life self-narratives (e.g., Tobin, 1991; Whitbourne, 1985),

玉置浩二 行かないで 李香蘭原曲

Neugarten, B., Continuities and discontinuities of psychological issues into adult
life, Human Development, 12 (1969), 121-130.

Gutmann, D. L., The Cross-cultural perspective: Notes toward a comparative
psychology of aging, In Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, Birren, J. E. and Schaie,
K. W., (eds) New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977.

Fromm, E., To Have or to Be, New York: Harper and Row, 24, 1976.

Marcel, G., Being and Having: An Existentialist Diary, New York: Harper and Row,
1965-

James, W., The Varieties of Religious Experience, (1902). London: Collier MacMillan
Ltd., 327, 1961.
William James' (1890) duplex conception of the self as subject (the ' I ' )
and the self as object (the 'Me'). He described these two aspects of the
self as follows:
Whatever I may be thinking of, I am always at the same time more or less
aware of myself, of my personal existence. At the same time, it is I who am
aware; so that the total self of me, being as it were duplex, partly known and
partly knower, partly object and partly subject, must have two aspects
discriminated in it, of which for shortness, we may call the one 'Me' and the
other the ' I ' .

Herbert Mead, for example, used James' ' I ' and ' Me' paradigm in
developing the central proposition of symbolic interactionism, i.e., that
the genesis of self is formed in communicative interaction with others,
becomes reflexively my image of myself and this becomes amplified and
cumulative over the life span

According to James this accruing structure of self-conceptions is part
of the Me, or the 'empirical self, and he posited three constituents of
this empirical self: the material Me, the social Me, and the spiritual
Me. The material and social aspects of the Me are the most accessible
to objective study and therefore appear more empirical than the
spiritual Me, which is more subjective and closer to the primary
consciousness of the I. There is also a strong appropriative element in
the material and social Me which consist of objects and persons
generally identified by the possessive terms "my" or "mine". Thus,
not only my physical body, clothing and possessions in general, but also
my family, friends, and allegiances are mine.
James identified the spiritual Me as ' the entire collection of my states
of consciousness, my psychic faculties and dispositions...' and he
delineated this further, as follows: 'The more active-feeling states of
consciousness are the ... more central portion of the Spiritual Me. The
very core and nucleus of our self, as we know it, the very sanctuary of
our life, is the sense of activity which certain inner states possess'.

William James (1890) and George Herbert Mead(1934).
James and Mead both distinguished between the "I,"
the self as observer, and the "me," which is closer to the commonly
used self-concept. James described the distinction this
way:
Whatever I may be thinking of, I am always at the same time more
or less aware of myself, of my personal existence. At the same time
it is / who am aware; so that the total self of me, being as it were
duplex, partly known and partly knower, partly object and partly
subject, must have two aspects discriminated in it, of which for
shortness we may call one the Me and the other the /. (p. 176)

James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press

Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.

Bengtson et al. (1985) differentiated between selfconception,
or ' 'the aspects 6f the 'me' that are perceived, interpreted,
and evaluated" (p. 548), and the "phenomenological
self,'' or the "I" who does the perceiving, interpreting, or evaluating.
The "I," then, is the observer and the "me," the observations;
it is the "I" who observes which traits, characteristics,
roles, behaviors, and attitudes are stable and which change.

Bengtson, V. L., Reedy, M. N., & Gordon, C. (1985). Aging and selfconceptions:
Personality processes and social contexts. In J. E. Birren
& K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging
(2nd ed., pp. 544-593). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold


Johnson (1985) pointed to this as a distinction between the self
as subject and the self as object (both a social object to others
and a social and psychological object unto itself).

Johnson, F. (1985). The Western concept of self. In A. J. Marsella, G.
DeVos, & F. L. K. Hsu (Eds.), Culture and self: Asian and Western
perspectives (pp. 91-138). London: Tavistock


McAdams (1987) put it metaphorically when he stated that individuals
fashion a niche or home that defines who and what they are.
The "I" is the niche McAdams spoke of, and the "me" is the
furnishings for that niche.
McAdams, D. P. (1987). A life-story model of identity. In R. Hogan &
W. H. Jones (Eds.), Perspectives in personality (Vol. 2, pp. 15-50).
Greenwich, CT JAI Press.

"self-concept, the observed, me
I, observer
E. Troll, L., & McKean Skaff, M. (1997). Perceived continuity of self in very old age (Vol. 12).
Bengtson, V. L., Reedy, M. N. and Gordon, C. 1985. Aging and self-conceptions:
personality processes and social contexts. In Birren, J. E. and Schaie, K. W. (eds)
Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, second edition. Van Nostrand, New Y

Monday, May 28, 2018

Rokeach (1973). Instrumental values pertain to "desirable modes of conduct" (p. 7) such as ambitious, capable, courageous.
The instrumental or mode of conduct orientation is concerned with competence or moral beliefs (e.g., being capable or broadminded);
middle age as reflecting largely "implemental" concerns,
The Instrumental Values are:
Cheerfulness
Ambition
Love
Cleanliness
Self-Control
Capability
Courage
Politeness
Honesty
Imagination
Independence
Intellect
Broad-Mindedness
Logic
Obedience
Helpfulness
Responsibility
Forgiveness



Terminal values refer to "desirable end-states of existence" (p. 7) such as a sense of accomplishment,
freedom, happiness.
terminal values are more indicative of desirable end-states of existence (e.g., inner harmony).
old age is described as reflecting "culminant" concerns
The terminal values:
True Friendship
Mature Love
Self-Respect
Happiness
Inner Harmony
Equality
Freedom
Pleasure
Social Recognition
Wisdom
Salvation
Family Security
National Security
A Sense of Accomplishment
A World of Beauty
A World at Peace
A Comfortable Life
An Exciting Life

Ryff and Baltes (1976) compared middle-aged and older women in their preferences for terminal and instrumental values. They concluded that a shift in emphasis from instrumental to terminal values seems to occur with age

Value Transition and Adult Development in Women: The Instrumentality-Terminaiity
Sequence Hypothesis 
CAROL D. RYFF AND PAUL B. BALTES
Developmental Psychology
1976, Vol. 12. No. 6, 567-568

Self-Perceived Personality Change in Adulthood and Aging, Carol D. Ryff, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1982, Vol. 42, No. 1, 108-115
chronological age serves as a proxy indicator for a broad constellation of age-related processes
that exert diverse and indirect effects on work outcomes (for reviews, see, for example,
Davies, Matthews, & Wong, 1991; Hansson, DeKoekkoek, Neece, & Patterson, 1997; Sterns &
Miklos, 1995; Warr, 2001).

Davies, D. R., Matthews, G., & Wong, C. S. K. 1991. Ageing and work. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6: 149–211

Hansson, R. O., DeKoekkoek, P. D., Neece, W. M., & Patterson,
D. W. 1997. Successful aging at work. Annual review,
1992–1996: The older worker and transitions to retirement.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51: 202–233.

Sterns, H. L., & Miklos, S. M. 1995. The aging worker in a
changing environment: Organizational and individual
issues. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47: 248–268.

Warr, P. 2001. Age and work behaviour: Physical attributes,
cognitive abilities, knowledge, personality traits, and
motives. International Review of Industrial and Organizational
Psychology, 16: 1–36.

aging and adult development on work motivation (for exceptions, see Boerlijst, Munnichs, &
van der Heijden, 1998; Raynor & Entin, 1982; Warr, 2001).

Boerlijst, J. G., Munnichs, J. M. A., & van der Heijden, M. I. J. M.
1998. The “older worker” in the organization. In P. J. D.
Drenth, H. Thierry, & C. J. de Wolff (Eds.), Handbook of
work and organizational psychology, vol. 2 (2nd ed.):
183–213. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press

Raynor, J. O., & Entin, E. E. 1982. Motivation, career striving, and aging. New York: Appleton-Century.

how best to manage and motivate an
older workforce

how age affects workplace motivation
Woodruff, D. W., & Birren, J. E. Age changes and cohort differences in personality. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 6, 252-259.

Ryff, C. D., & Baltes, P. B. Value transitions and adult development in women: The instrumentality-terminality sequence hypothesis. Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 567-568.
a shift from instrumental values in middle age to terminal values in old age.

Ryff, C. D. Self-perceived personality change in adulthood and aging. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1992,42, 108-115.

Buhler, C. The curve of life as studied in biographies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1935,19, 405-409.

Erikson, E. H. Childhood and society. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1950

Jung, C. G. Psychological types. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1933

Neugarten, B. L. (Ed.). Middle age and aging; A reader in social psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Neugarten, B. L. Personality change in late life: A developmental perspective. In C, Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1973.

Gruen, W. Adult personality: An empirical study of Erikson's theory of ego development. In B. L. Neugarten (Ed.), Personality, in middle and late life. New York: Atherton Press, 1964

Levinson, D. J. The seasons of a man's life. New York: Knopf, 1978.

Vaillant, G. E. Adaptation to life. Boston: Little, Brown,  1977.

Gilligan, C. Adult development and women's development: Arrangements for a marriage. In J. Z. Giele (Ed.), Women in the middle years. New York: Wiley, 1982.

Rossi, A. S. Life-span theories and women's lives. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1980,6, 4-32.
Bengtson, Vern L., Margaret N. Reedy, and Chad Gordon. 1985. "Aging
and Self-conceptions: Personality Processes and Social Contexts." In
James E. Birren and K. Warner Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the Psychology
of Aging (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold

George, Linda K. and Morris A. Okun. 1985. "'Self-concept Content." In
Erdman Palmore, Evvald W. Busse, George L. Maddox, John B.
Nowlin, and llcne C. Siegler (Eds.), Normal Aging III: Reports From
the Duke Longitudinal Studies, 1975-1984. Durham, NC: Duke University
Press.


How Do Consumers Face the Decision to Buy Fair Trade Products? A Marketing Approach
Andrea Pérez, María del Mar García de los Salmones
https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764018776370
Chodorow, 1978;
Gilligan, 1982; Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Stiver,
1991; Miller, 1976)

Jordan et al., 1991).
Miller (1976) and Gilligan (1982)

Sunday, May 27, 2018

first half of adulthood has been described as a period of growth and expansion during
which individuals seek to find and maximize their status in society, whereas security
and threat-avoidance become more important in the second half (Kuhlen, 1968;
Staudinger & Bluck, 2001).

Kuhlen, R. G. (1968). Developmental changes in motivation during the adult years. In B. L.
Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 115-1 36). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Staudinger, U. M., &Bluck, S. (2001). A view on midlife developn~enftr om life-span theory. In M.
E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development (pp. 3-39). New l'ork, NY Wiley

sense of identity becomes stronger
from young adulthood to middle age (Stewart, Ostrove, & Helson, 2001),

Stewart, A. J., Ostrove, J. M., &Helson, R. (2001). Middle-aging in women: Patternsofpersonality
change from the 30s to the 50s.Jottrnal of Adult Development, 8, 23-37.

Generativity tends to peak in middle age,
but the conditions associated with its peaking are not altogether clear (McAdams,
2001) and some have argued that it is the felt capacity for generativity, as opposed
to desire for or actual generative actions, that peaks in middle adulthood (Stewart &
Vandewater, 1998).

McAdams, D.  (2001). Generativity in n~idlifeI. n M. E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbookof midlifedevelopment (pp. 395-443). New York: Wiley.

Stewart, A. J., & Vandcwater, E. A. (1998). The course of generativity. In D. l? McAdams & E. de
St. Aubin (Eds.) , ticnerativity and adult development: Horu and why tue care for the next generation
(pp. 75-100). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Ryff & Heincke, 1983; Zucker, Ostrove, &
Stewart, 2002) show that young adults expect to increase in identity certainty and
generativity during middle age

Ryff, C. D., & Heincke, S. G. (1983). Subjective organization of personality in adulthood and aging.
Jou7-nal of Personality and Social Psycl~ology4, 4, 807-8 16.

Zucker, A. N., Ostrove, J. M., &Stewart, A. J. (2002). College-educated women's personality development in adulthood: Perceptions and agedifferences. l'sychology and Aging, 17,236-244.

Search for personal growth lessens after midlife
(Ryff, 1991),

Freund, A. M., & Smith, J. (1999). Content and function of the selfdefinition
in old and very old age. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological
Sciences, 54B, P55-P67.

Heidrich, S. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1993). Physical and mental health in later
life: The self-system as mediator. Psychology and Aging, 8, 327-338.

Kling, K. C., Ryff, C. D., & Essex, M. J. (1997). Adaptive changes in the
self-concept during a life transition. Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, 23, 981-990.

Staudinger, U. M., Freund, A. M, Linden, M., & Maas, I (1999). Self,
personality, and life regulation: Facets of psychological resilience in old
age. In P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer (Eds.), The Berlin Aging Study:
Aging from 70 to 100 (pp. 302-328). New York: Cambridge University
Press

Troll, L. E., & Skaff, M. M. (1997). Perceived continuity of self in very old
age. Psychology and Aging, 12, 162-169


不執著哪一件事要成功到什麼階段,能解決就解決,不能解決就換條路走,人世間的事,絕大多數努力可能都是白費,沒必要傷心頹喪

李家維

Saturday, May 26, 2018

墨子說:國之將亡,必有七患
1. 國防之患:不修國防 大興宮殿 粉飾太平
2. 外交之患:大敵當前 外無盟友 孤立無援
3. 財政之患:分配不公 鋪張浪費 窮盡民用
4. 內政之患:仕皆漁私 修法禁言 不問國是
5. 國君之患:閉門自大 標榜先進 坐以待斃
6. 團隊之患:用人不當 小人當道 離心離德
7. 政權之患:民無食用 國無賢能 賞罰失威
Fromm, E. (1976). To have or to be. New York: Harper and Row
I often feel that death is not the enemy of life, but its friend, for
it is the knowledge that our years are limited which makes them
so precious.—Rabbi Joshua L. Liebman (1961, p. 106)

Friday, May 25, 2018

Hooker, K. (1992). Possible selves and perceived health in older adults
and college students. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences,
47, P85-P95

Ogilvie, D. M. (1987). Life satisfaction and identity structure in late, middle
aged men and women. Psychology and Aging, 2, 217-224.

Thoits, P. A. (1983). Multiple identities and psychological well-being. A
reformulation and test of the social isolation hypothesis. American
Sociological Review, 48, 174-187.

Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611-623.

Baltes, P. B. (1997). On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny.
Selection, optimization, and compensation as foundation of developmental
theory. American Psychologist, 52, 366-380.

Breytspraak, L. M. (1994). The development of self in later life. Boston,
MA: Little, Brown & Co.

Havighurst, R. J. (1963). Successful aging. In R. H. Williams, C. Tibbitts,
& W. Donahue (Eds.), The process of aging: Social and psychological
perspectives (Vol. 1, pp. 299-320). New York: Atherton Press.

Neugarten, B. L. (1964). Personality in middle and late life. New York:
Atherton Press

Thomae, H. (1979). The concept of development and life-span developmental
psychology. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span
development and behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 282-312). New York: Academic
Press.

Thomae, H. (1987). Patterns of psychological aging—Findings of the
Bonn Longitudinal Study of Aging. In U. Lehr & H. Thomae (Eds.),
Formen seelischen Alterns. Ergebnisse der Bonner Gerontologischen
Ldngsschnittstudie (BOLSA) [Patterns of psychological aging. Results
of the Bonn Longitudinal Study of Aging (BOLSA)] (pp. 279-286).
Stuttgart: Enke.

Waterman, A. S., & Archer, S. L. (1990). A life span perspective on identity
formation: Developments in form, function, and process. In P. B.
Baltes, D. L. Featherman, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development
and behavior (Vol. 10, p. 29-57). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T, Jr. (1988). Age, personality and the spontaneous
self-concept. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 43B,
S177-S185.

George, L. K., & Okun, M. A. (1985). Self-concept content. In E. W.
Busse, J. L. Maddox, J. B. Nowlin, & J. C. Siegler (Eds.), Normal
aging HI: Reports from the Duke Longitudinal Studies 1975-1984
(pp. 267-282). Durham, NC: Duke University Press

Filipp, S.-H., & Klauer, T. (1986). Conceptions of self over the life span:
Reflections on the dialectics of change. In M. M. Baltes & P. B.
Baltes (Eds.), The psychology of control and aging (pp. 167-205).
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum


The Principles of Psychology
  William James (1890)

Classics in the History of Psychology

http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/James/Principles/prin10.htm

Thursday, May 24, 2018

Psyche and Eros: Mind and Gender in the Life Course
Gisela Labouvie-Vief
self-representations constitute what Jame (1890/1981) defined as Self-concept, the me, the self as object, the self as known.

self-representation and self-concept can be used interchangeably


Employment–population ratio and labor force participation rate by age, 2007-2017

https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2017/employment-population-ratio-and-labor-force-participation-rate-by-age.htm

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

endogenous
exogenous
Experimental Design
對照組 Control Group
實驗組 Experimental Group

Confidentiality
Human Subjects 
Institutional Review Board

Tuesday, May 22, 2018

closure

Monday, May 21, 2018

連結與自我

有的人努力地尋求連結, 以免失去連結後, 只剩下自己 (空洞的自我)
有的人努力地避開連結, 以免取得連結後, 失去了自己 (真正的自我)
你所追尋的未來美好, 從未到達
回頭看
最美的, 已經過去
"Be like water making its way through cracks. Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way around or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves.

Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend."

by Bruce Lee

Sunday, May 20, 2018

(Miller & Cook-Greuter, 1994).

Miller, M., & Cook-Greuter, S. (1994). From postconventional
development to transcendence: Visions and theories. In M.
Miller & S. Cook-Greuter (Eds.), Mature thought and transcendence
in adulthood: The further reaches of adult development
(pp. xv-xxxii). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Saturday, May 19, 2018

Wednesday, May 16, 2018

Unitary consciousness and the highest development of mind: The relation between spiritual development and cognitive development
H Koplowitz - Adult development

theories of consciousness and self development, stage of consciousness, stage of self development

stages of consciousness or self development underlying all other aspects of development, cognitive, affective, moral

ps: Prerepresentational level: unable to use symbolic (semiotic) processes, eg., sensori-motor

Postformal hierarchical stages of self development that are based in Representational (conceptual) process

  • the self can only be known indirectly as an object of abstract thought process (the me)
  • the self is still constructed through the abstract thought process/operations
1. Souvaine, Lahey, Kegan
  • qualitative changes in the subject-object relationship that underlie growth across several developmental domains
  • equilibrations of the self
  • "deep structure" underlying cognitive, moral and ego development = sequential equilibria of the "living" subject-object relationship
  • distinction between (1) the self's principle of organization (the self's way of knowing), the subject if embedded within and identified with the organizing principle (the cognitive structure)(2) that which gets organized (the object is that which gets organized)
  • a new stage arises when the subjective pole undergoes differentiation through de-embedding the self from the organizing structure ---  the self, standing outside the cognitive structure, can systematically organize these cognitive structures and render them as objects
  • the basic mechanism of development is the resolution of crises of meaning through a de-embedded process
  • formal operations arise when the self acts through hypothetico-deductive structure
  • institutional self: the self is the administrator of a closed system of self-defined and self-regulated goals ---- the self is a sealed system and can't reflect upon and alter its self-selected values and purposes
  • a transition in the self-object balance begins as the self, through extensive social interaction, recognizes the limitations of the institutional self ---- a highly equilibrated interindividual self can be attained 
2. Pascual-Leone
  • further enrich our understanding of the self by drawing upon the insights of the existential-phenomenological tradition of western philosophy--- Max Scheler (existential phenomenology and creative-spiritual intelligence/personal spirit) and Karl Jaspers (existential self development, stages of existential awareness)
  • higher stages of consciousness in which an inherent (not constructed) underlying self can be directly experienced (as the I of awareness) without conceptual mediation 
  • schematic structure will be transformed only when resistances are encountered that necessitate expenditure of effort in the direction of new accommodation
  •  adult self development is not based on increase in mental capacities, but on the degeneration of mental capacities---- serve as a major resistance that can stimulate structural remodeling
  • transitions in adulthood can be partially explained as reactions to progressive difficulty in mobilizing mental energy
  • the main structural changes in adulthood occur through mental effort and "mental macro-decentrations"--- through such decentration, adult can develop higher modes of consiousness, each associated with a higher level of ego development
  • Ego strutures are developed by means of mental effort and as a result of encompassing mental macro-decentrations (attentional expansions from the present/here and now toward both the relevant future and past, so as to recall the complex and time-deep structures that are relevant to the knowing of the current situation)
  • three main categories of ego structure: self strucure, other structure (represent other perons), world structure (which code the environment in terms of objects that are important to the self)
  • other and world structure create or constitute the ego-milieu (the subject's conscious life-world)
  • ego-cognitive structure: subordinate ego structure that interrelate self structure with world structure
  • conscious collective strucure: interrelate self strucure with other structure and with the world
  • the higher ego are optional, for most people, the ordinary adult ego structure remains unchanged---the phenomenological ego, the product of interpersonal interaction
  • transcendental ego (ultraself) that some adults develop is structured solely in terms of internal interactions  (e.g., coping with internal conflicts)
  • the ultraself (transcendental ego structure) has four successive levels, four ultral-self modes of control or forms of existential awareness or mode of processing
  1. Late-formal or exisential-self stage: empirical existence (modes of control or forms of existential awareness), arise in the late formal period, age 17-25
  2. Predialectical or duality-self stage: conceputal existence (mode of processing), develop between 25-35, in response to growing awareness of both intra- and interpersonal interaction
  3. Dialectical or Trinity-self stage: temporal existence (mode of processing) (35-40): a new prcessing mode arises becasue (1) not enough mental energy to sustain the current usage of the conceputal mode, (2) conceutal models now appear too idealized and static in light of the dynamic texture of reality;   Dialectical, apprehend pattterns of contradictory interacting theories, yielding appreciaton of totalities in evolution; incommensurable and pragmatically contradictory with the preceding three, thus a nonintegrated coordination of three "partial ultraselves"
  4. Transcendental or Quaternity-self: after age 55 or 60, realized self (quaternity self, transcendental self): transcendental operations, mediative thining (in which dialectical operations are performed upon dialectical operations), meditative existence (mode of processing)

Vedic psychology, post-representational higher stages of consciousness to hierarchically integrate all prior representational processes

Life-span model of develpment of conciousness

*Physiological development and corresponding hierarchical (vertical) cognitive advancement typically appear to freeze by age 25, new life experiences continue "horizontally" across the life span. This accruing of experience may result in  an increase in "wisdom" later in the life cycle

*the active knower (ego), process of knowing (levels of mind), known (objects of experience)

*Postrepresentational development resolve the fundamental epistemological and ontological constraint of the abstract reasoning (formal operational): the reflective knower can't directly know himself, the knower can't simultaneously be both observer and the observed (epistemological problem), knower does the observing, thus he can't directly observe himself
* knower, known, process of knowing are fully integrated

Vedic science’s theory of human development
Maharishi's Vedic psychology
Nature laws are the organizing principles that underlie and orchestrate orderly growth throughout the infinite diversity of the universe

7 states of human consciousness
  • 1-3 are familiar experiences of every individual 
  • 4-7 are higher states
  • the 4th,  tanscendental consciousness, is central because repeated experience of it cultures the   physiology and gives rise to the subsequent states
  • Human developement is a U-shaped funtion, first developing inwardly until transcendental consciousness in reaching, then developing outwardly as it brings the qualities of transcendental consciousness into all levels of mind and activity.

1. Deep sleep state: no experience of self or environment, no self-referral
2. Dreaming state: illusory exerience of self or environment, very limited self-referral
3. Waking state

  • experience of excited levels of mental acticity and the surface value of the environment
  • The true nature of the self as tanscendental consciousness is obscured by the active levels of thought and percepton. 
  • Self-referral awareness is fragmental and experienced as knower, known, and process of knowing. 
  • Awareness becomes localized or conditioned by the active processes of mind and corresponding stuctures of the nervous system. 
  • The knower perceives objects of experience as external and separate from himself. 
  • The individual self is experienced as localized or bound in time and space. 
  • The self/the knower is experienced as localized in time and space and separated from the known by active processes of knowing (perceptions, thoughts, feelings) which filter or qualify one's experience of self and world.
  • The subject of experience is  never able to directly know itself (knowledge of the slef, like knowledge of any other object, is mediated by the active process of knowing. All one actually knows are thoughts, perceptions, and feelings about oneself as an object, but one  lacks immediate, direct experience of one's own inner self. 

  • The field of psychology that studies the self, personality psychology, focus on understanding the  self as an object to be known (the me), as a self-concept or self image----this doesn't focus on the self as the subject (the I), who is the locus or source of human consciousness, Who is this "I" that is asking what is this "me"?----solution to this problem is offered by Maharishi Vedic Psychology through transcending the division between subject and object, between knower and known, and experience an underlying unbroken wholeness of awareness in which consciousness is fully awake to itself 
  • post-formal stage= waking consciousness

  • The status of the self experienced is the small or lower self
  • Lower self is that aspects of the personality which deals only with the relative aspect of existence. 
  • It comprises the mind that thinks, the intellect that decides, the ego that experiences. This lower self functions only in the relative states of existence, waking, dreaming, and deep sleep.  
  • The knower knows himself only directly through the active states of feeling, thinking, and perceiving.
  • Lower self= individual pshche the feels, thinks, perceives, and acts


Higher states of consciousness
4. Transcendental consciousness (=Self):  

  • the least excited state of mental activity, least excitation of consciousness, pure consciousness, the source of thought, the simplest form of awareness; Thought and perception are transcended. 
  • Knower,  known, and process of knowing converge into  one wholeness of pure consciousness. Devoid of difference, beyond the division of subject and object. 
  • Transcendental consciousness is the most basic ground state of mental activity, not bound by any thoughts or perceptions. 
  • A state of clear inner wakefulness in which the knower, process of knowing, and known are experienced as one undifferentiated, unified field of consciousness
  • The Self is realized as an unbounded unified field or pure consciousness at the basis of the       individual psyche.  
  • The higher Self is that aspects of the personality which never changes, absolute being (pure consciousness), the very basis of the entire field of relativity, including the lower self.
  • Transcendental consciousness= a unified field of consciousness, field of pure consciousness; transcendental consciousness, the cosmic psyche, at the basis of the individual psyche. 
  • Knower=Self= the ultimate status of the knower is the cosmic psyche; underlying unified      field of consciousness, the cosmic psyche
  • tanscendental field of consciousness=cosmic psyche= at the basis of individual thoughts and feelings; cosmis psych=higher self
  • it is not possible to experience the silent source of thought while remaining in active thinking processes (eg., introspection), by transcending mental activity a person can experience the comsic psyche at the source of all mental processes; pure consciousness at the source of thought; 
  • cosmic psyche=the knower   

  • cosmic psyche= the knower, the Self= fundamental, transcendental reality underlying the individual psyche, the state of transcendental consciousness
  • cosmic psyche, transcendental consciousness, can be produced during practice of the transcendental meditation technique
  • a state of restful alterness
  • transcendental consciousness provide the foundation for development of cosmic consciousness
  • Being= cosmic psyche
  • pure or transcendenal consciousness provide the basis for advances in adolescent-adult growth

5. Cosmic consciousness: the self is permanently maintained along with the changing states of 
     waking,  dreaming, and deep sleep. Pure consciousness, the self, silently witnesses daily activity.          (postrepresentation, self-referral mode of knowing) 
  • the knower can know himself directly, rather than indirectly through thoughts and feelings about himself
  • the knower becomes identified solely with pure consciousness, the essential nature of the self, a self-referral field fully awake to itself
6. Refined cosmic consciousness  (postrepresentation, self-referral mode of knowing)

7. Unity consciousness

  • complete unificaiton betwee Self and environment, 
  • conservation of  underlying unity across all its manifestations 


self-referral state: transcendental consciousness and higher states of consciousness

self-referral means that the Self is fully awake with itself

Levels of minds (process of knowing)

  • mental processes through which  one can know the self and the world
  • hierarchy of discrete levels of cognitive functioning
  • Hierarchy of levels of subjectivity, levels of mind, begins with the most fundamental self-referral 
  • level of the comsic psyche and extends to expressed levels of thought, physioloigical  functioning, and behavior
  • more expressed levels are guided by more fundamental levels
  • life-span model: levels of mind account for the ordinary phases of development and for growth to higher stages of consciousness

  • the structural and functional relationships between consciousness and sensory, cognitive, and affective processes
  • Vedic psychology postpulates that the mind (mental functioning) is hierarchically strctured in layers from gross to subtle, from highly active to settle, from concrete to abstract/subtle, from diversified to unified, from dynamic expressed activity to complete inner silence; human mind as having a hierarchical structure with levels of depth of functioning from gross to subtle to the transcendental foundation of individual mind, the unified field of consciousness
  • Underlying the subtlest level of the individual knower and transcendetal to it is the Self, an abstract, silent, completely unified field of consciousness, identified as the self-sufficient source of all mental processes
  • the ultimate status of the knower (I) is alwayes pure consciousness
  • Human development is the progression of the dominant level of awareness to successively deeper levels of mind. from 1 to 6

Prerepresentation (sensorimotor mode of knowing)
1. sense and action (sensorimotor stage), most expressive level, experience results when the senses come into contact with their objects

Representation (symbolic mode of knowing)

2. desire (preoperational stage): direct attention to the objects of sensation; desire motivates the flow of attention and connects the mind through the senses with the environment

3. active thinking mind (concrete operatonal stage): like an open opera that accepts all sensory impressions, considers possibilities and relations among them, and engages in thinking

4. discriminating intellect (formal operational stage): discriminates and decides, it filters the information which comes to it through the mind; useful things are accepted, useless things are rejected; the intellect guides the mind and directs the senses to those aspects of life that are most useful and enjoyable

5. feeling (intuition) (early post formal, postconventional stage)

6. individual ego (late post formal, postconventional stage): integrated function of individuality; the active experiencer in individual life that synthesizes information gained through the other levels of mind

  • underlying these levels of the individual psyche is pure consciousness, the cosmic psyche
  • direct experience  of the cosmic psyche, the most fundamental level of life, nourishes simultaneously all the more expressed levels of the mind constituting the individul psyche
  • contact with the cosmic psyche through practice of the transcendental meditation enhances all levels of the mind
  • mental processes and brain processes are expressions of the self-referral functioning of the cosmic psyche

Higher states of consciousness
. Transcendental consciousness (=Self)-- Nonrepresentational (Transcendental consciousness doesn't "represent" anything outside of itself; rather, it is the direct experience of pure consciousness, self-referral, in contrast to object-referral awareness)

 Postrepresentation (self-referral mode of knowing): Cosmic consciousness + Refined cosmic 
   consciousness
. Cosmic consciousness
. Refined cosmic consciousness
. Unity consciousness

life-span model of consciousness development

  • human development is seen as the advance of the "dominant level of awareness" to successively deeper levels of mind
  • the dominant level of awareness advances from Action and Sense (sensory-motor age)→Desire (early representation stage)→ Mind (concrete thinking stage) → Intellect (abstract reasoning stage)→ Feeling/Intuition→Ego (advanced development of affect and ego stage)
  • each developmental period is characterized by the "dominance" of a given mental faculty in the conscious awareness of the knower. 

Develomental period
1. Dominance of faculties of action and sensation: the sensorimotor period
2. Dominance of simple representation and desire: the early representational period (symbolic function)

3.