Wednesday, January 18, 2017

National Association of Investors Corporation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Association_of_Investors_Corporation

http://www.betterinvesting.org/public/default.htm

加入此組織, 可訂閱投資月刊
可直接向數百家公司買股票, 每筆交易只需要付7美元作業費, 不用付手續費
全美各地都有NAIC會員俱樂部,可參加之, 會員會共同討論買何種股票

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

thereby

there is most frequently used in front of  ─ing phrases

The 85 bison that survived were given refuge in a national park, thereby saving this species from total distinction.

cause/effect: for, because,since/as

A is effect
B is cause

A, for B
must use a comma

A because/since/as B
must NOT use a comma

barron's -- 7 Sustainable Investing Themes For 2017

http://blogs.barrons.com/focusonfunds/2017/01/13/7-sustainable-investing-themes-for-2017/

http://www.barrons.com/

債券 bond, 政府公債


  • 債券趕不上通貨膨脹
  • 宜只投資股票, 避開債券

國庫券 treasury bill


  • 一次走一步
  • 一點一滴慢慢來
  • 不要擔心後面的事情
  • 不要看前面太遠的地方
  • 不要想像不好的後果
  • 一開始邁出小步伐
  • 讓小小的成功,給自己不斷向前的勇氣
  • 不斷累積小目標, 直到大目標完成為止
  • 將大目標分割為可以控管的小目標, 慢慢來
  • 目標從來不是"設定"出來的,當你及生活環境改變, 目標會跟著不斷改變

Don't wait till your dying words to say what's most important

原始點之歌





【原始點之歌】https://youtu.be/U7GLDZu6140
作詞:賴忠文 譜曲:浮 克 演唱:郭喬伊
一條脊椎加七處,全身疾病皆蓋覆,不增不減巧按推,內外熱源相輔助。
善自調心,勤做運動,熱能補足體傷復:善自調心 勤做運動,健康自作主。
親情融進原始點,手到病除樂無邊,親朋鄰里及一切,無人不是好福田。
心無所求 亦無分別,只為病苦展笑顏,心無所求 亦無分別,真愛暖人間。
百千萬劫難遭遇,莫忘源頭清如許,自利利他注清流,更為子孫留活路。
以人為本 以病為師,為解人間諸病苦,以人為本以病為師,永遠不停步。
以人為本 以病為師,為解人間諸病苦,以人為本以病為師,永遠不停步。

套利本身是很好的生意
長期管理資金有很多套利的頭寸, 它前10 名的頭寸可能占據了90%的資金
對前10名的頭寸有所了解, 掌握足夠多的資訊

Monday, January 16, 2017

Henry David Thoreau, Walden

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walden

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Bertrand Russell books

Philip Fisher


  • Common stocks and uncommon profits
  • https://news.morningstar.com/classroom2/course.asp?docId=145662&page=3&CN=
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Arthur_Fisher

Benjamin Graham books

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Graham



  • Benjamin Graham on investing 
  • The intelligent investor : a book of practical counsel  
  • The intelligent investor : the classic text on value investing 
  • Security analysis : principles and technique  
  • Benjamin Graham on investing : enduring lessons from the father of value investing
  • The interpretation of financial statements : the classic 1397 edition
  • The intelligent investor : the definitive book on value investing
  • The interpretation of financial statements
  • The rediscovered Benjamin Graham : selected writings of the wall street legend
  • Security analysis
  •  The intelligent investor, Fourth Edition

棉被「三明治蓋法」

應該將毛毯蓋在棉被外面,此外,還有一招「三明治蓋法」可以加強保暖,也就是由下到上分別是保暖墊、棉被、毛毯,完整將熱氣鎖在被窩裡。

專家透露,毛毯多屬柔軟毛料材質,不少人會將它蓋在身上,外頭再附上棉被,但毛毯最大功能是鎖住棉被熱能,因此應該將毛毯放在最外層,而怕冷的民眾還能多放保暖的毯子或棉被在床包上,因為「背部溫暖,全身就會暖起來」!而不少網友學到「三明治蓋法」才恍然大悟,原來以前都蓋錯了。

不向「小木偶」認輸 誠實商店重新開業

http://www.seinsights.asia/article/3289/3268/4574

楊定一 你就是神聖 :「人生最高的祭壇,在我們每一個人的內心。」

https://tw.style.yahoo.com/%E6%A5%8A%E5%AE%9A-%E4%BD%A0%E5%B0%B1%E6%98%AF%E7%A5%9E%E8%81%96-%E4%BA%BA%E7%94%9F%E6%9C%80%E9%AB%98%E7%9A%84%E7%A5%AD%E5%A3%87-%E5%9C%A8%E6%88%91%E5%80%91%E6%AF%8F-%E5%80%8B%E4%BA%BA%E7%9A%84%E5%85%A7%E5%BF%83-1600491354816566.html

二手物資哪裏捐?2017年非營利機構需求整理

https://m.parenting.com.tw/article/5073103-/?utm_source=parenting-fans-page.facebook.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=normal_article

Friday, January 13, 2017

33種北京著名小吃

http://www.intofun.com.tw/content/33%E7%A8%AE%E5%8C%97%E4%BA%AC%E8%91%97%E5%90%8D%E5%B0%8F%E5%90%83%EF%BC%88%E4%BD%9C%E8%80%85%EF%BC%9Ahr%EF%BC%89

Thursday, January 12, 2017

真假米粉比一比,添加物含量差兩倍

http://www.agriharvest.tw/theme_data.php?theme=article&sub_theme=article&id=131

Longman Academic Writing Series

By Linda Butler, Alice Oshima , Ann Hogue, Alan Meyers
Level : Beginning-Advanced

This five-level writing series, organized by rhetorical genres, develops student writing from composing sentences to writing research papers.

Level 1  Sentences to Paragraphs, 2e
Level 2  Paragraphs, 3e
Level 3  Paragraphs to Essays, 4e
Level 4  Essays, 5e
Level 5  Essays to Research Papers

NCCU
Oshima, Alice
劃一題名 Introduction to academic writing
題名/作者 Longman Academic Writing Series. 3, Paragraphs to essays / Alice Oshima, Ann Hogue with Jane Curtis
其他題名 Paragraphs to essays
出版項 White Plains, NY : Pearson Education, [2014]
版權日期 ©2014
版本項 Fourth edition


NTU
Longman academic writing series ; level 1 : c 2007
Longman academic writing series ; level 2 : c 2008
Longman academic writing series ; level 3 : 2007

NTNU
Longman academic writing series. 2, Paragraphs
Longman academic writing series. 4, Essays, 2014

What is the difference between ISBN-10 and ISBN-13?

The original ISBN (International Standard Book Number) specification of 1970 defined a 10-character identifier for books (ISBN-10). In 2007, a successor specification defined a 13-character identifier (ISBN-13). The latter was created because of a need for compatibility with other international trade identifiers (like UPC), and because numbers were running out and additional ones would be needed.

ISBN-13 is partially compatible with ISBN-10. If a book is assigned an ISBN-10 number, then there is an equivalent ISBN-13 defined for it, which is "978" followed by the first nine digits of the ISBN-10 code, followed by a single check digit. For such books, the publisher normally prints both codes in places like the title page verso for the convenience of users who may still be using ISBN-10, and haven't fully upgraded to ISBN-13 usage. At some point the ISBN-10 numbers will be exhausted and new format ISBN-13 codes will be used, which will start with "979"; those codes will not have any ISBN-10 equivalent.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

“There are two aspects of man’s existence which are the special province and expression of his sense of life: love and art.”
― Ayn Rand, The Romantic Manifesto.

她是台灣人,為何卻在北京開起了「繁體字私塾」?

https://www.thenewslens.com/article/59075

President Barack Obama's Farewell Address (Full Speech) | NBC News

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Jay Chou 周杰倫【千里之外 Far Away】-Official Music Video(ft.費玉清)

原始點、二十條

1、原始點理念比手法重要。如果不是急用,先看理論為宜,最好看五遍;如果急用,一邊學手法一邊看理論。理論是用於指導整個原始點實施的指南針,一切處理手段都是圍繞熱能不足和體傷來進行的。只有理論清楚,才可能懂得兩者之間的輕重緩急、先後次序。出現問題知道是怎麼回事,否則一頭霧水不知所措。所以,先看理論為宜。
2、如果用於重症,需全家一起看,堅定紮實的理念對於重症來說是重中之重,能否度過難關主要取決於堅定的理念。
3、按推不可過重過久;按推應做到微痛或不痛,如做到可長時間按推或舒緩。按推是把雙刃劍,既可幫助修復體傷,也會消耗熱能,用之不當則會加重病情
4、調理輕症時,一般手法通常尚可;對待重症需手法精準,急時需資深輔導員親臨指導。

5、手法應是由輕而重深層體傷能否揉到,與起始的輕重程度有很大關係;按推力度要以患者能承受為宜。故按推時要問:這個力度可以嗎?

6、對於虛弱者,
按推前最好先溫敷,喝薑湯,讓身體熱透了;按推時最好同時溫敷,薑湯亦要準備好, 按推後應馬上溫敷、馬上喝姜;所以不具備溫敷、喝薑的條件不宜馬上動手按推,尤其重症更不宜

7、喝姜要5-20分鐘一次(根據調理者的情況),
一次一二口(家裡的吃飯勺一兩勺),以能吸收為宜,要自己盡心、靜心去感受濃薑湯進入身體的狀態,不可一次一大杯,不可一天只三次

8、如果喝姜之後出現症狀,可能是
熱能衝擊體傷,這時需揉開體傷再繼續喝姜或減少薑湯的濃度。

9、
胃不好的不宜喝薑粉,應喝薑湯(薑湯必須煲到至少2個小時為宜)。

10、溫敷以溫暖舒適為主,不可太熱,皆應以患者能承受為宜。

11、原始點以人為本,按推、內外熱源都要本著這個指導思想,靈活善用。

12、做了一段時間原始點後有的人就會覺得比以前怕冷,這是好事,不要擔心,說明你的身體信號靈敏度增強了,能迅速體察到身體上出現的變化,原始點理論在心好好運用。

13、常用的內熱源:薑粉、薑片、薑茶、參、溫熱中藥、溫熱飲食、運動等。

14、常用的外熱源:紅豆袋、暖暖貼、姜膏、薑粉(可外敷傷口)、溫薑汁、溫姜泥、電熱毯、陽光、電熱器、遠紅外線等。

15、初學者要勤問,不要不好意思,尤其是出現不適症狀又不明原因時。

16、建議初學不要碰重症。更不要不要盲目宣傳原始點能治百病····
原始點根本就不治病, 只是調體質(增強免疫力),激發我們的自愈力,從而自我修復病灶。對於虛弱者或重症,一定要以補充熱能為主按推為輔,手法要輕柔,隨著體力的增強緩慢地增加力道,切不可過度消耗其熱能,否則病情加重甚或危急,不可不慎。因此,不要輕易去碰重症,於人於己都要負責任。

17、學習手法,站的位置及站姿非常重要,站的不對身體則擰著,必然費力不討好,按不到,自己也累。

18、多看光盤,邊看邊反思自己做的怎樣,多總結以加快進步。

19、初學者應找四肢疼痛、體力較好的、歲數不大的人調理較為安全,以積累經驗。要養成先問體驗者是否有心髒病的習慣,或先按上胸椎,避免按其他部位時引發心髒病發作。這點極其重要!一旦他說心慌、胸悶、喘不過氣來等症狀,要立刻按推上胸椎並補充熱能。

20、對於重症,建議原始點配合善知識和宗教信仰調心一併來解決。
附表:原始點須牢記的理念:
1、原始點:經臨床實證的疾病起源處。在原始點部位找到的較痛的點為原始痛點,亦稱他處體傷。
2、疾病產生的原因:體傷和熱能不足。
3、患處不可動,但可溫敷。
4、原始點調理九大要素:
①全身按推
②內外熱源
溫熱素食
④適量運動
⑤規律作息
⑥放下慾望
⑦心態調整
⑧好水
⑨好空氣

5、致寒涼之緣:寒冷氣候、寒涼飲食、錯誤觀念、不良情緒(貪嗔癡慢疑、怨恨惱怒煩)、熬夜、勞累、手術不當、外傷、燙傷、環境污染、毒氣、毒物等。

6、原始點不能治病,只是善緣。

7、原始點是怎樣調理身體的?通過體傷按揉、內外熱源、情緒調整、適當運動等改變生病的因,再透過身體熱能及身體各系統各組織的運作而自行康復的。

Monday, January 09, 2017

In China, live-streaming apps soothe lonely souls and create fortunes

http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-china-live-streaming-20161128-story.html

long term care insurance


  • see gmail note for more details
who you are will always be the foundation of what you have in this life

financial advisor


  • see gmail note for more details

prenuptial agreement, cohabitation agreement


  • check suze website

financial magazine and materials


  • Money
  • Kiplinger's
  • Smart Money
  • Wall Street Journal
  • CNBC, watch at least once a month
  • http://www.bobbrinker.com/, Bob Brinker's Moneytalk --- redio
  • Bob Brinker's Marketimer newsletter, suggests some good mutual funds

home insurance

  • see gmail note for more details
  • http://www.insure.com/
  • http://www.2insure4less.com
  • http://www.2insure4less.com/?as=2zajelfsxtioqtgr4mjrcb2l

estate tax


  • if u are married, assets left to a surviving spouse are exempt from the federal estate tax
  • if ur estate passe on to someone other than a spouse, ur heirs may owe federal estate
  • in 2007, this is levied on estates valued at more than 2 million, including the value of investments, ur home, the death benefit on ur life insurance policy --- add them all up, if they exceed 2 million, ur heirs may be stuck paying a tax on part of their inheitance
  • if ur estate will be above the estate-tax threshold, u need to working with an estate attorney to set up what is known as "irrevocable life insurance trust"
  • irrevocable life insurance trust
  1. the trust will be the "owner" of the life insurance policy
  2. ur beneficiaries will still receive every penny of the death benefit, but the value of the policy is exempt from the estate tax
  3. this kind of trust is very different from a revocable living trust

"Take your broken heart, make it into art."

Sunday, January 08, 2017

高麗菜丸子

https://www.amanda326.com/archives/1622

must-have documents

1. a will --- not enough
  • create a pull-over will
  • will is a backup (for  revocable living trust with an incapacity clause)
  • designate beneficiaries for all ur assets held in ur will and trust
  • see post for more details -- will
2.a revocable living trust with an incapacity clause
  • transfer ownership of ur assets into the trust
  • update the beneficiaries on all ur assets
  • designate beneficiaries for all ur assets held in ur will and trust
  • see post for more details -- trust, revocable living trust
3.an advance directive and durable power of attorney for health care
  • see post for more details: advance directive and durable power of attorney for health care

review ur critical documents once a year, annual

Thursday, January 05, 2017

胡乃文 台北上海同德堂 中醫師

02-2341-3383
台北市南昌路一段30號

life insurance

  • see gmail note for more details
  • make ur revocable living trust the beneficiay of ur life insurance policy
  • if u are married, assets left to a surviving spouse are exempt from the federal estate tax
  • if ur estate passe on to someone other than a spouse, ur heirs may owe federal estate
  • in 2007, this is levied on estates valued at more than 2 million, including the value of investments, ur home, the death benefit on ur life insurance policy --- add them all up, if they exceed 2 million, ur heirs may be stuck paying a tax on part of their inheitance
  • if ur estate will be above the estate-tax threshold, u need to working with an estate attorney to set up what is known as "irrevocable life insurance trust"
  • irrevocable life insurance trust
    1. the trust will be the "owner" of the life insurance policy
    2. ur beneficiaries will still receive every penny of the death benefit, but the value of the policy is exempt from the estate tax
    3. this kind of trust is very different from a revocable living trust

advance directive and durable power of attorney for health care

advance directive
  • spell out ur health care wishes
  • see gmail note for more details
durable power of attorney for health care
  • if u don't die right away, have a stroke, incapacitated to be put on life support --- if u don't decide now, someone else may decide for u later
  • most health insurance policies have limits stating the maximum they will pay out for an illness. the average is 1 million, once they pay, they are gone
  • sign this document while u are strong and healthy
  • choose people who love u yet who are strong enough to do what you would want them to do 
  • specify who will make decisions for u if you can't make decisions for urself
  • comparison: a trust with an incapacity clause vs. durable power of attorney -- see trust post for more details
  • allow ur appointed agent to speak on ur behalf with doctors and family if u become to ill to speak for urself
  • see gmail note for more details--advance directive, durable power of attorney for health care
  • see gmail note for comparison: a trust with an incapacity clause vs. durable power of attorney for finances

A Stanford University psychologist’s elegant three-step method for creating new habits

https://qz.com/877795/how-to-create-new-good-habits-according-to-stanford-psychologist-b-j-fogg/

Suze Orman books


  1. The 9 steps to financial freedom
  2. Women & money : owning the power to control your destiny

  • The laws of money, the lessons of life : keep what you have and create what you deserve
  • The money book for the young, fabulous & broke
  • The money class : learn to create your new American dream
  • The road to wealth : a comprehensive guide to your money : everything you need to know in good and bad times 
  • Suze Orman's 2009 action plan
  • Suze Orman's Will & trust kit [electronic resource] : the Ultimate protection portfolio 

will

  • a will states who is to inherit what upon ur death
  • a will stipulate who will become the legal guardians of ur children
  • when u die without a will, this is known as "intestate succession"--- ur property is disbursed according to the intestate laws of ur state
  • a will goes into effect only when u die; in the event that u are merely incapacitated, a will won't help u one bit
  • when die with only a will, it doesn't make it easy to pass assets to ur heirs; a will must be authenticated by a judge before it is considered valid, this happens via a court procedure called "probate". the probate process takes time and money
  • the wishes u lay out in a will can be overridden by other documents
  • a will is not enough, u need a will and a revocable living trust, u need both
  • while the trust takes care of ur big-ticket assets adn a potential incapacity, u still have plenty of smaller assets that have no title: china, treasured pens, errings, a will is where to spell out whom u wish to inherit these items
  • ur will also take care of any assets that u didn't get around to transferring into the trust, those assets will pour over to the will and be managed or disbursed exactly as u have laid out in the trust--- this is why when u have a revocable living trust, ur will becomes known as a pour-over will, or backup, will 
  • in many states, if the value of the assets in ur pour-over will are too large, they will not automatically pour over into ur trust, instead, ur heirs will have to go through probate ---thus u want ur major assets held in a trust
  • u need to create a pour-over will
comparison: will vs. revocable living trust --- see gmail note

Holding title for ur assets-- see gmail note for more details

How to get a will?

1. must have witnesshave a lawyer draw on up --- cost from a hundred to a few hundred, depending on where u live and how complex your affairs
  • buy a form will at a stationery store, fill in the blanks, --- cost about 10 dollars
  • get a computer program that will generate one for you --- about 35 dollars
  • if u use any of these methods above to draw up ur will, u need to sign it, while u are signing it, have three people sign it as well to witness ur signature
  • when u want to change anything in the will, u simply draw up what is called "codicil", which is an additional paper enumerating ur changes, sign and have  three people sign it as well to witness ur signature
2. no need to have witness
  • u can draw up a will urself on a piece of paper, which will cost u nothing--- this is known as "holographic will"
  • make sure the paper u use has no other writing on it, or the will will not be considered legal
  • entire will must be written in ur handwriting and is dated and signed by you
  • if u make mistake, don't cross it out, start over, anything crossed out is considered an interlineation, making the will null and void
  • do not have anyone else witness a holographic will, this will make it null and void
  • if u want to change a holographic will, it is better just to redo the entire writing
Specify an executor
  • a person who make sure all the legal, financial, and emotional matters are taken care of after u die executor deal with the legal system, accountant, all the beneficiaries, banks, insurance companies, make sure that the wishes expressed in ur will are carried out
  • in many states, the executor gets a set fee for having done all these tasks, or depending on where u live, u may just decide to specify a fee in the will
Court system
  • after ur death, ur will has to go through the court system, usually the executor has a lawyer handle this 
  • a judge has to authenticate the will, to make sure it is valid --- this process is called "probate"
  • after the judge probates the will, he will sign a court order transferring title to the property covered in the will to the people who are intended to receive it, as reflected in the will ---- this sounds easy, but depending on which state u live in, it could be a nightmare: (1) the process can take anywhere from 6 months to 2 years or more, while ownership of the property remains in probate limbo, (2) the process could be expensive, in many states, there are statutory probate fees (fee set by laws)
  • assets valued at less than 60,000 to 100,000 (depending on the state) can be transferred to ur heir by a simple process called " probate affidavit", it costs very little, doesn't take much time, make it easy for ur survivors to receive what u want them to, probate affidavit forms are available in most banks at no cost
  •  

5 Mindful Habits that Lead to a Minimalist Home

http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/5-mindful-habits-that-lead-to-a-minimalist-home-238768

漸凍人案例(南投)



渐冻人,顾名思义,是身体热能严重不足

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA4OTA3Mjc2MA%3D%3D&mid=2657218008&idx=1&sn=01806961aa43622bba4f43399eb78b03&chksm=8bb538cfbcc2b1d90493f981267c3f2b73831b7ca46815ec2f8694f0e63f5b04d6e7736ce8f7&mpshare=1&scene=2&srcid=0105eddAqbD8xFsT4XaxpPLq&from=timeline&key=c82c61bfb4545b4b69ae2d46fa4c931adf708049df4bdc62d4ac3137e2efb404b94740d482f29f41af62f2645de7255377cd43c3b7763bba2e836e98cf6898b4f801f140153c0be23f61888ffabf7adc&ascene=2&uin=MTIzMjA3MzY2MA%3D%3D&devicetype=android-23&version=26050341&nettype=WIFI&pass_ticket=D3HLET9s71QlksDisAJcyrhiIENzrEEafMQ1Bzrxa2R4q%2FN0TFGxsaQzTkkwposx&wx_header=1

How Inclusive Businesses Can Tackle Poverty in China

https://ssir.org/articles/entry/how_inclusive_businesses_can_tackle_poverty_in_china?utm_source=Enews&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=SSIR_Now&utm_content=Title

Wednesday, January 04, 2017

debt

good debt
  • the money u borrow to finance an asset 
  • an asset is sth that has value today and is expected to rise in value over time, house mortgage 
bad debt

  • any money u borrow that is not used to finance an asset
  • credit card debt is bad debt
  • car loan --- car's value never rises, but always falls, this is called depreciation
  • try to minimize how much car debt you have and aim to pay it off as quickly as possible
  • never take more than 3 years to pay off a car loan
  • do not lease a car, the leasing process makes it inevitable that you will never be in control of your car finances

FDIC


  • FDIC program (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.)
  • FDIC is a federal agency that protects depositors at its member banks, brokerages, 
  • up to 100,000 (10 萬) of ur combined deposits in checking and saving accounts is fully insured. This insurance is per institution. If u have  100,000 at one institution and 100,000 at another, ur combined 200,000 is fully insured. They must be entirely different institutions or credit unions, not different branches of the same institution.
  • in addition to ur individual coverage, u can also have a combined 200,000 in an account u own with someone else, eg., a spouse or a partner. That 200,000 breaks down into 100,000 of insurance for each of you
  • If u have an IRA (individual retirement account) at an insured bank or credit union, those retirement assets are covered for up to 250,000 (25萬)
  • IRA insurance is only for certain types of accounts u can buy through a bank, credit union, or brokerage firm, such as money market deposit accounts (MMDAs) and certificates of deposits (CDs). It doesn't over any stocks or stock mutual funds that u may have purchased through them.
  • Deposits are insured. Investments are not insured. 
  • Insured---deposit accounts (including checking account), saving account, money market deposit accounts (MMDAs), certificates of deposit (CDs)
  • Not insured---stock mutual fund, bond mutual fund, individual stock, individual bond, money market mutual fund, 
  • money market mutual fund (MMMF) is different from money market deposit account (MMDA)
  1. money market mutual fund (MMMF) is a product created and run by a fund company, not a bank, thus no insurance program
  2. bank money market deposit account (MMDA) is fully insured as long as u meet the deposit limits

credit union


  • a financial institution that offers the same services as a traditional bank
  • the big difference is that it is a nonprofit supported by its members (the people who have accounts at the credit union)
  • Each credit union has its own membership rules, e.g., just for schoolteachers i a particular district or school system, members of the military, professionals in the same field of practice
  • credit union has a similar FDIC program (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.)---look for a sign stating that ur credit union is a member of the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF) or is covered by a state-operated insurance plan

信用貸款

  • 可將利息較高的欠款, 轉為銀行的信用貸款
  • 可申請信用貸款來償債, 因其利息較信用卡貸款來得低
  • 申請信用貸款時, 勿貸到比自己需要還債的金額總數還高的額度, 勿貸到超過自己能力所及的額度
  • 若要拿自己的房子作抵押時, 要三思而後行, (若你不能按時繳還, 房子會變成銀行所有)
  • 用房子抵押貸款, 雖每月應付的額度低, 但以長期眼光來看, 這是最昂貴的借貸方式
  • 儘量找到不需要抵押品的貸款為上策
  • 若你的貸款是以先支付利息為主, 則你每月所應支付的額度較低, 但莫自己騙自己, 你只是把問題向後遞延而已

信用卡, credit card

  • 莫使用商店的認同卡, 因其利率很高, 若你因首次購物9折優惠而辦卡, 你付完第一次帳單後, 將卡片剪掉
  • 只留下一張信用卡 (供緊急時使用), 將其他所有信用卡都剪了, 打電話去信用卡公司, 並寄出書面通知, 取消所有的卡片, 這樣你的信用報告裡會記載, 你使用的信用額度有所降低, 如此你的信用分數才會上升
  • use checking account to pay credit card
  • make sure u have a credit card for urself and urself only
  • don't open more than one card a year
  • do not use a credit card to get a cash advance, there is no grace period for cash advances, interest rate is 22% or more
  • u should always have 2 credit cards, one for regular use, the other one as backup
to pay off credit card debt
  • transfer ur credit card balance to a new card with a low interest rate (pay attention to transfer fees); do not exceed more than on transfer a year so u don't mess up ur FICO credit score by opening more than one new card a year
  • send in more than the minimum due on the one card that charges you the highest APR
extra credit cards
  • do not have department store cards, get rid of them (they have high interest rate, 20% or more)
  • cancel one card a year in order to avoid negative impact on ur FICO credit score
  • first cancel the card with the lowest credit limit, a year later, cancel the card with the next-lowest credit limit
FICO credit score, Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO)
  • when u apply for a credit card or any type of loan, ur FICO credit score is a quick take on how responsible you are with ur debt
  • use credit card as least once a month and pay the entire bill on time every month to build credit score
  • get ur FICO score--- www.myfico.com, u have 3 separate FICO scores, based on each of ur financial files at the 3 credit bureau (equifax, experian, transunion)
  • no need to pay for all 3 scores unless you are about to take out a new mortgage
  • it is fine to get one score, cost 15.95 per score
  • FICO credit scores range from 300 to 850, the higher, the better
  • if ur score is at least 760, u are in great shape
  • do not cancel unused credit card if you have unpaid balances
  • to get free credit report-- www.annualcreditreport.com, by law, each of the 3 credit bureaus must give u a free credit report once a year

  • shop for good credit card deals at www.bankrate.com   www.cardweb.com
  • don't pay an annual fee
  • make sure there is a least a 3 month grace period---grace period is the time between the end of ur monthly billing cycle and when ur payment is due, not every card has grace period; with grace period, if u pay ur bill in full on time, u will owe no interest. if u don't have a grace period, card company can start charing u interest from the day u make a purchase, even if u don't have a prior month's balance
  • aim for a low interest rate
  • payment due date--- due date is when ur credit card issuer must receive ur payment, it is not the date u must put the payment in the mail or authorize the online payment. it is the date ur payment arrives at the card company; if u use online payment, give urself at least 2 business days before the due date. if u are a day late, u can be labeled as being in the "universal default", which give every card company the right to increase the interest rate on ur cards
  • universal default --- if you are late making a payment an any other credit card, you can lose the great rate on a card you have paid on time
  • the minimum payment due on ur bill--if u don't pay the bill in full, if u pay just the minimum amount that is due for the month, the card company gets to start charging ur interest on the balance left unpaid; the minimum payment due typically represents just 3% or so of ur total bill
  • annual percentage rate (APR) listed on ur statement is the base interest rate for ur unpaid balance, average APR is around 15 %, with many cards charge 22 % or even more
  • never use home equity to get rid of credit card debt --- the interest rate on ur home equity line of credit (HELOC) will typically be a lot lower than the interest you pay on your credit card, and lenders are quick to point out that interest payments on HELOC can be tax-deductible-- do not use a HELOC to pay off ur credit card debt

seconder hander

"It’s what I couldn’t understand about people for a long time. They have no self. They live within others. They live second-hand. Look at Peter Keating. . . . I’ve looked at him—at what’s left of him—and it’s helped me to understand. He’s paying the price and wondering for what sin and telling himself that he’s been too selfish. In what act or thought of his has there ever been a self? What was his aim in life? Greatness—in other people’s eyes. Fame, admiration, envy—all that which comes from others. Others dictated his convictions, which he did not hold, but he was satisfied that others believed he held them. Others were his motive power and his prime concern. He didn’t want to be great, but to be thought great. He didn’t want to build, but to be admired as a builder. He borrowed from others in order to make an impression on others." — Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead.

retirement

  • 年金---當你開始提領退休金時, 整筆退休金有部分, 1/4, 會以現金支付, 剩下的部分會成為一筆免稅資金, 由指定的經理人協助進行投資, 在你去世之前的每一年, 讓你提領一筆金額---此為年金的概念
  • 投入退休金的資金, 在投資獲利上, 享有免稅的福利
  • 退休金給付,以你最後在職的薪水為計算基準
  • u need to have all 3 types of investment plans for retirement: 1. 401 (k) provided by employer, 2. Roth IRA (better than traditional IRA), 3. a separate emergency saving account
  • Summary for retirement investing --- see gmail note
action plan stage, step by step
1.fund ur 401 (k) enough to qualify for the maximum employer match
2.pay off high-rate credit card debt
3.max out ur Roth IRA (or the traditional IRA u intend to convert) and boost ur emergency cash saving
  • in 2007, u can invest up to $ 4000 in an IRA, if u are under 55; if u are over 50, u can invest $ 5000
  • 50-50 split: whatever extra money u have to invest each month should be divided between the emergency savings account and the Roth IRA
4.save up for a home: if u are renting and it is ur goal to own a home, create a new separate saving account just for ur down payment, and send extra money into the account each month

5. increase ur 401 (k) contribution: if u have no credit card debt, ur emergency fund is in place, u are under 45 years old, and u are maxing our on ur IRA, u should use extra money to add more to ur 401 (k). investing enough to qualify for the maximum employer match; in 2007, if u are under 50, u can invest up to $ 15500; if u are over 50, u are allowed to invest up to $ 20,500

6. put money into a college fund

401 (k)
retirement plans offered by ur employer
  • 401(k) plan---corporations offer 401 (k)
  • 403 (b) --- nonprofit (school or hospital) 
  • 403 (b) known as a tax-sheltered annuity (TSA) --- public employees
  • thrift savings plan (TSP) --- military or civil servants
  • despite different names, these retirement plans work in a similar fashion
  • ur employer designate how much of ur paycheck (up to set maximums) goes into ur retirement account
  • in 2007, u can invest up to 15,500 in ur 401 (k); if u are over 55 years old, u are permitted an additional catch-up contribution of 5,000 for a total of 20,500; the contribution limits in 2008 and beyond will be increased to account for inflation
  • never take a loan from ur 401 (k) plan or cashed out ur money before ur retirement (see below for more details)
  • don't touch ur money before u reach retirement age
  • for a traditional IRA or 401(k), u own income tax and 10 % penalty on any money u withdraw before age 59.5 years old
  • in 401 (k) or traditional IRA, whatever money u take out will be taxed as ordinary income at whatever income-tax rates are in place at that time 
  • with IRA and 401 (k), u are essentially forced to start taking money out once u reach 70.5 years old
  • with a 401 (k) or traditional IRA, ur heirs will need to papy ordinary income taxes on the money they inherit and withdraw
Tax break
  • 401 (k) plans have a bunch of tax breaks
  • the money u invest in the plan, known as us contribution, is taken out of ur paycheck before taxes, so every dollar u invest in ur retirement plan reduces ur taxable income for that year by one dollar---e.g., u make 40,000 a year, but invest 3,000 in ur retirement plan, ur taxable income drops to 37,000, this means a lower tax bill for the year
  • as long as u keep ur money inside the retirement plan, u won't owe any taxes, it is only when u start taking money out of the account that u will owe tax --- this is known as tax-deferred investing, ur money gets to grow and grow without any tax bill while it is invested
  • the tax bill is deferred, or postponed, until u are retired and withdrawing money from the account
  • in return for getting these nice breaks, u agree to keep the money invested until u reach retirement age, or u will be hit with a 10% early-withdrawal penalty
  • generally, u must be at least 59.5 years old, though in a few instances u can withdraw money at age 55 without incurring the penalty
  • no matter what ur age, when u take money out of a 401 (k) plan, u will owe tax on the amount of money that u take out
The employer matching contribution
  • retirement bonus, the extra money ur employer agrees to give u every year as long as u contribute to ur 401 (k)
  • the formula for the match varies, e.g., an employer contributes 50 cents for every 1 dollar an employee invests in her 401 (k) account, up to a maximum for 1,500; thus, if u invest 3,000 of ur own money, ur employer will add in another 1,500. this is an instant 50% gain, very good deal
  • if u don't contribute to the plan, ur don't get the match --- similar to tell ur boss that u don't want a bonus
  •  max out ur retirement bonus --- make sure to contribute enough to ur 401 (k) account to get the maximum matching contribution from ur employer
  • law encourages companies to enroll employees in the retirement plan automatically unless the employee explicitly ask to opt out of the plan
  • when u are automatically enrolled in a plan, ur employer chooses a contribution level for u, maybe 2 % of ur pay; the default contribution level ur employer chooses for u might not be high enough to qualify for the maximum matching contribution
  • u need to check with HR to see if u need to boost what u pay into the plan so u can be assured that u are getting maximum bonus contribution from ur employer
  1. 401 (k) with an employer match is great, but not all companies offer it; even if u have this great plan at work, u also need to have additional retirement saving on ur own, u need to ahve additional account that u set up, invest in, and manage on ur own
  2. if ur employer/retirement plan doesn't offer a match, don't make ur 401 (k) ur first retirement move --- Roth IRAs is a smarter choice for u
  3. Roth IRA (below for more details)
  4. participate in a 401 (k) due to the great "bonus" of the employer match, after the point of the match (or if ur company doesn't match at all), the Roth IRA is a better choice
  5. u can have both 401 (k) and a Roth IRA
Choose the right investments for ur plan
  • after u sign up for the plan, next u need to tell the plan how u want ur money invested, u are usually limited to the choices offered within ur plan, typically, these are the stock of ur company that u work for and mutual funds
  • many companies have gone overboard and built retirement plans that have more than a dozen different mutual funds to choose from 
  • own many different stocks that are in different types of industries or services -- diversification
  • the majority of ur money should be in the mutual funds of ur 401 (k) plan, even if ur plan offers u shares of ur company's stock, u still should make mutual funds the centerpiece of ur 401 (k) fund, loading up on ur company stock will leave ur undiversified
  • invest ur 401 (k) in stock mutual fund; ur 401 (k) plan may also offer mutual funds such as bond funds and stable-value funds, don't invest in these options unless u are just a few years away from retiremen
  • bond and stable-value fund don't have as much upside potential as stock
  • if u have at least 10 years before retirement ---- choose and use individual stocks or stock mutual fund
  • bond and stable-value (mutual) fund don't have as much upside potential as stock
  • over time (at least 10 years) --- decades, not months--- stocks outperform bonds and saving account
一勞永逸, 懶人法 (if u want to make a move once and never look at ur portfolio again, i.e., go on automatic pilot form today until the day u retire) 

1. opt for lifecycle fund (not a perfect solution)
  •  choose the option in the lifecycle fund that has a retirement year (is part of the fund's name) that reflects when u expect to retire; choose funds with target retirement dates that are anywhere from 5 years to 40 years away
  • the fund automatically holds, and adjusts over time, the proper types of investments based on how many years u have until retirement
  • e.g., if  u pick a lifecycle/target fund with a retirement year 40 years off, it will own mostly stocks right now, then, as u get closer to retirement, if will automatically scale back its investments in stocks and shift to less risky investments. The fund will automatically allocate ur investments in a wide range of types of stocks: stocks from different countries, industries, small stocks, large stocks, etc.,
  • many of these funds hold bonds or even some cash
  • if u are 20, 30, 40 years from retirement, u should focus on stock funds
2. opt for index fund (若願意或可以再花一點心思及時間, 較前者佳)
  • check fund post for more details
  • look at ur investing options and search for any fund with the name "index" of "500" or "total market" or "extended market" in the name, these fund are index fund
  • instead of being run by a manager or a team of money managers who are responsible for deciding what stocks the fund will own (stock mutual fund), an index fund removes the human element
  • u are not investing in the ability of a money manager to be a market guru who makes great calls on what to own and what to sell
  • u are investing in a fund that simply aims to mimic the performance of a popular market benchmark, one of the most well-known market indexes is the Standard & Poor's 500, this index is made up 500 different stocks of well-known companies---what are referred to as the "blue chip"
  • if ur 401 (k) plan offers an index fund that mirrors the S&P 500, that is a fine choice
  • international index fund vs. emerging market fund

  • in addition to the basic lifecycle and index funds, there are many different types of funds to invest in
  • each of these funds has a different investment goal
  • some funds focus on big, established companies that have been around for years (largep-cap funds), while others invest only in smaller, younger firms that have the potential for big growth (small-cap funds)
  • there are funds that use a specific investment strategy: a fund with the word "growth" in it tends to hold stocks of companies that are expected to have big jumps in their earnings
  • other funds focus on stocks that have been a bit lackluster or beaten up lately, but are expected to rebound, these are known as "value" stocks
401 (k) allocation
  • 90 % in ur index fund that follows a broad benchmark of US stocks; look for index funds with "total stock" or "extended market" in the name
  • 10% in an international fund or international index fund
getting close to retirement
  • if u are few years away from retirement, start slowly shift some of ur money from stock funds to into the stable-value funds within ur 401 (k) plan to reduce ur risk;  not bond funds --- bond funds go up and down in value depending on what is happening with interest rates
  • stocks and stock funds is good for u when u have at least 10 years or more to keep the money invested, but if u are retiring and expect you will need that money in a few years, u want to add some protection to ur account
  • if u stay 100 % invested in stocks, u run the risk that ur account will suffer a big loss if the stock market goes into one of its swoons just as u want to start withdrawing money
  • don't automatically move everything into stable value when u are 55 or 60 years old. keep some of ur money invested in stocks (because u are just 55 or 60 years young), u may live another 20 years or more --- so just remove a portion of ur money out of stock funds and into stable value
  • u need both the stability that stable-value funds provide and the earnings potential of stocks
  • stable-value funds 
  1. have a goal to keep ur value stable
  2. A stable-value fund in fact invests in bonds, but it has an added component that aims to eliminate the ups and downs that come with changes in the interest rates --- it is a conservative-type bond fund that is structured so the value of ur account won't drop, that is, it will be stable
  3. the interest rate is 1 or 2 % more than what u can earn in a saving account or money market account
  • by the time u are 60 years old, have 35 % of ur money in stable-value funds
  • between 60 and 70 years old, increase the above to 50 %
  • after 70 years old, shift another 5 % into stable value each year
  • by the time u are 80 years old, u are not invested in stocks or stock funds
If u don't need to use 401 (k) money to support urself in retirement, and you want to leave ur 401 (k) to ur heirs
  • u don't need to lower ur risk aggressively
  • u can leave the money in stock and stock funds, so it grows for future generations

company stocks
  • if ur 401 (k) is 50 % invested in ur own company's stock, u are not diversified
  • ur company's own stock should not amount to more than 10 % of ur total invested assets, Not just ur 401 (k) assets, but ur total invested assets
  • keep ur company stock to 10% or less of ur total assets
don't take a loan from ur 401 (k) plan before ur retirement
  • many 401 (k) allow u to take a loan from ur account --- actually, u will have to pay urself back (with interest) within 5 years, this is not a good idea
  • if u are laid off or decide to take a new job, u need to repay whatever amount of the loan is still outstanding within a few months; if u don't have the cash to repay the loan, u will owe a 10 % penalty (assuming u are  under 55 years old in the year u left the job) as well as income tax on the money u withdraw from the 401 (k) account
  • when u invest in ur 401 (k), u use pretax dollars, i,e., money that has yet to be taxed
  • but when u take that money out as a loan, all money withdraw from a 401 (k) is taxed at ur ordinary income tax rate
  • u will owe 10% penalty, as well as income tax, on money u withdraw from ur 401 (k) before age 59.5 years old
don't cash out ur money from ur 401 (k) plan before ur retirement

  • when u leave a company, voluntary or not, u no loner have to stay invested in that company's 401 (k), u have 4 different options
  1. keep the money in that plan as long as u have at least 5,000 dollars or more
  2. move that money into ur new employer's plan
  3. move the money into that is known as an IRA rollover account
  4. take the money in cash --- don't take this option;  u will owe 10% penalty, as well as income tax, on money u withdraw from ur 401 (k) before age 59.5 years old (exception: if u are 55 years old or older in the year u retired, took another job, or were laid off, u can withdraw any amount of money u want from ur 401 (k) without having to pay the 10% penalty --- this is not true for traditional IRA or IRA rollover, just for retirement account like 401 (k))
  5. expert's suggestion: when u leave a job, moving ur 401 (k) into either an IRA rollover at a discount brokerage or mutual fund company. With an IRA rollover, u still get all the tax advantages of ur 401 (k), but u expend ur investing options beyond the funds offered in ur former employer's plan --- check Suze website for more details

Roth 401 (k)
  • beginning in 2006, employers were permitted to expand their 401 (k) to offer what is known as a Roth 401 (k), this is a better deal than a regular 401 (k) for almost everyone
  • the big difference between a regular 401 (k) and a Roth 401 (k) is how u are taxed. 
  • with a Roth 401 (k), u will get no up-front tax break: the money u contribute into the plan is money that has already been taxed
  • but the potential big break comes when u retire and start withdrawing money from the plan; with a Roth 401 (k), if u meet some basic rules, all ur withdraws will be tax-free, whereas withdrawals from a traditional 401 (k) will be fully taxed at whatever ur income tax rate is in retirement
  • the younger u are, the more sense a Roth 401 (k) makes

IRA : traditional IRA vs. Roth IRA

Traditional individual retirement account (IRA)
  • committed to investing in an IRA in addition to investing in ur 401 (k) or 403 (b)
  • anyone can invest in a nondeductible traditional IRA, same contribution limits, same deferred tax treatment whiel ur money is invested; u just are not able to deduct ur initial contribution on ur federal tax bill
  • anyone with earned income can set up an IRA, and depending on their income, deduct the IRA contributions from their taxable income
  • who is allowed to deduct IRA contributions on their federal tax return:
  1. if u are single and don't have a retirement plan at work, u can invest in an IRA and deduct ur IRA contributions regardless of ur income (the adjusted gross income, AGI, u report on ur tax return)
  2. if u are single and have a retirement plan at work, u can deduct ur IRA contribution if ur AGI is below 60,000 dollars
  3. if u are married, file a joint tax return, and neither of u has a retirement plan through ur employer, u both can invest in an IRA and deduct ur contributions regardless of ur AGI
  4. if u are married, file a join tax return, and u both contribute to a retirement plan through work, u will be allowed to deduct ur IRA contributions only if ur joint AGI is below 100,000 dollars
  5. if u are marred, file a joint tax return, and do not actively participate in a retirement plan through work, but ur spouse does, u can make a deductible IRA contribution if ur joint AGI is below 160,000 dollars
  6. if ur income falls into certain phase-out ranges set by the IRS, the amount u can invest in a deductible IRA will be limited. The phase-out affects singles with income between 50,000 and 60,000, and married couples filing a joint tax return with income between 150,000 and 160,000
  • even if u can't deduct the contribution from ur tax bill, anyone can open a nondeductible IRA: though there is no initial tax break, u get all the other benefits of tax-deferred investing. 
  • While the money stay in the account, u can invest in almost anything u want and all the growth of that money over all the years u remain invested in not taxed
  • only when u withdraw money do u owe income tax-- on the amount withdrawn
  • for a traditional IRA or 401(k), u own income tax and 10 % penalty on any money u withdraw before age 59.5 years old
  • in 401 (k) or traditional IRA, whatever money u take out will be taxed as ordinary income at whatever income-tax rates are in place at that time 
  • with IRA and 401 (k), u are essentially forced to start taking money out once u reach 70.5 years old
  • with a 401 (k) or traditional IRA, ur heirs will need to papy ordinary income taxes on the money they inherit and withdraw
  • beginning in 2010, high-income individuals with traditional IRA can convert to a Roth IRA (see below IRA investing if u don't qualify for a Roth for more details)

Roth IRA (Roth Individual Retirement Account) -- highly recommend by expert
  • participate in a 401 (k) due to the great "bonus" of the employer match, after the point of the match (or if ur company doesn't match at all), the Roth IRA is a better choice
  • u can have both 401 (k) and a Roth
  • not everyone is eligible for a Roth IRA, there are certain income limits
  • in 1998, a new type of IRA hits the market--the Roth IRA
  • u fund a Roth IRA with money u have already paid taxes on
  • because u invested after-tax money, if u abide by just a few simple rules, all the money u invest and all of the growth on that money will be tax-fee when u take it out
  • different from traditional IRA and 401 (k) -- these two types, u owe income tax on whatever money u withdraw
  • if u suddenly need money from ur Roth IRA, u can withdraw any of ur contributions without any tax or penalty, regardless of ur age or how long the money has been inthere
  • for a traditional IRA or 401(k), u own income tax and 10 % penalty on any money u withdraw before age 59.5 years old
  • Roth IRA offers flexibility --- for emergency, u have access to ur contributions without tax or penalty
  • when u reach 59.5 years old, assuming u have the account for at least 5 years, u can withdraw 100 % of ur money without paying any tax and use it to pay off ur mortage or pay down any other debt u might have
  • in 401 (k) or traditional IRA, whatever money u take out will be taxed as ordinary income at whatever income-tax rates are in place at that time 
  • u are not required to make any withdraws if u don't need the money
  • with IRA and 401 (k), u are essentially forced to start taking money out once u reach 70.5 years old---this make a big difference for ur heirs
  • u can leave more money in ur Roth IRA for ur loved ones to inherit, any money that is left in ur ROth upon ur death will pass tax-free to whomever u have designated as ur beneficiary
  • with a 401 (k) or traditional IRA, ur heirs will need to papy ordinary income taxes on the money they inherit and withdraw
  • the maximum amount u can invest in a Roth IRA in 2007 is 4,000 dollars if u are under 50 years old and 5,000 dollars if u are 55 years old or older
  • as of 2007, u qualify for a Roth IRA,if:
  1. u are single and ur modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is below 114,000 dollars
  2. u are married and file a joint tax return, with MAGI below 166,000 dollars
  3. check ur federal tax return from last year, if u file form 1040, check line 38 as ur adjusted gross income; for most of u, us AGI is close to ur MAGI
  • two methods to invest in a Roth or ordinary IRA
  1. make one large investment one time a year (lump-sum investing): if u have 4,000 or 5,000 dollars, u can put it into ur IRA all at once; the best time to do so is in January, then ur money is working in advantageous way all year long
  2. invest a smaller amount each month or each quarter (dollar cost averaging): to end up 4,000 dollars invested over the course of a year, u could invest 333 dollars a month
  • if u plan to put money into ur Roth or IRA account every month or so, u should invest in no-load mututal funds. A load is a fee (a commission or sales charge)
  • a no-load is a on-commission fund
  • a load is no the same as expense ratio; expense ratio is a completely separate charge that all mutual funds (and all ETF) have, it is a annual charge everyone pays --- see mutual fund post for more details about expense ratio
  • the goal is to choose mutual funds that have no load and have the smallese possible annual expense (expense ratio)
  • loads are charged in two basic ways: 
1.up front when you first invest: A share funds
  • funds that charge a load when u invest have an A following their name, they are often called A share funds
  • an average A share load is about 5 %. thus if u invest $4000, only $ 3800 will actually be invested in ur account, the other $ 200 (5 %) goes to pay the broker or financial advisor who sold ur fund, that is their commission
  • A share doesn't guarantee u great performance, the load u pay has nothing to do with the talent of the fund manager (if u are investing in the index fund, there is actully no talent needed)
  • the load simply pays the person who sold u the fund
2.as a deferred sales charge that you may have to pay when u sell ur shares: B funds
  • funds that charge u a commission when u sell have a B at the end of their name, they are called B share funds
  • they look great u don't pay a commission when u invest. However, u will pay a fee if u leave within a few years.
  • Typically, u can get hit with a  5% sales charge if u sell them within the 1st year, 4% within 2 years, and so on
  • the expense ratio on a deferred-load fund is a lot higher than the expense ratio  on a true no-load fund, expecially a low-cost index fund.
  • u should avoid B share fund,if u see the letter B after the name of the mutual fund, don't buy it
How to spot a load fund
  • check if there is an A or B after the name of the fund
  • before u invest in any fund, u can look it up at the fund company's website or call customer service and ask about the fees: (1) do i pay a load when i buy shares of this fund? (2) will i pay a load if i sell my shares within, e.g., 5, years?
  • if the answer to either question is yes, u are looking at a loaded fund
to learn more about mutual funds, http://www.morningstar.com/
enter the name or ticker symbol for a mutual fund, it will take u to a data page for that fund, including expense ratio and loads
ticker symbol has five letters and ends in X
strategy for no-load fund
  • 90 % in a no-load mutual fund that tracks a broad market benchmarket
  • 10 % in a no-load mutual fund that invests in international stocks from developed countries
How to open a no-load Roth IRA or traditional IRA
  • a great place to open Roth IRA, T. Rowe Price mutual fund group https://www3.troweprice.com/usis/personal-investing/mutual-funds.html. u can open an account where u invest as little as $ 50 a month
  • T. Rowe's Extended Equity Market Index fund is a smart choice for ur core index fund
  • it also have an international stock fund for the remaining 10 % of ur Roth IRA
  • Vanguard mutual fund company https://investor.vanguard.com/mutual-funds/ ; is great, it tends to have the lowest expense ratio of any no-load firm, the minimum initial investment for its funds is $ 3000 (and then $ 100 after that), check suze website for strategy for how to build a Roth IRA using vanguard fund
choose the right investment for ur IRA or Roth IRA
  • if u simply send in a check to a brokerage or mutual fund company to open an IRA or a Roth IRA without making it clear what u want ur money invested in, ur mony will just sit in a saving account or money market account ---- this is bad
  • if  u have at least 10 years or more until u retire, u need to invest in the stock market to get the best returns on ur money over the long haul
  • exchange-traded fund (ETF) are great choice, ETF is very similar to index fund, it also aims to mimic the performance of a bench-market index, just like a regular index mutual fund
  • u can ofen find an ETF and an index mutual fund that are tracking the same exact benchmark, they just have a few small diffference 
  • See mutual fund post for more details about ETF
Keep all ur IRAs in one place
  • whether u choose to invest in ETFs or mutual funds, u should keep ur IRA investment with one firm, because many discount brokerages and fund firms will charge u an annual maintenance fee (custodial fee) for each separate IRA
  • the account custodial fee can be $ 10 to $ 50. often once ur account reaches a certain level, e.g., $ 10,000 or more, the fee may be waived
  • move all ur accounts to the firm with the best investing options and lowest fees, by consolidating ur various accounts into one account, u may have enough money to get the custodial fee waived
How to transfer IRA money
  • see gmail note for more details
IRA investing, if you don't qualify for a Roth IRA
  • even if u make too much money to qualify for a Roth IRA, u still need to have ur own retirement fund outside of a company plan
  • beginning in 2010, high-income individuals with traditional IRA can convert to a Roth IRA
  • with high income, u can't open a Roth IRA directly, but if u open a traditional IRA, u can change it into a Roth IRA, regardless of how much u make
  • invest in a traditional IRA first, keep funding it to the max, then convert the money into to Roth IRA
  • u can choose any amount of money u want to convert
  • the downadie -- when u convert, u will owe tax
  • if u are convert a decuctible IRA, you will owe tax on the entire amount of the conversiion
  • if ur traditional IRA was nondeductible, u will owe tax only on what u have earned; ur origional contributions are not taxed because they were made with money u already paid taxes on
  • fund a trational IRA,then convert to Roth IRA, see gmail more for more details
jugging ur 401 (k) and Roth IRA contributions
  • if money is tight and u can't easily fund ur 401 (k) and Roth IRA to their annual maximums, here are the strategies
  • make sure u  contribute enough to ur 401 (k) to get the maximum annual matching contribution, but don't contribute a penny more than what u need to get that match; then the rest money can invest in a Roth IRA or IRA
  • if u don't get a company match in ur 401 (k), make Roth IRA, or traditional IRA ur first priority (Roth IRA is better than traditional IRA)
  •  Fund IRA to the max, if u can
  • if u finish funding the Roth IRA or IRA completely befor year end, spending the rest of the year adding to ur saving fund (emergency saving account) 
  • when the new year rolls around, go back to focusing on funding ur IRA again (u also need to make sure that once again contribute enough to ur 401 (k) to get the maxmium employer matching contribution)
  • if u finish building ur emergency saving fund, turn back to ur 401 (k) and boost ur contribution level for the rest of the year
  • see gmail note for more details --- jugging ur 401 (k) and Roth IRA contributions
Separate Emergency saving account
  • u need to have a Roth IRA and an emergency saving fund
  • Roth IRA can only serve as a "last resort", as a "backup" emergency account
  • if u can full fund both the saving account and the Roth IRA, great
  • if money is tight, be strategic: take whatever u have to invest each month and divide it between ur two goals, e.g., if u have 200 dollars u can invest each month, put 100 in the saving account, and 100 in ur Roth IRA
for women over 45

  • if u live in the home u intend to retire in and it still has a mortgage
  • u need to invest in ur 401 (k) if u get a company match, but after u achieve that, u need to forgo invest any more in retirement account and shift ur money to pay off ur mortgage so u own ur home outright by the time u retire
  • own ur home free and clear before retire, u remove one of ur biggest financial worries


social security retirement 
  • estimator  https://www.ssa.gov/retire/estimator.html

疾病症狀輕重的辨別

疾病症狀輕重的辨別,主要是通過觀察症狀本身而定:

(一)症狀屬局部且位於四肢,如臀痛、腿痛、膝痛、踝痛、肩痛、臂痛、肘痛、腕痛等,若發作很少,又時間短暫,則屬輕症。因為症狀限於局部且很少發作,表示體傷輕微、影響熱能甚少,且症狀又在四肢,無危險性,故屬輕症。》

張醫師:
前面我們是判斷,病情好轉與惡化,所以我們要觀察什麼?體力,對不對?

但這裡是要怎麼樣?研判病情的輕重?所以我們主要是觀察什麼?症狀。

欸,這裡兩者怎麼樣,主、次有沒有分?有!有分喔!雖然我們診斷是要觀察症狀跟體力,但是好轉與惡化是看體力,那病情的輕重是看症狀,為主。這樣了解我的意思嗎?

好,那我們就直接從症狀來研判。

什麼叫輕症,我們就這裡把它定義了。

症狀局部的,局部譬如說你膝蓋痛或手肘痛、脕痛,那都是局部的,那又長在四肢,而不在頭身,然後發作的時間很少,那這個,三個要素加在一起,我們稱之為輕症。

下面就把輕症再解釋一下而已,為什麼稱為輕症。

那反過來說,如果它的位置是在頭身而不在四肢,然後它不是局部的而是多處在痛,然後發作時間又很頻繁、持久,跟這個輕症完全相反的,那我們就稱之為什麼?重症。

好,那我們就來看重症,下面:

(手冊導讀)

《(二)症狀屬多處且位於頭身,如高燒、怕冷、頭痛,或頭暈、胸悶,咳嗽或腹痛、便秘等。若發作頻繁、或是時間持久,則屬重症。因為症狀多處且發作頻繁或持久,表示體傷嚴重、影響熱能甚巨,且症狀又在頭身,有危險性,故屬重症。

(三)概而言之,疾病症狀之輕重及介於輕重之間的研判,可從症狀發作之範圍(局部或多處)、部位(四肢或頭身)及時間(久暫與頻率)與輕症者相比即可。若三項全同,則屬輕症,若其中有二項相同,則屬輕偏重;若僅有一項相同,則屬重偏輕。若三項全部不同,則屬重症。若是重症又體力虛弱,即成重病。》

張醫師:
這裡我解釋一下,什麼叫做,因為輕症、重症我們都講了,那什麼叫輕偏重、重偏輕? 現在就是要討論這個。

好,我舉一個例子,我頭痛,但是我的頭痛是怎麼樣?兩三天才痛一次,那每次痛個兩三分鐘就過了。這個時候,我的症是屬於什麼?是輕症呢?還是輕偏重?還是重偏輕?

我們就來分析,我頭痛,跟輕症長在四肢,一樣不一樣? 喔,這一點就不一樣了,但是我是局部還是多處?局部。好,這個跟輕症一樣,然後我發作時間頻繁嗎?還是很少?很少 ! 好,那這個跟輕症也一樣,所以我有兩項跟輕症相同,一項不同。 好, 若其中有兩項相同,則屬什麼? 輕偏重。 喔~這樣會了吧!

好,我在舉,進一步問各位,如果我的頭痛,常常早上痛,中午也痛,晚上也痛。好,那這個是什麼症?(重偏輕) ! 欸,已經有人講出來了。重偏輕,對不對?因為怎麼樣,我發作頻繁跟輕症不一樣,然後是在頭身而不是在四肢,也跟輕症不一樣,但是有一點一樣,我還是局部的,所以只有一項相同。 若僅有一項相同,則屬什麼?重偏輕。

好,那我再問,如果我又頭痛又咳嗽呢?那這個時候是什麼?哎,就是重症了,因為三項全部不同,所以則屬重症。

那如果我一直咳嗽咳到怎麼樣,四肢無力,走路都很難得走,舉步維艱,這時候已經變成怎麼樣?又進一步了,變成重病。好,所以這一段重不重要?重要啊!所以你看,這樣我們就可以看出,這個人到底病情輕的重,我們機乎都可以看得出來。

筆錄:calin weng

Tuesday, January 03, 2017

房屋貸款

二個因素須要考量: 利率, 償還房貸的方式

利率

1.貼現率(discounted rate)
  • 房貸利率不會隨著中央銀行公告的利率而有調整的空間(但若利率走勢有所揚升時, 貼現率型的房貸利率反而會隨著高升)
2.銀行牌告利率(tracker rate)
  • 房貸利率隨著銀行牌告的基本利率而變動
  • 若銀行公告的利率隨著中央銀行公告的放款利率而時高時低時, 你的房貸利率也會隨之高低變化
3.標準浮動利率(standard variable rate)
  • 房貨利率會有高有低
  • 由借款者決定貸款利率為何
  • 此種房貸利息高, 宜敬而遠之
4.定期償還房貸(repayment)
  • 只先繳利息, 或是綜合二種還款方式
  • 若你選擇的是"只先償還利息"的方式, 你每個月的應繳金額會較低, 但這只有償還房貸的利息, 而未償還本金

避免購買房貸免責賠償保險 (mortgage indemnity premium, MIP)
當你延遲給付房貸時, 對於銀行的一種保障, 銀行會將保險費算在房貸中
當借款人申請房貸的額度佔了整個房屋款項的大部分時, 例如9成, 就會要求借款人強制加保這項保險

莫向房貸掮客購買任何房屋險---因其最昂貴

注意若提早償還房貸, 是否會有任何罰款

隨時準備轉換不同的貸款銀行的方案
無必要從頭到尾都守著同一間銀行的貸款方案, 你可在幾年之間評估一下手上房貸利率及整體狀況, 看看有無必要將房貸轉到比較好的方案上

二胎房貸
若你有二胎房貸, 同時還有別的債款要清償, 你可和欠款銀行商談, 將貸款轉為暫時只支付利息的型態, 如此可降低你的每月應付最低額度, 讓你稍微喘口氣, 之後你可以把貸款型態再轉為原本的每月支付本利的型態


mutual fund, fund

  • 共同基金是為了希望擁有股票, 卻不想為細節煩心的人發明的
stock mutual fund (股票型基金)
  • a stock mutual fund is a fund that owns dozens, if not hundreds, of individual stocks
  • a mutual fund give u instant diversification-- u buy shares of a mutual fund, and each share gives u a stake in all the different stocks owned by the fund
  • own many different stocks that are in different types of industries or services -- diversification
  • the majority of ur money should be in the mutual funds of ur 401 (k) plan, even if ur plan offers u shares of ur company's stock, u still should make mutual funds the centerpiece of ur 401 (k) fund, loading up on ur company stock will leave ur undiversified
  • u decide when to buy or sell a stock
  • with a mutual fund, a portfolio manager decides what stocks to buy and sell for the fund, the portfolio manager controls the decision making about what investments to hold inside that fund
  • 若你是長期投資人, 不要理會債券型基金與綜合型基金(同時投資股票和債券的基金), 直接找純粹的股票型基金
  • 你可以直接從股票市場購買上市公司的股票, 或以購買股票型基金的方式投資某公司
  • 股票型基金可以讓你將投入的金額分散投入在幾個不同的上市公司
  • 股票型基金通常都有基金管理人, 由他來決定將旗下的基金投注於哪間企業, 何時進場, 何時賣出
  • 挑選年度報酬率高的基金, 並確定創造優異記錄的經理人是否還繼續管理這檔基金
  • 長期而言, 投資小型股的獲利會超過投資大型股, 今天成功的小型公司會變成未來的walmart, microsoft, 故投資小型公司的小型股基金, 績效遠高於大型股基金; 小型意指總市值, 即流通在外股數乘以目前股價得到的數字; 小型股基金只要找到幾家像walmart 一樣的好公司, 就可輕鬆地打敗對手; 小型股的波動通常比大型股激烈, 故和其他類型的基金相比, 小型基金會讓你碰到更多的極端起伏, 宜牢牢坐著
  • 宜投資歷史悠久, 始終表現極為優異績效的基金, 莫冒險選新基金
  • bond and stable-value (mutual) fund don't have as much upside potential as stock
  • if u are 20, 30, 40 years from retirement, u should focus on stock funds
  • mutual fund trading is different from stock trading. stock traded on a stock exchange, during the day, u can buy and sell shares, stock price is whatever the stock was trading at when your order was placed
  • mutual funds don't trade during the day, their price is set just once a day after the market closes, which is 4 pm EDT Monday to  Friday ; e.g., u buy or sell ur fund shares at 11 AM, u go online or call customer service and place ur order at 11 am. the actual price u will get on ur mutual fund trade will be based on the closing value of all the stocks in the portfolio. so u essentially have to wait until the mutual fund sets its price after the 4 PM close to know what price you will get
  • Barron's 和 Forbes 之類的財經雜誌, 會列出表, 說明哪些基金多年來績效一直高高在上
  • Barron's 每年會刊出兩次完整的基金總檢討, 細節由 Lipper Analytical提供, 由Michael Lipper經營的優質研究公司
  • The Wall Street Journal‎ 每年也刊出類似的總檢討4次
  • 若你需要某一檔基金更多資訊, 可找http://www.morningstar.com/ , 其追蹤幾千檔基金, 每個月發布一次報告
  • 經常換基金沒有好處, 某一年底排名最高的基金, 隔年很少再度創造同樣優異的績效, 挑選一檔長期紀錄完美的基金, 緊緊抱著, 結果會比較好
  • 有些基金會收手續費, 近手手續費平均3%至4%, 這表示若你投資收取手續費的基金時, 資金立刻減少3%至4%
  • 很多基金不收手續費, 不收手續費者的基金表示和收手續費者差不多, 故收手續費者未必比較好
  • 你把基金抱得越久, 手續費會變得越不重要, 若基金表現優異的話
  • 年度費用應注意, 應選儘量把年度費用壓低到1%的基金
  • 聘請基金經理中的目的是要打敗大盤指數,但基金經理經常無法打敗大盤指數, 因為打敗大盤很難, 有些乃購買指數型基金, 因其無論如何, 都保証能媲美大盤績效, 指數型基金不需要經理人

指數型基金 (index mutual fund, index fund) ---以市場股票指數(index, tracker)為標的之基金
  • 聘請基金經理中的目的是要打敗大盤指數,但基金經理經常無法打敗大盤指數, 因為打敗大盤很難, 有些乃購買指數型基金, 因其無論如何, 都保証能媲美大盤績效, 指數型基金不需要經理人
  • 常見的指數型基金---道瓊一百, 道瓊指數, 標準普爾五百 (包含500檔成分股), 德國 DAX 指數基金
  • S and P 500 是著名及不錯的股價指數--- 大型公司
  • 若你決定投資小型股基金, 希望得到小型公司巨大的潛在報酬, 你可以買追蹤小型股指數, 如 Russell 2000 index fund, 這樣你的錢會平均分散到Russell index 的2000 檔股票上
  • 另一種投資可能性: 將一部分錢投資在S and P 500, 得到大型公司的好處, 剩下的錢投資小型股指數型基金, 得到小型公司帶來的好處, 這樣你永遠不必再看怎麼挑選好基金的文章, 最後你的表現會超過非常小心研究才投資基金, 結果基金卻無法打敗大盤的一部分人
  • 若專注在指數型基金, 就可避免自己的錢被不盡責的股票型基金經理人玩弄於股掌之間
  • 多數的股票型基金經理人之績效, 並不比股票指數(指數型基金)的績效好
  • 可省下交易手續費及基金管理費
  • 不必聘請經理人, 沒有管理費, 沒有買賣不同股票的手續費, 也不需要做決定
  • 若股票市場經歷的是一次大多頭, 則指數型基金的表現會遠比股票型基金佳; 若市場水溫不定, 則二者的表現不會差太多

  • ny fund with the name "index" of "500" or "total market" or "extended market" in the name, these fund are index fund
  • instead of being run by a manager or a team of money managers who are responsible for deciding what stocks the fund will own (stock mutual fund), an index fund removes the human element
  • u are not investing in the ability of a money manager to be a market guru who makes great calls on what to own and what to sell
  • u are investing in a fund that simply aims to mimic the performance of a popular market benchmark, one of the most well-known market indexes is the Standard & Poor's 500, this index is made up 500 different stocks of well-known companies---what are referred to as the "blue chip"
  • better option --- an index fund that tracks an even broader index, funds that have "extended" or "total" in their name tend to track indexes of 4,500 or more stocks; not 500 stocks, but 4,500 stocks; instead of blue chips, u own a broader array of different types of stocks --- blue chips and smaller firms. 
  • A 500-index fund gives u very good diversification; an extended or total index gives u great diversification
  • indexing is a great way to go
  • very few money managers who "actively run" mutual fund (ie., they get to pick and choose the stocks in their fund), have been able to do better than the benchmarks year after year; relying on an index fund can often produce better returns over the years than relying on money managers
  • index fund is better than stock mutual fund
  • http://greenhornfinancefootnote.blogspot.tw/2017/01/the-index-mutual-funds-40-years-of.html (指數型基金40年分析)
  • Buffett: 若你不是職業投資者, 若你的目標不是超過大多數人的表現, 則你需要作到最大可能的投資多元化, 而不是不斷地買進賣出----可選擇管理成本很低的指數類共同基金 (用電腦模型來類比股票指數,如道瓊指數,納期達克指數,所包含的股票,權重和走勢;投資者可將指數型基金當成普通股票來投資)。一旦你進入對企業做評估的領域,下定決心要花時間, 花精力把事情做好, 則不應投資多元化, Buffett 所看好的生意中, 他只擁有一半左右, 投資做得不錯的人, 都沒有多元化其投資


international index fund vs. emerging market fund
  • look for a fund that invests in "international stocks", not investing in "emerging market"
  • emerging market fund invest in stocks in countries that are considered less mature or developed--this can mean tremendous opportunities, but plenty of risk, too
  • given we live in a global market, international fund primarily invests in foreign companies centered in countries that are considered more established
exchange-traded fund (ETF) 
  • is a great choice
  • ETF is very similar to index fund, it also aims to mimic the performance of a bench-market index, just like a regular index mutual fund
  • u can often find an ETF and an index mutual fund that are tracking the same exact benchmark, they just have a few small difference 
  • ETF trade like a stock on a stock exchange, during the day, u can buy and sell shares of ur ETF and ur price is whatever the ETF was trading at when your order was places; a mutual fund is a bit different. mutual funds don't trade during the day, their price is set just once a day after the market closes, which is 4 pm EDT Monday to  Friday (see mutual fund above for more details)
  • ETF offers more liquidity than mutual fund, ETF's price changes throughout the trading day based on what is happening to the underlying stocks it owns
  • ETF cost u less in annual fee
  • a good ETF often have a lower expense ratio than a mutual fund
  • Expense ratio: an annual fee that both ETF and mutual fund charge to cover their management and administrative costs; everyone pays the fee, it is not a separate line item u see deducted on ur statement. the lower expense ratio, the better; expense ratio is a completely separate charge that all mutual funds (and all ETF) have, it is a annual charge everyone pays
  • while the expense ratio on index mutual funds tend to be low, it can be lower for an ETF---thus ETF for ur IRA is good, the less money u pay in fee, the more money u have left to grow for ur future
  • the goal is to choose mutual funds that have no "load" and have the smallest possible annual expense (expense ratio) --- see retirement post for more details about "load"
  • ETF doesn't make sense if u make periodic investment (dollar cost averaging) on a monthly or quarterly basis --- because ETF has to be bought just like a stock, i.e., u must pay a commission every time u buy or sell shares of an ETF, if u invest monthly, u end up paying commission, e.g., 10 dollars, every month
  • expert recommend ETF for lump-sum investor, if u can invest 4,000 in one lump sum, the cost to invest all that money in one ETF is 10 dollars
  • strategy:
  1. 90 % of you money in an ETF that tracks a broad US benchmark
  2. 10 % in a diversified international fund
  • one good, low-cost ETF that tracks a broad US index is the Vanguard Extended Market (ticker symbol VTI)
  • a good, low-cost ETF that invests in international stock is the iShares MSCI EAFE index ETF (ticker symbol EFA)
  • http://greenhornfinancefootnote.blogspot.tw/2017/01/etfa-simple-portfolio-of-commission.html
  • how to open an ETF account
  1. if u intend to be a lump-sum investor, u open ur IRA account at a discount brokerage fime
  2. the "discount" in discount brokerage means that u are charged lower fees when u buy and sell investments than u would be at a full-service brokerage that provides additional hand-holding support, research, and a bunch of other services that you probably don't need.
  3. on the websites, look for the links for retirement or IRA investing, download a form and fill it out, send it back in
  4. ur IRA investment form will ask u to choose what investments u want ur IRA to be investsed in and how u intend to send in ur money: (1) u can do a direct electronic transfer from ur saving or money market account to the brokerage, or (2) u can send in a check 
  5. for a list of the best discount brokerage, check suze website 
to learn more about mutual funds, http://www.morningstar.com/
enter the name or ticker symbol for a mutual fund, it will take u to a data page for that fund, including expense ratio and loads
ticker symbol has five letters and ends in X
  • a great place to open Roth IRA, T. Rowe Price mutual fund group https://www3.troweprice.com/usis/personal-investing/mutual-funds.html. u can open an account where u invest as little as $ 50 a month
  • T. Rowe's Extended Equity Market Index fund is a smart choice for ur core index fund
  • it also have an international stock fund for the remaining 10 % of ur Roth IRA
  • Vanguard mutual fund company https://investor.vanguard.com/mutual-funds/ ; is great, it tends to have the lowest expense ratio of any no-load firm, the minimum initial investment for its funds is $ 3000 (and then $ 100 after that), check suze website for strategy for how to build a Roth IRA using vanguard fund
債券型基金 (bond fund)
  • 經由個人儲蓄帳戶投資企業的債券型基金
  • 投資風險較股票型基金及指數型基金為低
  • 債券型基金等同於企業向你開出借條, 向投資人借錢, 企業同意在一定的期間之內, 給予一定額度的利息
  • bond funds go up and down in value depending on what is happening with interest rates

stock

股票
  • 儲蓄現金能為短期的需要做準備, 但是最好的投資還是股票
  • 若以持股股數為目的, 則宜定期定額, 而非一次將所有本錢以同一個股價買入, 如此才在投資標的之股價尚低的時間內, 獲取一些利益
  • 買體質健全, 有獲利能力的公司,  無論如何都要抱緊你的股票, 沒有好理由不要放掉, 股價下跌不是好理由
  • 若你有時間, 有興趣, 能從事刺激的終身冒險---建議你自行選股, 久而久之, 你的表現會超過大多數基金
  • 你只需要在10年裡, 選到幾檔大贏家就夠了, 若你有10檔股票, 其中3檔是大贏家, 就足以彌補1或2檔輸家, 和6,7檔表現只是平平的股票
  • 你一生只要能找到幾檔上漲3倍的股票, 就可創造可觀的財富
  • stock traded on a stock exchange, during the day, u can buy and sell shares, stock price is whatever the stock was trading at when your order was placed; mutual fund trading is different from stock trading (see fund post for more details)
  • when a company wants to raise money so that they can expand and grow, one way for them to do so is to create a specific number of shares for their company to sell to other people for a specific sum of money, this is called "going public", that is, the public can buy stock in that company
  • when u own stock in a company, u are an equity shareholder of that company and u own a tiny piece of that company, this is why a share of stock can also be called an equity.
  • if the company does well, the value of the shares will rise; if the company doesn't do well, the share price will go down
  • the share of a company that has gone public is traded on a stock exchange which is a place where people who own stock or shares in a company go to buy or sell shares
  • there are few different stock exchanges that a company can use, but the biggest is known as the New York Stock Exchange
  • u decide when to buy or sell a stock
  • with a mutual fund, a portfolio manager decides what stocks to buy and sell for the fund, the portfolio manager controls the decision making about what investments to hold inside that fund
  • bond and stable-value (mutual) fund don't have as much upside potential as stock
  • over time (at least 10 years) --- decades, not months--- stocks outperform bonds and saving account
  • historical average annual rate is more than 10 % for stocks, 1/2 for bonds, even less for saving account 
  • bond is more conservative than stocks
  • if  u have at least 10 years or more until u retire, u need to invest in the stock market to get the best returns on ur money over the long haul
  • u must pay a commission every time u buy or sell shares of a stock
  • 你買股票時希望付出的價格有二種,擇一選擇: (1) 你可以"市價"買進, 即委託單送到華爾街的價 
Diversification principle
  • never put all ur money to be invested in just one or two or even a handful of stocks
  • own many different stocks that are in different types of industries or services -- diversification
  • the majority of ur money should be in the mutual funds of ur 401 (k) plan, even if ur plan offers u shares of ur company's stock, u still should make mutual funds the centerpiece of ur 401 (k) fund, loading up on ur company stock will leave ur undiversified
  • Buffett: 若你不是職業投資者, 若你的目標不是超過大多數人的表現, 則你需要作到最大可能的投資多元化, 而不是不斷地買進賣出----可選擇管理成本很低的指數類共同基金 (用電腦模型來類比股票指數,如道瓊指數,納期達克指數,所包含的股票,權重和走勢;投資者可將指數型基金當成普通股票來投資)。一旦你進入對企業做評估的領域,下定決心要花時間, 花精力把事情做好, 則不應投資多元化, Buffett 所看好的生意中, 他只擁有一半左右, 投資做得不錯的人, 都沒有多元化其投資
  •  

金融商品, 投資, investment

金融商品, 不外乎四種型態:
  1. 現金: 將資金投資在銀行或相關機構, 讓你可以領取利息
  2. 固定利息: 借錢給政府或公司, 得到固定利息收入
  3. 股份: 投資別人公司的股份, 並期待從中賺到更多的錢
  4. 不動產: 購買住宅或商用不動產, 轉賣得利
將投資風險分配到上列每種類別: 現金, 固定利息, 股票(份), 不動產

投資時, 注意所收取之服務費高低

莫專注在避險, 你應該專注在投資報酬

當別人戒慎恐懼時, 自己應表現貪婪, 當別人貪婪時, 自己應戒慎恐懼

計算--何時自己的投資才會變成雙倍
  • 先選定你自己預期的每年投資報酬率, 然後以72當分子, 自己預期的每年投資報酬率當分母, 二者相除後, 得到的數字即為你達成目標的投資年限
  • 例如, 你預期的投資報酬率為10%, 則你需要7.2年, 才能讓投資本金成為2倍--72/10=7.2
  • 例如, 你預期的投資報酬率為6%, 則你需要12年, 才能讓投資本金成為2倍--72/6=12
  • 例如, 你預期的投資報酬率為8%, 則你需要9年, 才能讓投資本金成為2倍--72/8=9

病情好轉與惡化的辨別

病情好轉與惡化的辨別,主要是通過觀察體力強弱而定。不言而喻,治病最重要的目的是爲了保命,其次才是解除症狀。而體力不僅可反映熱能狀況,也是身體免疫力,自癒力的代名詞,更是生命力的象徵。
故研判病情或治療疾病,改善體力遠比改善症狀更爲重要,也就是經治療後不論症狀有無改善,如見體力漸漸充足,則屬好轉現象,最後必可化險爲夷,脫離病苦。反之,如症狀雖減輕甚至消失,但體力卻衰退,則非佳兆,須提防病情突然惡化。

張醫師:
所以我們要看病情的好轉與惡化,主要是觀察什麽而定?

體力而定! 這一個很重要!

爲什麽說是體力呢?好,我們下面就有講,體力也是自癒力,修復力的一個代名詞。那也是一個生命力的象徵!

治病最重要的目的是為了解決症狀還是爲了保命?有沒有人不要命只要要症狀好的?

唉,你們別笑啊,很多人是喜歡症狀好,那死了都沒關係啦。這個在臨床上很容易遇見啊。譬如腫瘤,你長腫瘤,那西醫說,欸,這個腫瘤要開刀,那開刀要不要簽名? 要啊,要簽名。簽名代表什麽意思?表示這個有風險,萬一割了,掛了,那也不能怪醫院,不能怪醫師,對不對?但,醫師有一個責任,他一定把你的腫瘤割得乾乾淨淨的。這一點他們能做到!但不一定把握你,走進來,能夠走得出去。有可能怎麽樣?躺著出去。有沒有可能? 有啊!要不然就不用簽啦,就是有這種風險嘛。

所以我們臨床上也常常看到這樣,欸,手術割了很成功,結果病人體力一下子變得很糟。那體力變糟就是熱能嚴重耗損嘍,那熱能不夠的,嚴重一點會怎麽樣,(而)掛! 我們前面有講,症狀是不會死人的。但真正會死人的是嚴重熱能不足。也就是體力,熱能耗盡。體力不支,才會死。

那我也看過很多手術,結果一個禮拜就掛了。那,西醫對這樣的結果,他們的講法是,其實也是講得很明確,他常常講啊,哎呀,手術成功,只是病人走了。
哎,他們還是認爲成功的。那爲什麽他們還認爲成功?因爲你來的時候,你的目標很清楚,就是把腫瘤割掉。那他的目標就是解決腫瘤。那他的目標也很清楚,我不保證你能活的回去。

這個也是事(實),所以你要簽名嘛!

所以他們的結論就是手術成功,只是病人走了。但問題你們能接受這樣嗎?不能呐?但是你們爲什麽又要簽名呢?你們簽名的意思就是,反正你就是無論如何把我腫瘤割了,反正我死都不會去跟你有什麽任何瓜葛,是不是?我死了也不會去跟你什麽糾纏,都不會的!所以你才簽了嘛,那結果也真的是這樣。那這樣的案例多到不行啊!

我看很多化療也是,都要簽名的。那化療結果呢,腫瘤是縮小了,結果呢,體力越來越虛,也許半年一年左右,病人就不堪這個毒藥的殘害,結果就奄奄一息了。那奄奄一息,西醫還是會拿那些映像,跟他講,哎呀,你化療之後,你腫瘤縮小了,結果那時候病人已經怎麽樣,吃不下飯,皮包骨了,然後還勉強擠出一絲一絲的微笑,還要感謝醫生,哎呀,把腫瘤變小了。那隔不了幾天,就掛了。那這個在西醫的結論也是,化療成功,只是病人走啦。

所以你們進醫院,你們一定要拿穩,你們到底是治病而去,還是爲了保命而去?我想問清楚的,你們去醫院的目的是想解決症狀,還是要活命而去的?

有沒有人不要命只要症狀好的?我再問一次。有的舉手我看一下!

不要命,只要症狀好的? 沒有啦,這是你們說,但是,你們在這裡好像表達跟去醫院表達,就截然不一樣。你們,你們到底哪一個態度是真的,哪一個是假的?來這裡突然間清醒了是嗎?還是,那去醫院突然矇了,就隨便簽了嗎?

好,如果你們是真的,那我認爲這個就是我們共同的點。我認爲治病的目的,當然先保命啊!

命都保不住,你解決症狀又有什麽用?人都掛了嘛。就像前面哪一個,你看!他已經顱内手術,有沒有?結果,醫師怎麽講,哎呀,他現在一句一句,只變成一句一句,然後半身癱瘓,只能躺在床上,他還是認爲他的手術是什麽,欸,手術成功,只是病人要像小孩子講話一樣。那這個還算小事啊?

萬一到了生命,他也是這樣講。所以你要了解,西醫處理的是你的異常,而症狀不是他的重點,那生命更不能保證。這個你一定要了解。

那好,那如果你們確定,你們治病的目的是爲了活命,那觀察,一定要觀察什麽?體力,而非觀察症狀。因爲體力是反映熱能嘛,那熱能是影響你生命力的動力嘛。我說如果沒有電力,那你組織設備能不能運轉?當然不行!

所以要活命,一定要看熱能,也就是體力,如果沒有體力,你顯然是活不了。好,那我們症狀的好轉,或是體力的好轉,顯然如果在你們來看,那一個比較重要? (觀眾:體力)如果你們是爲了保命,那體力。如果是不要命,只要症狀好,那就是以症狀爲主。

好,那如果你們是保命,那很顯然就是觀察體力好轉與否。但是一般人,我這樣輕鬆的講給你們聼,你們是聼懂了嗎?(觀眾:懂了)懂了!

如果我不講,我不相信你們懂。

因爲我看過太多的案例,我舉一個例子:有一個卵巢癌患者,那她手術也化療,結果一年之後,它又轉移了,然後去找醫師,然後,醫師說,哎呀,還是要從來一次。那患者能不能接受?不能接受。她說,哎呀,我當時候,這一年來很痛苦呀,手術,然後化療,人奄奄一息呀!她說,好,如果我再配合你一次,你能不能保證我,從此不再復發?欸,她提出這一句話,醫師敢不敢回答?不敢。

我相信你問一百個醫師,沒有一個會敢保證你不再復發的。那就顯然,這已經暗示什麽意思呢?

顯然就是,手術化療後,必然會復發。反過來,不就是印證了這樣。如果有這樣做好,他們應該講啊,但是沒有啊,都一定會。好,所以患者到最後聼一聽,既然不能保證,也就不要了。那就找到了我朋友。那來的時候,癌指數已經一百多了,然後我朋友就用原始點幫她處理。結果處理一段時間之後,她去檢查了,檢查癌指數竟然從一百多飆到一千八。那患者緊不緊張?當然緊張啊!就來找我朋友嘍,然後問一個明白。

我朋友就問一句話,你體力好不好?

她說好。 他說好就沒有關係,繼續用!

啊,她想,想一想,對啊,體力好,又沒有什麽事,好吧,那就繼續用原始點。

那再一個多月又去檢查了。這次檢查,竟然從一千八飆到三千八。

那患者更緊張了。那來了,我那朋友還是問她一句話,那你人感覺怎麽樣?

她說,奇怪捏,癌指數一直飆,但是體力越來越好,然後飯也吃得下,覺也睡得穩,還長了肉,然後去公園,還可以做一些運動,體操啊,然後跟人家交談,活得像正常人沒有兩樣。也就不像病人,那可是,很怪啊,那癌指數爲什麽飆到那麽高?

那我朋友聼到這樣,就安心了,就安慰她。他說,哎呀,反正喔,你已經飆到三千八了,已經夠高了,你要了解,世上所有的事情,物極都會必反。你高到這麽高,就是準備要盪下來,所以他就送她一句話,他說,你終將否極泰來,可以回去了。

欸,這位病人一聽,也有道理啊,都高到這樣了,那體力又越來越好,那自然應該會降下來才對啊,好,然後再等一段時間,她又去檢查。這一次,不但沒有盪下來,而且這一次飆到七千六!

哇,這下子連她大女兒都受不了了說,哇,哪有一個醫師從一百多醫到七千六的?這個醫師是肯定不行,要換!欸,結果她其他弟妹不同意,理由是,因爲她媽媽給第一個醫師的時候,每天就像病人奄奄一息,給第二個醫師,雖然癌指數一直飆,但活得像正常人,因爲體力也好,也沒有症,也沒有狀,那所以算一個健康人,所以他覺得媽媽應該這樣活才是對的。哦!最後這個患者又回到我朋友這裡了。那我朋友還是很努力地用原始點幫她處理。結果最後一次,經過第七個月的時候,她去檢查,不但沒有否極泰來,物極必反,結果癌指數飆到天外天,一萬二!這下子好了,大姐又說話了,這下子都不要討論,換醫師!哪有一個醫師,從一百多一路治到一萬多的?從來也沒有看過這種醫師,所以她不能再忍受了!好,那三個家人就討論了,要不然就換嘛,那前面也是西醫,第二個也是西醫,那要不然我們找個中醫!

那中醫一看到她媽媽這樣,體力還不錯,然後就說那個癌,指數會飆到那麽高,就是熱毒,然後結果開出了全部寒涼。結果一吃了,從此之後每一天活得無精打采,奄奄一息,這樣經過兩個月之後,竟然便秘,連大便也拉不出來。那中醫一看到這種情形就說,唉,我就說嘛,癌就是熱毒,那現在連大便都拉不出來,那個就是上火了,所以就用像承氣湯之類,像大黃,芒硝,就瀉下之藥。一瀉,哇,玩了!本來已經無精打采,這一瀉怎麽樣?連雙腿都無力,走路都變困難了。她家人一看,那不就快掛了嗎?喔,才驚覺這個中醫也不行!哇,那慘了,家人又開始討論了,那這個前面西醫也不行,中醫也不行,那我們應該再找那種醫師啊?最後大家商量之後,要不然輪流好了,再輪到第一個醫師好了! 好,再回到第一個醫師。第一個醫師說,好啊,那回來,癌指數還是那麽高,我們就直接化療吧,也不用再説了!

那再經過兩個月的化療,她媽媽就掛了!所以就等於,在我朋友那裏七個月,活得像健康的人,沒有症狀,她體力好得不得了。結果,經過中醫,還有西醫,五個月的加工,就把她送到西方去了。

那辦完後事之後,她家人開始不斷的反思這個過程,終於有一個人來感激我的朋友。他說,哎呀,生命是不能從來,那生命也只能有一個選擇,因爲當時候,也有人說西醫好,也有人說中醫好,那各種處理方法都有,我們也不知道那個好?但是現在看來,祇有你處理的,是讓我媽媽每天活得像健康的人。

好,這個故事結束了,但是你們想想看,他最後才悟到,最終是我朋友處理的情況是最好的。但如果我朋友繼續處理,她癌指數一直飆,即便飆到幾十萬,她會不會掛掉?因爲有體力就絕對死不了。死人一定沒有體力的,我沒有看過死人還能夠活蹦亂跳的,活蹦亂跳還叫死人嗎?對不對?

所以體力才是最後的診斷證明嘛!那她體力越來越好,肯定就是離疾病越來越遠,但是他們在乎的是什麽,指數,而不在乎她的體力。結果,這樣就斷送她媽媽的命

而這樣的例子,多到不可勝數。我剛剛舉例的癌腫瘤,你們不都是這樣嗎?明明化療已經奄奄一息了,然後西醫說,哎呀,腫瘤縮小了,你們還竟然擠出一絲的微笑,還要感謝醫師,即使他已經把你送到鬼門關了,你們還要感謝,爲什麽?因爲你們不了解原來好轉與惡化,不是看腫瘤的大小,也不是看癌指數,而是要看怎麽樣,體力呀!沒有體力穩死的嘛!那你們治病的目的是爲什麽?活命嘛,你們剛剛講的。那其實離你們的目標,越來越遠,你們竟然不知道!

多少人這樣冤枉的走,他死得不明不白,他自己也不知道!

喔,那你們已經聼懂了吧?聼懂了,我再問你們一個案例。

如果你們發燒,然後吃退燒藥,燒馬上退,症狀改善,但人變得很虛,這時候是好轉還是惡化?(聽衆:惡化!)

你們已經知道啦,還來得及!因爲現在看你們還活蹦亂跳的,啊,這個很重要!

這個是生命最基本的判斷,但多少人,真的就這樣,不知道而這樣冤枉的送這一條命。其實好轉惡化,就是看體力!沒有其他。

trust ( must include an incapacity clause)

https://www.oldpeople.org.tw/ugC_WelfareTopic_Detail.asp?hidWelfareTopicCatID=4&hidWelfareTopicID=11
  • 除了固定資產外, 應為自己人身/壽保險 (life insurance)理賠部分設立一筆信託, 這樣你可以省下一筆遺產稅; 當萬一發生時, 也會有人即時處理你的事
  • It is called "trust" because u are trusting this entity (trust) to take care of ur assets for u and to carry out ur wishes when u can no longer do so for urself
  • revocable living trust with an incapacity clause, ur trust must include an incapacity clause
  • transfer ownership of ur assets into the trust
  • update the beneficiaries on all ur assets
  • when u acquire an asset, u will need to transfer ownership of it to the trust. it should be prto fur thinking whenever u make a big-ticket purchase or open a saving or investment account
  • comparison: will vs. revocable living trust --- see gmail note 
Revocable living trust
  • revocable living trust takes everything for u, both while u are alive and after ur death
  • a revocable living trust is a set of documents stating who controls ur assets while u are alive and what will happen to ur them when ur are gone
  • a will says where u want ur assets to go after ur death
  • with a revocable living trust, u take the steps while u are alive to sign the title to ur property over to the trust for ur own use and benefit while u are alive; u also specify in the trust where u want each piece of property to go when u are gone
  • the property is held in the name of the trust, for u, while u are alive, and for ur beneficiaries, after u are gone
  • when u dies, the trust passes ur property directly to the people u want to have it; the trust lives on even after u are gone, carrying ur wishes
  • anytime u want to, u can amend the trust, so u can always change ur mind about who gets what
  • there is no probate for trust, the courts are not involved in the transfer of ur estate
  • In many cases, especially in states with statutory probate fees, trusts are far superior to wills
  • in all states, the only way for property valued over 100,000 dollars (or as little as 60,000 in some states) to transfer from the name of the deceased to the beneficiary is to have a judge do it through the probate courts. In most states, this is expensive and time-consuming. 
  • the attorneys get the probate fees thus they prefer to recommend will, instead of a trust
  • wills are public documents, after u die, ur will is probated, anyone can go to the courthouse and look up the information within the will --- lack of privacy
  • with trust, only the people u want them to see can see the trust 
  • with a trust u save time and u avoid probate fees and legal fees
  • trust -- no courts, no probate fees, no attorneys
  • set up a trust, as soon as possible,there is a fair bit of paperwork involved in switching assets into a trust
  • the less money u have, the more the probate (fees and process) hurts, thus not rich people had better set up a trust
  • besides setting up a trust, u need to have a will as a backup, covering any asset u have no put into ur trust, e.g., furniture, personal items; if u have underage children, u should designate who is to serve as their guardian so ur wishes will be clear to the court (a trust doesn't address guardianship) 
  • single mother needs a trust, so the appointed guardian will have the funds they need right away to care for the children
  • trust is crucial for the speedy disbursement of a life insurance payout to support the children, if anything happens to the mother
How to set up a Revocable living trust
  • there are books in the bookstore that will show u how --- cost 20 dollars
  • computer programs for setting up trusts are available for about 50 dollars
  • if u decide to do it urself, u need to have a qualified attorney to look it over to make sure u did it correctly
  • having an attorney draw up a trust is safest
  • depending on the size of ur estate and how expensive the attorney is, u can get a simple revocable living trust drawn up for between 300 to 1,000 dollars
  • if u want ur attorney to help  u transfer ur assets into ur trust, i.e., to fund the trust, this will cost ur more money
  • once the trust is set up, making simple changes to it will cost about 100 dollars
Components of a trust
  • trustor or settlor -- the person who creates/sets up the trust, and who owns the property that will be put into the trust
  • trustee-- the person who controls the assets in the trust; the person or persons who have signing authority over every asset inside the trust. the trustee decides everything that happens to the money in the trust; ur u are single, u can be the sole trustee; or u and ur spouse/partner can be joint trustee; most often the trustor is also the trustee; appoint urself the trustee so u retain all control over the trust
  • u may have as many trustees as u want; however, having more than two is not usually recommended
  • Co-trustee/joint trustee -- another person who has the authority to manage and invest the assets of the trust, although all trustees must agree to financial or investment changes; parents often choose to make their children co-trustees, upon the deterioration or disability of the parents; couples usually set up their trusts so that they are both co-trustees, thus both must agree to any changes
  • Successor trustee -- the person who steps in  to make decisions about the assets in the trust if and only if the trustee or co-trustees can't or do not want to act in the decision-making process; the person who takes over the management/control of the trust when the trustee dies or is no longer capable of making decisions (known as incapactiy)
  • current beneficiary --- the person who is to benefit from the assets that are in the trust' typically, while u are alive, u remain the beneficiary; every majob asset u own should have a beneficiary
  1. make ur revocable living trust the beneficiay of ur life insurance policy
  2. documents that must contain designations of beneficiaries: life insurance policy, regular investment accounts, saving accout/bank account, 401 (k) retirement account, individual retirement account (IRA)
  3. minor children are never to be ur beneficiary --- because they are not allowed to take ownership of assets
  4. if u are married, don't make ur trust the beneficiary of ur 401 (k) or IRA (if u are single, it is fine to make ur trust the beneficiary)
  5. if u are married, u need to make ur spouse the primary beneficiary fo ur 401 (k) and IRA, u can then name ur trust as the contingent (secondary) beneficiary of these accounts
  • remainder beneficiary --- person or persons who will inherit everything in the trust after the current beneficiary (who is usually the trustor as well) dies
Funding ur trust
  • once the trust is set up, u must transter ur assets into ur trust
  • once u create a trust, u need to takes steps to change the title (ownership) of all the property to be held in the trust from ur invidual name to the name of the trust -- this procss is called fundign the trust
  •  must change or ahve a lawyer change all the titles of ur bank accouts, stock accounts, real estate, and all major assets into the title of the trust ; transfer an asset's title into the trust
  • computer programs and books about trusts provide sample letters to show how to fund ur trust
  • if u have a lawyer to draw up ur trust, he will have form letters available to show u
  • or the lawyer can handle changing titles of ur stock portfolio, insurance policies, bank accounts, etc., for u, the fee is higher than that for simply drawing up the trust, it might be well worth it

what goes in the trust
  • real estate
  • nonretirement investments
  • savings (bank and credit union accounts)
  • outstanding loans u have made that have yet to be repaid
what does not go in the trust
  • car -- if the event cause an accident, the fact the title to the car is a trust might lead the other party to think u are wealthy and may increase their desire to sue u for damages beyond what ur insurance policy will cover; for insurance, if the trust owns the car, that can make it hard to get insurance (people are insurable, not trusts)
  • 401 (k) and IRA accounts if u are married -- it's better to make ur spouse the beneficiary (if u are single, u can make the trust the beneficiary)
  • except ur retirement accounts, everything can be changed into the trust
  • retirement accounts by law must be held in an individual's name
  • many people after they have had a trust created also change the beneficiary of all their retirement accounts to the trust, if u are married, this is NOT a good idea; spouses have certain privileges that nonmarried couples don't have; if u have a retirement account and u die, ur spouse has the right to take over the retirement acocunt as if it were her own, ur spouse can keep the money in there, take it out, or do whatever she pleases; However, if u leave retirement account to anyone other than ur spouse, e.g., ur trust, ur children, ur mother, these beneficiary have to wipe the retirement account clean within 5 years, even if they don't need the money, they have to take it out adn pay taxes on it within that 5 years; thus, if u have a trust set up and ur have retirement account, if u are married, ur primary beneficiary if ur spouse, not the trust, the trust can be the second beneficiary, the one that gets everything if the primary beneficiary die
provide ur children with a trust
  • the earlier u do ur revocable living trust, the better, even if u don't have a lot of money
  • if u die with a trust, whild the court still has the final say over guardianship, u at least can make the important decision of how, when, and for what purpose ur children will receive the money u are leaving them
  • besides setting up a trust, u need to have a will as a backup, covering any asset u have no put into ur trust, e.g., furniture, personal items; if u have underage children, u should designate who is to serve as their guardian so ur wishes will be clear to the court (a trust doesn't address guardianship) 
if you die with a will, not a trust
  • ur will does not have the power to assure ur best friend will be the legal guardian of ur children
  • will can express ur wishes, the court always has the last decision when it comes to who is appointed legal guardian of ur children
  • the judge can take charge of the funds u want ur children to have until they are 18 years old
  • if ur children are underage, each year the guardian has to go back to court to account for the money spent on behalf of the children during the past year, there are guardian fees, fees to a lawyer to do the guardianship reporting
  • besides setting up a trust, u need to have a will as a backup, covering any asset u have no put into ur trust, e.g., furniture, personal items; if u have underage children, u should designate who is to serve as their guardian so ur wishes will be clear to the court (a trust doesn't address guardianship) 
  • comparison: will vs. revocable living trust --- see gmail note 
Find a good lawyer
  • word of mouth to find a goo attorney specializing in estate planning (at least 10 years)
  • interview at least three of them (no fees to go through this interview process)
  • make sure u like the lawyer and feel comfortable in his presence
  • drafted wills and trusts in the past 5 years for at least 200 people
  • charge a flat fee to draw up a will and/or a trust--- include drawing up the document and explain it to u
  • charge a flat fee for funding the trust --doing the paperwork to transfer the titles of all ur property and assets into the name of the trust 
  • no charge for simple questions over the phone 
  • Martindale-Hubbell law directory http://www.martindale.com/
  • see gmail note for more details --- find a good lawyer
why ur trust must include an incapacity clause
  • should u become incapacitated, an incapacity clause of ur trust will grant ur successor trustee, the person u designate, legal authority to handle ur affairs
  • a good trust will also designate a backup trustee in case ur successor trustee is incapable of fulfilling his responsibility as trustee
a trust with an incapacity clause vs. durable power of attorney for finances
  • see gmail note for comparison: a trust with an incapacity clause vs. durable power of attorney for finances
Holding title for ur assets
  • see gmail note for more details