Monday, March 18, 2019

Race, class, and education: The politics of second-generation discrimination
KJ Meier, J Stewart, RE England - 1989
Elfenbein, Hillary Anger., and Charles A. O’Reilly. 2007. Fitting in: The effects of relational demography and person-organization fit on group process and performance. Group & Organization Management 32:109–42.

Moynihan, Donald P., and Noel Landuyt. 2008. Explaining turnover intention in state government:
Examining the roles of gender, life cycle, and loyalty. Review of Public Personnel Administration

Grissom, Jason A., and Lael Keiser. 2011. A supervisor like me: Race, representation, and the satisfaction and turnover decisions of public sector employees. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30:557–80.

Verquer, Michelle L., Terry A. Beehr, and Stephen H. Wagner. 2003. A meta-analysis of relations between person-organization fit research and work attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior 63:473–89.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

There is no guide to truth

J. Krishnamurti

Is God to be found by seeking him out? Can you search after the unknowable? To find, you must know what you are seeking. If you seek to find, what you find will be a self-projection; it will be what you desire, and the creation of desire is not truth. To seek truth is to deny it. Truth has no fixed abode; there is no path, no guide to it, and the word is not truth. Is truth to be found in a particular setting, in a special climate, among certain people? Is it here and not there? Is that one the guide to truth, and not another? Is there a guide at all? When truth is sought, what is found can only come out of ignorance, for the search itself is born of ignorance. You cannot search out reality; you must cease for reality to be.

The Book of Life, August 4, HarperSanFrancisco, 1995
Kellough, J. E., & Elliot, E. E. (1992). Demographic and organizational influences on
racial/ethnic and gender integration in federal agencies. Social Science Quarterly, 73,

楊定一博士設計線上課程:不費力的自我結構調整 { 舒壓好眠篇 }

Monday, March 11, 2019

Foreign Affairs

Foreign Affairs covers a broad range of topics related to American foreign policy and global affairs. It strives to present clear thinking by knowledgeable observers on important issues, written in English that can be read with ease and pleasure by both professionals and a broad general audience.

We publish several categories of material. In the print magazine, Comments are 2,000-3,000-word front-of-the-book pieces that make a single, provocative point. Essays are more extensive 4,000-5,000-word pieces of analysis or reportage that comprise the body of the magazine. Review Essays are 2,000-3,000-word discussions of new books. Responses offer 1,000-1,500-word commentaries on material that has been published in previous issues. Letters to the Editor should be no more than 500 words. Due to the high volume of submissions, we are unable to notify writers about whether their letter will be published. Letters may be edited for clarity, style, and length.

As for Web-only features, Snapshots are 750-1,500-word analyses of important current events and policy issues. Letters From are 750-1,500-word firsthand reports from abroad. Postscripts are 750-1,500-word commentaries by past authors on how well their earlier articles for us have held up. Reading Lists highlight leading works on a particular subject and explain what makes them special. And Roundtables bring experts together to hash out major issues in free-flowing discussions.

We welcome pitches and unsolicited manuscripts, considering them on a rolling basis rather than according to a fixed editorial calendar. The best guide to what we are looking for, in terms of both substance and style, is what we have already published, so prospective authors should start by browsing our archives. All submissions should be accompanied by full contact information and a brief note describing the author's current and past positions, recent publications, and relevant experience. We do not have fact checkers and rely on authors to ensure the veracity of their statements. Although we try to avoid using footnotes, contributors should be able to provide appropriate citations for any facts or quotations their pieces contain. Unless otherwise informed, we assume any piece submitted to us is being offered exclusively and that no piece accepted for publication will be published elsewhere simultaneously in any form without our knowledge.

Visit our submissions page to upload and manage your submission(s). Please note that we no longer accept submissions via email. Editorial inquiries only can be sent via email (to or regular mail (to Foreign Affairs, Editorial Department, 58 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065).

Relationship by J. Krishnamurti

Relationship based on mutual need brings only conflict. However interdependent we are on each other, we are using each other for a purpose, for an end. With an end in view, relationship is not. You may use me and I may use you. In this usage, we lose contact. A society based on mutual usage is the foundation of violence. When we use another, we have only the picture of the end to be gained. The end, the gain, prevents relationship, communion. In the usage of another, however gratifying and comforting it may be, there is always fear. To avoid this fear, we must possess. From this possession there arises envy, suspicion, and constant conflict. Such a relationship can never bring about happiness.

A society whose structure is based on mere need, whether physiological or psychological, must breed conflict, confusion and misery. Society is the projection of yourself in relation with another, in which the need and the use are predominant. When you use another for your need, physically or psychologically, in actuality there is no relationship at all; you really have no contact with the other, no communion with the other. How can you have communion with the other when the other is used as a piece of furniture, for your convenience and comfort? So, it is essential to understand the significance of relationship in daily life.

The Book of Life, March 5, HarperSanFrancisco, 1995

Wednesday, March 06, 2019

Grabosky , Peter N. , and David H. Rosenbloom .
1975 . Racial and Ethnic Integration in the Federal
Service . Social Science Quarterly 56 ( 1 ): 71 – 84 .
Krislov, S. J. (1974). Representative bureaucracy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Levitan, D. M. (1946). The responsibility of administrative officials in a democratic society.
Political Science Quarterly, 61(4), 562-598.

Van Riper, P. P. (1958). History of the United States Civil Service. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson
& Company
Krislov, S. J. (1974). Representative bureaucracy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Kellough, J. Edward, and E. Elliott. 1992. Demographic and organizational influences on racial/ethnic and gender integration in federal agencies. Social Science Quarterly 73 (1): 1–13.

Monday, March 04, 2019

Murphy's laws --- too negative

  • Anything that can go wrong will go wrong
  • Anything that can go wrong will---at the worst possible time
  • Nothing is as easy as it seems
  • If there is a possibility of several things going wrong, the one that will go wrong is the one that will do the most damage
  • Everything takes longer than it should
  • Left to themselves, things will go from bad to worse
  • Nature always sides with the hidden flaw
  • If everything seems to be going well, you have obviously overlooked something

Friday, March 01, 2019

 Pitkin (1967) posits that passive representation can lead to symbolic representation, where having the members of subgroups in official positions works “on the minds of those who are to be represented or who are to be the audience accepting the symbolization” (111).

Theobald and Haider-Markel (2008) found that African American citizens are more likely to perceive police actions as being legitimate if there are African American officers present. The same relationship holds for white citizens and officers.

Women are more likely to report sexual assault to a police department where women are well represented among the officers (Meier and Nicholson-Crotty, 2006). This suggests that the presence of female officers changes the behavior of females in the population.

Thielemann and Stewart (1996) examine the attitudes of agency clients (in this case persons living with AIDS) rather than agency personnel to examine the demand for representation. They find that persons living with AIDS prefer that the agency staff with whom they actually interact represent them along gender, sexual orientation, and racial lines.

Atkins, D. N., & Wilkins, V. M. (2013).--We find that as the representation of African-American teachers reaches the tipping point (around 20%) we see a significant reduction in the African-American teen pregnancy rate.
 Meier (1993) tests if a numerical threshold is needed for Latina principals in a school district to have a positive impact on the educational outcomes of Latina students. He finds that the critical mass for limiting corporal punishment is 24%, whereas limiting out-of-school suspension, offering alternative education assignments, and reducing expulsions all require 26% of the principals to be Latina. Given this evidence, it may not be until the minority or female presence in the organization reaches a critical mass that differences in outcomes are observed.
Henderson, Lenneal J. 1979 Administrative Advocacy. Black Administrators in Urban Bureau- cracy. Palo Alto, Calif.: R&E Research.

Thursday, February 28, 2019

critical mass
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977. Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.

In her work on business organizations, Kanter (1977) argued that when women make up less than 15% of the organization’s membership, they are merely “tokens” and lack the power and position to facilitate change within the organization. These “tokens” often try to minimize differences and keep a low profile. Although Kanter argues that 15% of the organization’s membership represents a critical mass, the necessary percentage is likely to vary by context. 

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

J. Donald Kingsley was the first author to make explicit
use of the phrase "representative bureaucracy," in a volume
with that title published in 1944.1 Kingsley argued from his
Marxist perspective that the middle class dominance within the
British civil service was inevitable, given that the overall society
of Great Britain was likewise dominated by the middle
class. Therefore, the composition of the bureaucracy resulted
in a power structure which represented or "mirrored" the
power structure of the ambient society.

Paul Van Riper (1958, 552) extended Kingsle/s concept by
asserting that in addition to possessing similar demographic
composition, a representative bureaucracy must also be similar
to the general public with regard to "ethos and attitudes."2
This allowed Van Riper to argue that policy implementation
decisions made in a representative bureaucracy would necessarily
mirror the preferences of the society. Congruent with
Kingsley's theory, decisions made within a representative
bureaucracy would not actually constitute policy making since
they would be the same decisions that both the general public
and the elected branches of the government would make.
factors that moderate the relationship between passive and active representation by minority bureaucrats. This growing body of work has demonstrated that variation in the structural characteristics of public organizations, bureaucratic role perceptions, and the external political environment all influence the strength of that linkage

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Bettinger, Eric P., and Bridget Terry Long. 2005. ‘‘Do Faculty Serve as Role Models? The
Impact of Instructor Gender on Female Students.’’ American Economic Review 95(2):152–57.

Canes, Brandice J., and Harvey S. Rosen. 1995. ‘‘Following in Her Footsteps? Women’s
Choices of College Majors and Faculty Gender Composition.’’ Industrial and Labor
Relations Review 48(3):486–504.

Ehrenberg, Ronald.G., Dan D. Goldhaber, and Dominic J. Brewer. 1995. ‘‘Do Teachers’ Race,
Gender and Ethnicity Matter? Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study
of 1988.’’ Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48(3):547–61.

Neumark David, and Rosella Gardecki. 1998. ‘‘Women Helping Women? Role Model and
Mentoring Effects on Female PhD Students in Economics.’’ Journal of Human Resources

Nixon, Lucia A., and Michael D. Robinson. 1999. ‘‘The Educational Attainment of Young
Women: Role Model Effects of Female High School Faculty.’’ Demography 36(2):185–94.

Robst, John, Jack Keil, and Dean Russo. 1998. ‘‘The Effect of Gender Composition of Faculty
on Student Retention.’’ Economics of Education Review 17(4):429–39.

Rothstein, Donna S. 1995. ‘‘Do Female Faculty Influence Female Students’ Educational and
Labor Market Attainments?’’ Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48(3):515–30.

Recent research suggests that a same-race teacher
may influence student outcomes through phenomenon like role-model effects, stereotype
threat, and teacher biases (Dee 2004, 2005; Hanushek et al. 2005).

Stereotype threat refers to a situation where student performance
suffers when they fear being viewed through the lens of a negative stereotype
threat. A recent experimental study by Spencer, Steele, and Quinn (1999)
suggests that stereotype threat does apply to female performance in math. Specifically,
they found that female subjects underperformed on a math test when told that
the test produces gender differences but did not when told the opposite.

Spencer, Steven J., Claude M. Steele, and Diane M. Quinn. 1999. ‘‘Stereotype Threat and
Women’s Math Performance.’’ Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35(1):4–28.

same-gender teachers also may communicate different (and self-fulfilling)
expectations to the boys and girls in their classrooms (that is, Pygmalion effects)

An 'unapologetic' black feminist on accelerating the pace of change

Thursday, February 21, 2019


representative bureaucracy and democracy

Meier, Kenneth J. 1993a. "Latinos and Representative Bureaucracy: Testing the Thompson and Henderson Hypotheses." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3:393-414.

Meier, Kenneth J. 1993b. Politics and the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Fourth Branch of Government. 3rd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole

Mosher, Frederick. 1982. Democracy and the Public Service. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press

Mosher, F. C. (1968). Democracy and the public service. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Redford, Emmette S. 1969. Democracy in the Administrative State. New York: Oxford University Press

Ripley, Randall B., and Grace A. Franklin. 1980. Congress, the Bureaucracy, and Public Policy. Pacific Grove, CA: Dorsey Press.

Rourke, Francis E. 1984. Bureaucracy, Politics, and Public Policy. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company

Rourke, Francis E. 1978. Bureaucratic Power in National Politics. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company

Krislov, Samuel. 1974. Representative Bureaucracy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall

Saltzstein, Grace Hall. 1979. "Representative Bureaucracy and Bureaucratic Responsibility: Problems and Prospects." Administration and Society 10:464-75.

Denhardt, Robert B., and Linda deLeon. 1993. "Great Thinkers in Personnel Management." In Handbook of Public Personnel Management, ed. Jack Rabin, et al. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Meier and Stewart (1992) found that the employment of minority public school teachers and principals is associated with fewer disciplinary actions against minority student

Meier, Kenneth J., and Joseph Stewart, Jr. 1992. "The Impact of Representative Bureaucracies: Edu- cational Systems and Public Policies." American Review of Public Administration 22:157-71

Similarly, Hindera (1993a, 1993b) demonstrated that the presence of minority EEOC investigators is positively associate with the percentage of discrimination charges filed on behalf of minorities in EEOC district office

Hindera, John J. 1993a. "Representative Bureaucracy: Further Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3:415-29.

Hindera, John J. 1993b. "Representative Bureaucracy: Imprimis Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices." Social Science Quarterly 74:95-108.

Meier, K. J. (2000). Politics and the bureaucracy: Policymaking in the fourth branch of government (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College.

Kingsley, J. D. (1944). Representative bureaucracy: An interpretation of the British civil service. Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch Press.

Long, N. (1952). Bureaucracy and constitutionalism. American Political Science Review, 46, 808-818.

Van Riper, P. (1958). History of the United States civil service. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Krislov, S., & Rosenbloom, D. H. (1981). Representative bureaucracy and the American political system. New York, NY: Praeger

Selden, S. C., Brudney, J. L., & Kellough, J. E. (1998). Bureaucracy as a representative institution: Toward a reconciliation of bureaucratic government and democratic theory. American Journal of Political Science, 42, 717-744.

Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Raglan Sleeve T-shirt

Monday, February 18, 2019

ICPSR Summer Program in Quantitative Methods of Social Research

譚敦慈教洗蔬果秘訣 原來用小蘇打、鹽巴、醋都錯了










Saturday, February 02, 2019


  • 勿與其他物品一同洗滌
  • 使用中性洗劑
  • 按壓洗滌
  • 勿長時間浸泡於水中
  • 最後用清水漂洗乾淨
  • 勿用洗衣機和脫水機
  • 晒乾於陰涼處, 避免陽光直射
  • 避免潮濕
  • 輕搓或拉展羽絨衣, 俾使羽絨衣恢復蓬鬆質感
  • 若羽絨從縫紉中溢出, 勿拉出, 應從裡面輕輕將羽絨往裡面拉回
  • 不宜將羽絨衣長時間壓放在收納袋中, 會產生皺褶; 宜將羽絨衣展開後掛豎於衣架上, 可減少皺褶

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

2019, mid Jan to mid Feb, Beijing, China, LanLan

北京什刹海 (很多東西可以看)
可搭人力三輪車, 一人130 RMB, 可殺價, 不開發票100 RMB

西貝西北菜 (羊肉湯莜麵, 涼拌面筋, 黃饃饃)


糖胡蘆 (山楂)







Starbuck 自帶環保杯可省4RMB








西安biang biang麵


  • 奶油炸糕---6 RMB
  • 燒餅夾肉---6
  • 焦圏---2
  • 麻豆腐---12
  • 豆汁---3
  • 面茶---3.5
  • 爆肚---48
  • 小吃拚盤 (驢打滾, 艾窩窩, 豌豆黄,  芝麻涼糕)---15
  • 糖火燒
北京稻香村---128.57 RMB
  • 柚子布丁蛋糕
  • 黃油布丁蛋糕
  • 椰子酥
  • 香芋酥
  • 黑麻椒鹽餅
  • 蛋黃酥
  • 抹茶酥
  • 棗花酥
  • 金狗餅
  • 牛舌餅
  • 香芋餅
  • 南瓜餅
  • 栗蓉酥
  • 北京印象空盒---7 RMB
  • 炸羊肉串---6 RMB

Sunday, January 20, 2019

國中畢業→中正預校 (中正預校畢業取得高中學位)

士官學校 (早期) = 陸軍專科學校 (目前, 高中畢業才能報考)

1957年 成立「陸軍第一士官學校」
1986年 納編金門縣「陸軍第二士官學校」,改名為「陸軍士官學校」。
1998年 改制為綜合高中。
2000年 改名為「國立陸軍高級中學」,為三年制綜合高中,並分設八個學程。
2005年 升格為「陸軍專科學校」,為二年制專科學校

無痕背包客 – 飛機篇


楊定一:放過一切、放過自己、放過別人,找回真正的大快樂 | 康健出版

Saturday, January 19, 2019


國光客運台北車站(台北車站東一門 / 捷運 M2 出口)
通往:1. 桃園機場  2. 基隆  3. 金山、萬里、野柳、法鼓山

Thursday, January 17, 2019


Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Journal of East Asian Studies

articles---approximately 10,000 words

Chicago Manual of Style author-date system
All sources are cited in the text in parentheses by author’s last name and date of publication, with page numbers as appropriate (Kim 2007, 65)

Tuesday, January 15, 2019







Sunday, January 13, 2019

界限不是我希望你成為什麼樣的人, 或希望你怎麼做, 而是
我想要, 和我不要什麼

Saturday, January 12, 2019