Saturday, November 22, 2014

Why Change?

Man has lived for two million years or more, but he has not solved the problem of sorrow. He is always sorrow-ridden: he has sorrow as his shadow or as his companion. Sorrow of losing somebody; sorrow in not being able to fulfill his ambitions, his greed, his energy; sorrow of physical pain; sorrow of psychological anxiety; sorrow of guilt; sorrow of hope and despair - that has been the lot of man; that has been the lot of every human being. And he has always tried to solve this problem - to end sorrow within the field of consciousness, by trying to avoid it, by running away from sorrow, by suppressing it, by identifying himself with something greater than himself, by taking to drink, to women, by doing everything in order to avoid this anxiety, this pain, this despair, this immense loneliness and boredom of life - which is always within this field of consciousness, which is the result of time. - Krishnamurti, What Are You Doing with Your Life?

candidates, election in Taiwan, 2014




















Article on sexual assault provokes investigation at UVA

Taiwanese food

Taiwanese food


U.S. veteran leads clean-up of Vietnam War's lethal remnants

President Obama addresses the nation on immigration

two schedule/calendar books for 2015?

W: I brought you the second schedule/calendar book for 2015.
C: Last month, you already gave me a schedule/calendar book for 2015, the first one?
W: I guess you need another one?
C: I guess I don't have so much work to do in 2015??

Friday, November 21, 2014

A Problem that Thought Cannot Resolve

The self is a problem that thought cannot resolve. There must be an awareness which is not of thought. To be aware, without condemnation or justification, of the activities of the self - just to be aware - is sufficient. If you are aware in order to find out how to resolve the problem, in order to transform it, in order to produce a result, then it is still within the field of the self, of the 'me'. So long as we are seeking a result, whether through analysis, through awareness, through constant examination of every thought, we are still within the field of thought, which is within the field of the 'me', of the 'I', of the ego, or what you will. As long as the activity of the mind exists, surely there can be no love. When there is love, we shall have no social problems. - Krishnamurti, What Are You Doing with Your Life?

thought creates the thinker; thinker and thoughts are not two states

Is there any relationship between the thinker and his thought, or is there only thought and not a thinker? If there are no thoughts, there is no thinker. When you have thoughts, is there a thinker? Perceiving the impermanency of thoughts, thought itself creates the thinker who gives himself permanency; so thought creates the thinker; then the thinker establishes himself as a permanent entity apart from thoughts which are always in a state of flux. So, thought creates the thinker and not the other way about. The thinker does not create thought, for if there are no thoughts, there is no thinker. The thinker separates himself from his parent and tries to establish a relationship, a relationship between the so-called permanent, which is the thinker created by thought, and the impermanent or transient, which is thought. So, both are really transient.Pursue a thought completely to its very end. Think it out fully, feel it out and discover for yourself what happens. You will find that there is no thinker at all. For, when thought ceases, the thinker is not. We think there are two states, as the thinker and the thought. These two states are fictitious, unreal. There is only thought, and the bundle of thought creates the 'me', the thinker. - Krishnamurti, What Are You Doing with Your Life?

Thought is the Response of Memory

What do we mean by thought? When do you think? Obviously, thought is the result of a response, neurological or psychological, the response of stored-up memory. There is the immediate response of the nerves to a sensation, and there is the psychological response of stored-up memory, the influence of race, group, guru, family, tradition, and so on - all of which you call thought. So, the thought process is the response of memory, is it not? You would have no thoughts if you had no memory, and the response of memory to a certain experience brings the thought process into action. - Krishnamurti, What Are You Doing with Your Life?

Thought Seeks Security

Thought is the very essence of security, and that is what the most bourgeois mind wants, security, security at every level! To bring about a total change of the human consciousness, thought must function at one level and must not function at another level. Thought must function naturally, normally at one level, the everyday level - physically, technologically, with knowledge, but must not overflow into another field where thought has no reality at all. If I had no thought I wouldn't be able to speak. But a radical change within myself as a human being cannot be brought about through thought, because thought can only function in relation to conflict. Thought can only breed conflict. - Krishnamurti, What Are You Doingwith Your Life?

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Public Law 105-85 of November 18, 1997, contains a provision (section 1102 of Title XI) which accords Veterans' preference to anyone who served on active duty, anywhere in the world, for any length of time between August 2, 1990, and January 2, 1992, provided the person is "otherwise eligible." What does "otherwise eligible" mean, here?

It means the person must have been separated from the service under honorable conditions and have served continuously for a minimum of 24 months or the full period for which called or ordered to active duty. For example, someone who enlisted in the Army and was serving on active duty when the Gulf War broke out on Aug 2, 1990, would have to complete a minimum of 24 months service to be eligible for preference. On the other hand a Reservist who was called to active duty for a month and spent all his time at the Pentagon before being released would also be eligible. What the law did was to add an additional paragraph (C) covering Gulf War veterans to 5 U.S.C. 2108(1) (on who is eligible for preference). But, significantly, the law made no other changes to existing law. In particular, it did not change paragraph (4) of section 2108 (the Dual Compensation Act of 1973), which severely restricts preference entitlement for retired officers at the rank of Major and above. When the Dual Compensation Act was under consideration, there was extensive debate in Congress as to who should be entitled to preference. Congress basically compromised by giving preference in appointment to most retired military members (except for "high-ranking officers" who were not considered to need it), but severely limiting preference in RIF for all retired military because they had already served one career and should not have preference in the event of layoffs.
So, "otherwise eligible" means that the individual must be eligible under existing law.

wasting time and Christmas card

C: Do you feel like to receive a Christmas card this year?
L (living in another country): Buying, choosing, writing, and sending Christmas cards waste too much time. I don't want you to waste your time.
C: My time is very precious. Based on my free will, I choose to send you a Christmas card?

cloak and reality?

at MacDonald
W: That man wears a cloak. I never see men wearing cloaks.
C: Harry Potter wears cloak. That man is not the first man wearing a cloak.
W: Harry Potter is not the reality.
C: For some people, Harry Potter is the reality. That man is in reality, you are not.
W: ???????

她們, 麥當勞, 水管

她們, 麥當勞, 相聚
桌上, 放著水管............


what is a phone call?

W: I called your cell phone last time. No one answered.
C: The cell phone was out of battery.
W: I called your cell phone this time. No one answered.
C: The cell phone was turned off.
W: I called your office. No one answered the phone.
C: No one was in the office when you called.
W: How can I find you?
C: I don't know............................
W: !@#$%^&*()_+!@#$%$^&*()_+(&$%@&)$%^!)

business card, a must have?

he gave her his business card and asked for hers
she said:  I don't have business cards.
he asked: how come you have no business cards?
she asked: how come you have business cards?

reassign a current employee, transfer an employee from another agency, or reinstate a former Federal employee.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

veteran data, 2013

C.S. Lewis on Suffering and What It Means to Have Free Will in a Universe of Fixed Laws


Columbia Charges Rape Protestors $471 to Clean Up Dirty Mattresses

Scientists find culprit virus in West Coast starfish deaths

Turning technology into easy medical lifesavers

Baby loves her pug dog

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

status candidates, which means "current competitive service employees."

Sexual Orientation and Transgender Issues in the Workplace, EURAM 2015.

As the workforce becomes increasingly diverse, a lot of attention has been paid to the career issues of women and racial minorities.  In contrast, comparatively little research has been conducted on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT) people in the workplace.  Maher and colleagues (2009) tracked empirical research in the LGBT domain and observed three distinct phases: Early work (1800s-1972) focused on homosexuality as a disease; the second phase (1972-1990) targeted negative attitudes towards homosexuality (e.g., combatting homophobia, violence and discrimination against LGBTs); and the third phase (post-1990) focused on changing institutions to foster a positive climate in the workplace.  Consistent with this, recent research in this domain has also shifted from employment discrimination, identity management, and career counselling for LGBT individuals (Chung, et al., 2009; DeJordy, 2008; Ragins, 2008) to countering heteronormativity in the workplace, the adoption of LGBT-friendly practices, and understanding the career choices of LGBT individuals (Chuang, et al., 2011; Ng et al., 2012; Ozturk & Rumens, 2014).  The purpose of this special issue is to take LGBT scholarship to the next stage by gathering new knowledge and extending theory on LGBT individuals in the workplace. 

We invite broad submissions for papers that focus on sexual orientation, gender identity and LGBT individuals within the work domain.  Submissions can be conceptual or empirical (qualitative or quantitative), and review work is especially welcomed.  In particular, we seek research that is thought provoking, fills a gap in the literature, or crosses boundaries particularly from critical and/or queer studies to management literature.  Papers should appeal to management readers, add value through theory building, and provide implications for HRM practice for organizations and employers.  We offer a list of topics below as a catalyst to encourage potentially impactful scholarship on LGBT issues in the workplace, but welcome other topics not specifically mentioned.  We also use LGBT as a shorthand for sexual minorities as a group, but papers can focus on one type of sexual orientation (e.g., transgendered employees) or sexual minorities collectively.

Suggested topics:

LGBT – what about TIQQ2SA?   TIQQ2SA denotes Transsexual, Intersexed, Queer, Questioning, 2 Spirited, and Allies, and are recent additions to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered.

1. “Sexual minorities” is a catch-all phrase to capture an expanding list of individuals who face societal oppression on account of sexual orientation.  Early activists fought for LGB rights, and T was later added on.  In reality, the experiences of L, G, B, and T are different from each other.  How do the different experiences affect the careers and work lives of sexual minorities, particularly for TTIQ2S?
2.Has the advancement in LGB rights and protection benefited the TTIQQ2S community?  Do TTIQQ2S individuals face other forms of prejudice and discrimination in the workplace not faced by LGBs?
3. To what degree are organizations and employers aware of the diversity in the sexual minority community?  What policies and practices are required to create a climate of inclusion for the TTIQQ2S community?
4. What are the roles of Allies in the workplace, and in what ways can they support LGBT workers?  How do LGBT employees and organizations benefit from Allies?

Organizational Climate, Individual and Group Dynamics
1. Organizations and employers are aware of the “business case,” and adopt LGBT-friendly policies and practices, but to what extent, and under what circumstances do LGBT employees feel “safe” to take advantage of these workplace provisions?
2.What are the reactions of non-LGBT employees towards organizational acceptance and promotion of an LGBT-friendly workplace, and how does that affect interpersonal work relationships, team/group dynamics, and/or workplace climate?
3.How does employer support of LGBT-friendly policies affect the perceptions, attitudes, and performance of LGBT and non-LGBT employees such as trust, commitment, and helping behaviours? 
4. How can LGBT-friendly policies and practices enhance organizational performance?

Stereotypes of LGBT Leadership and Effectiveness
1. How are LGBT leaders perceived in the workplace?  Are there differences in leadership styles and perceived effectiveness among LGBT and non-LGBT leaders and followers? 
2.How does the attribution of gay men as effeminate or lesbians as “butch” fit with the hegemonic masculinity stereotype of leadership?
3. What are some ways to promote an LGBT-representative leadership?

Legal Discrimination, Sexual Citizenship, and Heteronormative Environments
1. What are some ways in which organizations and employers can foster a climate of inclusion in jurisdictions that sanction discrimination against LGBTs?
2. How do LGBT individuals exercise sexual citizenship and negotiate their identities in an LGBT-alien work environment (e.g. non-metropolitan areas)?
3.  How do LGBT individuals negotiate their personal-professional identities in a hyper-heteronormative work environment, such as the military, sports, or the construction industry?  


Chuang, Y. T., Church, R., & Ophir, R. (2011). Taking sides: The interactive influences of institutional mechanisms on the adoption of same-sex partner health benefits by Fortune 500 corporations, 1990-2003. Organization Science22(1), 190-209.

Chung, Y. B., Williams, W., & Dispenza, F. (2009). Validating work discrimination and coping strategy models for sexual minorities. The Career Development Quarterly58(2), 162-170.

DeJordy, R. (2008). Just passing through stigma, passing, and identity decoupling in the work place. Group & Organization Management33(5), 504-531.

Maher, M. J., Landini, K., Emano, D. M., Knight, A. M., Lantz, G. D., Parrie, M., ... & Sever, L. M. (2009). Hirschfeld to Hooker to Herek to high schools: A study of the history and development of GLBT empirical research, institutional policies, and the relationship between the two. Journal of Homosexuality56(7), 921-958.

Ng, E. S., Schweitzer, L., & Lyons, S. T. (2012). Anticipated discrimination and a career choice in non-profit: A study of early career Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered (LGBT) Job Seekers. Review of Public Personnel Administration32(4), 332-352.

Ozturk, M. B., & Rumens, N. (2014). Gay male academics in UK business and management schools: Negotiating heteronormativities in everyday work life. British Journal of Management, 25, 503-517.

Ragins, B. R. (2008). Disclosure disconnects: Antecedents and consequences of disclosing invisible stigmas across life domains. Academy of Management Review33(1), 194-215.

Monday, November 17, 2014

Senior Executive Service (SES)

The Senior Executive Service (SES) was established by Title IV of the Civil Service Reform Act (CSRA) of 1978. The SES was set up as a "third" service, completely separate from the competitive and excepted services. Top management positions are joined into a unified and distinct personnel system that provides for considerable agency authority and flexibility. SES positions are classified above GS-15 or equivalent. All SES vacancies are advertised on OPM's USAJOBS. From this site, you may download announcements for vacancies of interest to you. Veterans do not receive hiring preference for SES positions because 5 USC 2108(3) which defines the term "preference eligible" provides that this term does not include applicants for, or members of, the Senior Executive Service.

Sunday, November 16, 2014


 As a part of the rating and ranking process for CE, individuals who fail to meet a minimum level of qualifications are eliminated from the process. What happens after that depends upon whether an agency uses the “rule of three” or “category rating.” Under the rule of three, all CE candidates who meet minimum qualifications are given numerical scores based upon their qualifications, with points added for veterans’ preference. A referral list is then generated. Any veteran who successfully meets minimum qualifications and has at least a 30-percent compensable injury will “float” to the top of the list. The selecting official may then select only from the top three candidates, and cannot bypass a veteran for a non-veteran.
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Delegated Examining Operations Handbook: A Guide for Federal Agency Examining Offices, Ch. 5,

Following passage of the Homeland Security Act, agencies were permitted to use category rating in place of the rule of three. Under category rating, minimum qualifications are assessed, and then candidates are placed in categories, such as Best Qualified, Well Qualified and Acceptably Qualified. The agency determines how many categories there will be and how each category is defined, but there cannot be a “not qualified” category because all candidates must first pass a minimum qualifications assessment. A 30-percent compensable veteran who is minimally qualified will “float” to the top category regardless of where the individual might have otherwise been placed. All other veterans are placed in a category based upon an assessment of their qualifications, but are not moved to another category based on a preference for military service. Once the members of the top category have been identified, a selecting official may choose any name in that group—not just the top three—provided there are no veterans in that group. If there are veterans in the top group, their names will be placed at the top of that group, and they cannot be passed over for a non-veteran. Thus, veterans are granted a preference under both the rule of three and category rating, although it takes a slightly different form under each.
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Category Rating Fact Sheet,, and U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Delegated Examining Operations Handbook: A Guide for Federal Agency Examining Offices, Ch. 5,

Federal Appointment Authorities: Cutting through the Confusion.

Yes, Doctor, I Took My Anti-HIV Meds (But Really, I Didn't)

競選總部明正式起用 柯文哲:走「極簡陋風」


Saturday, November 15, 2014

reading, split

if what you read for fun and what you read for work are two different stuff
then you might feel you don't have enough time to read



election in Taiwan, beg your vote

How to design journal cover?

L: It is time to renew the journal cover.
C: Yes, I have a good idea to make it look more artistic. Let me show you an example.
L: It is all white??
C: No, the name of the journal, journal of ....., is black (color).
L: *&@#$%^&*()_+!@#$%^&*()_+!@#$%&()E????

Are you raising nice kids? A Harvard psychologist gives 5 ways to raise them to be kind

Friday, November 14, 2014

Stella Young: I'm not your inspiration, thank you very much

Stella Young is a comedian and journalist who happens to go about her day in a wheelchair — a fact that doesn’t, she’d like to make clear, automatically turn her into a noble inspiration to all humanity. In this very funny talk, Young breaks down society's habit of turning disabled people into “inspiration porn.”

Yale Medical School Removes Doctor After Sexual Harassment Finding

2014 election in Taiwan

i no longer

Assessing Applicants with Disabilities

Glossary, definition, OPM handbook

A competence to perform an observable behavior or a behavior that results in an observable product.

Administrative Law Judge (ALJ)
An independent, impartial trier of fact in formal administrative hearings. An ALJ is similar to that of a trial judge conducting civil trials without a jury. In general, ALJs prepare for and preside at formal hearings required by statute, to be held under or in substantial accord with provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, in sections 553-559 of title 5, United States Code.

Agency Certification Program
A certification developed by an agency, group of agencies, or other group that demonstrates a person’s proficiency in the job-related competencies/KSAs. An agency certification program does not have to be recognized by a professional community.

A person who applies for a vacant position.

The person who is ultimately appointed to a position, and who enters on board with the hiring agency.

Appointing Officer
A person having the authority, by law, or by duly delegated authority, to appoint, employ, or promote individuals to positions in an agency.

Appointing Authority
The legal or regulatory basis on which a specific appointment may be made to a Federal civilian position.

Assessment Center
A method of evaluating a candidate’s job-related competencies/KSAs using multiple raters and exercises to evaluate each competency. Assessment centers utilize a variety of competency-related assessment simulations, including group exercises, in-basket exercises, questionnaires, fact-finding exercises, interviews, and role-playing.

Assessment Tool
A device or method used to measure the degree to which an applicant possesses the competencies or KSAs necessary for successful job performance. Examples of assessment tools include rating schedules, written tests, work samples, and structured interviews.

A procedure by which additional points are added to the ratings of eligibles based upon an assessment of competencies/KSAs pertaining to specific job-related criteria that were not previously measured.

The process by which the certifying action is taken on a returned Certificate of Eligibles by the Human Resource Office to comply with legal and regulatory selection procedures.

Behavioral Consistency Method
A method of evaluating a person’s training and experience by asking candidates to describe their major achievements in several job-related areas identified for the position, called job dimensions (i.e., competencies/KSAs). The behavioral consistency method operates on the assumption that past behavior is the best predictor of future performance.

Bilingual/Bicultural Certification
A special hiring program established under the Luevano Consent Decree to hire eligible applicants who meet the program’s criteria into positions for which a proficiency in the Spanish language or knowledge of the Hispanic culture is beneficial.

Bona-Fide Consideration
An applicant receives bona fide consideration when his or her name is within the group of three eligible candidates referred to the selecting official on a certificate list and a legal appointment is made from the certificate. Each eligible candidate is entitled to three bona fide considerations for the same appointment before he or she can be eliminated from consideration.

An applicant who meets the minimum qualifications requirements for a position, and is therefore eligible for consideration. See also “eligible.”

Career-Conditional Appointment
Appointment to a non-temporary position in the competitive service pursuant to 5 CFR Part 315.

Career-Transition Assistance Program (CTAP)
A program designed by an agency to actively assist its surplus and displaced employees by providing selection priority for competitive service vacancies. Under the career transition assistance plan (CTAP), you must notify employees who are surplus or have been displaced from your agency of vacancies that your agency plans to fill in their local commuting area. (See Chapter 4 and 5 CFR Part 330).

Case Examining
A technique in which the job seeker applies directly for a specific job and is rated and ranked using job-related competencies/KSAs. A certified delegated examiner conducts the examination process and issues a certificate of eligibles for the position, but does not maintain a standing inventory of qualified applicants.

Category Rating
A process of evaluating qualified eligibles by quality categories rather than by assigning individual numeric scores. The agency assesses candidates against job-related criteria and then places them into two or more quality categories. Synonymous with alternative rating as described at 5 U.S.C. § 3319.

Certificate of Eligibles
A list of the highest-ranked eligibles in score and veterans preference order, submitted to a selecting official for appointment consideration in accordance with the competitive selection laws and regulations.

Closing Date
The date beyond which applications for an advertised position will no longer be accepted. A closing date should be established for each vacancy and must be provided in the job announcement advertising the position.

A measurable pattern of knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and other characteristics that an individual needs to perform work roles or occupational functions successfully.

Competency-Based Job Profile
A statement of the general and technical competencies required for optimal performance in an occupation or job family. Competencies identified as critical for a job provide a basis for developing applicant assessments and related products.

Competitive Appointment
An appointment based on selection from a competitive examination or under other specific authority.

Competitive Examining
The competitive examination, which is open to all applicants, may consist of a written test, an evaluation of an applicant’s education and experience, and/or an evaluation of other attributes necessary for successful performance in the position to be filled.
The process used to fill civil service positions with candidates who apply from outside the Federal workforce. It is also used to enable current Federal employees without civil service status to compete for a permanent appointment and to enable employees with civil service status to compete for other Federal positions.

Competitive Status
A person’s basic eligibility for assignment (for example, by transfer, promotion, reassignment, demotion, or reinstatement) to a position in the competitive service without having to compete with members of the general public in an open competitive examination. Once acquired, status belongs to the individual, not to the position. (5 U.S.C. § 3304(a))

Competitor Inventory
A competitor inventory is a rank-ordered list of eligibles that meet one set of qualification requirements, have passed one examining vehicle and are available to be considered for: one or more grade levels; one or more occupational specialties; at one or more geographical locations; and various employment conditions identified on the job announcement such as, travel, night or shift work. A competitor inventory is an alternative to case examining.

Content Validity
A characteristic possessed by an assessment instrument whose contents accurately reflect actual job requirements. For example, a typing test would likely be a highly content-valid instrument for assessing a person’s qualifications to be a clerk-typist. Also referred to as “face validity.”

Crediting Plan
A method by which a candidate’s job-related competencies/KSAs are evaluated by reviewing the factual background of a candidate, to include positions held, levels of responsibility, accomplishments, and job-related education they have received. Also called a “rating schedule.”

Critical Hiring Need
A need to fill a particular position or group of positions to meet agency mission requirements brought about by an emergency or potential threat; to meet unanticipated or unusual mission requirement; to conform to the requirements of law, a Presidential directive or Administration initiative; or to address an unexpected event outside of an agency's control.

One who performs cleaning or other ordinary routine maintenance duties in or about a small government building or a building under Federal control, park, monument, or other Federal reservation; or acts as a foreman of laborers engaged in cleaning or janitorial duties in a large government building under Federal control; or fires a heating plant in a Federal building as a part of his/her duties in connection with the cleaning and ordinary maintenance of the building.

Cut-off Date
The date after which applications will continue to be accepted, but will not be given initial consideration. A cut-off date may be useful where large numbers of applications are expected over an extended period of time, and there is an immediate need to fill a position. If a cut-off date is established, it must be provided in the job announcement advertising the position. (See Chapter 3)

Deferred-Rated Competitor Inventory
A list of applicants in alphabetical or identification number order. The list also includes options and grades for which the applicants are considered. Although there may be an initial screening for basic qualifications, applications are rated only when a certificate is requested for a specific job announcement. Typically, the rating is valid only for that specific position.

Delegation Agreement
An agreement between the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and the head of a department or agency that delegates examining authority to the agency, as provided by Title 5 U.S.C. § 1104 and amended by Public Law 104-52, dated November 1995. (See Appendix A)

Delegated Examining Authority
Authority to fill competitive civil service positions pursuant to a delegation agreement. Delegated examining authority must be exercised in accordance with civil service laws and regulations.

DEO Examiners/Staff
Agency representative(s) or staff member(s) operating under the agency’s delegated examining authority. These individuals must be trained and certified by OPM in order to conduct delegated examining functions as stated in the agency's delegation examining agreement. (See Appendix A).

Direct-Hire Authority
Authority that permits hiring without regard to the provisions of 5 U.S.C. §§ 3309 through 3318, and 5 CFR Parts 211 and 337 subpart A.

Displaced Employee
A current agency employee serving under a competitive service appointment in tenure group I or II who has received a specific reduction in force (RIF) separation notice, or notice of proposed removal for declining a directed reassignment or transfer of function outside of the local commuting area. (See 5 CFR Part 330)

Dual Certification
The concurrent referral of an applicant to more than one position such as, multiple grades, specialties, and/or geographic locations from eligibility established under a particular job announcement or application procedure.

Education is an indicator of proficiency that relates to course work completed by the candidate that is related to the competencies/KSAs needed to perform in the job.

Elevator Operator
An individual whose primary duty is the running of freight or passenger elevators. The work includes opening and closing elevator gates and doors, working elevator controls, loading and unloading the elevator, giving information and directions to passengers such as on the location of offices, and reporting problems in running the elevator.

An applicant who satisfies the minimum qualifications requirements for the position, and therefore is eligible for consideration. See also “candidate.”

Erroneous Certification
A certificate involving the inadvertent misranking, noncertification, or failure to give bona fide consideration to an eligible in connection with a competitive Certificate of Eligibles.

Error of the Commission Principle
There is a 1917 Attorney General's decision (Civil Service - Erroneous Certification, April 19, 1917.31 U.S. Op. Att. Gen. 110, 1917. WL 729 (U.S.A.G.)). The Attorney General concluded that regularizing appointments from an erroneous certificate was unduly harsh to the selectee and contrary to the intent of Congress. The error of the commission is intended to correct administrative errors on the part of the examining office.

Excepted Service
A term used to describe all civil service positions that are not in either the competitive service or the Senior Executive Service. (See 5 CFR Part 213)

Experience is an indicator of proficiency that relates to the school, home, community, voluntary or work experiences of the candidate that are related to the competencies/KSAs needed to perform in the job.

Generic Rating Procedures
A procedure for rating applicants that can be applied to a variety of positions, due to the fact that the positions have the same general competency/KSA requirements, with the primary difference reflected in the technical specialty areas. Typically, generic rating procedures are most applicable to entry-level positions.

One who is assigned to a station, beat, or patrol area in a Federal building or a building under Federal control to prevent illegal entry of persons or property or the illegal removal of persons or property; or required to stand watch at or to patrol a Federal reservation, industrial area, or other area designated by Federal authority, in order to protect life and property; make observations for detection of fire, trespass, unauthorized removal of public property or hazards to Federal personnel or property.

Indicator of Proficiency
A source of evidence that a candidate possesses job-related competencies/KSAs (e.g., agency certification program, education, experience, professional activity, and professional certification).

Interagency Career Transition Assistance Program (ICTAP)
The Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan (ICTAP) is a process by which employees who have been involuntarily separated may receive selection priority for jobs in agencies other than the one in which they were previously employed. (See Chapter 4 and 5 CFR Part 330)

Interdisciplinary Position
A position involving duties and responsibilities closely related to more than one professional occupation. As a result, you could classify the position into two or more professional occupational series. The nature of the work is such that persons with education and experience in two or more professions may be considered equally well qualified to do the work. (See Chapter 6)

Job Analysis
A systematic method for gathering, documenting, and analyzing information about the content, context, and requirements of the job. It demonstrates that there is a clear relationship between the tasks performed on the job and the competencies/KSAs required to perform the tasks. Job analysis information is used to develop employee selection procedures, identify training needs, define performance standards, and other uses.

Job Announcement
A document that informs the public regarding a job vacancy. A job announcement describes the requirements of the job, and instructs applicants regarding how to apply for the vacancy. Job announcements must be posted on USAJOBS as a means of satisfying the public notice requirement.

A standard met when the competencies or knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) in the rating procedure are shown through an analysis of the job to be necessary for successful job performance.

A body of information applied directly to the performance of a function.

An acronym for “Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities.” An applicant’s qualifications for a position are often determined with reference to the KSAs that are relevant to successful performance in that position.

Lost Certification
The second type of erroneous certification that occurs when an applicant is misranked on or left off a certificate, but correcting the error would not give the eligible real employment consideration.

Lost Employment Consideration
A serious type of erroneous certification is the case where there is a violation of law: Title 5 (Rule of Three) and possibly the Veterans' Preference Act of 1944.

Luevano Consent Decree
A court decree entered on November 19, 1981 by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in the civil action known as Luevano v. OPM and numbered as No. 79-271. The decree became effective on January 18, 1982. The decree has as its purpose the elimination of adverse impact, if any, in the appointment of African Americans and Hispanics to a variety of positions at GS-05 and GS-07 formerly covered by the Professional and Administrative Career Examination (PACE).

Merit Promotion Procedures
A placement made under the authority of 5 CFR Part 335, “Promotion and Internal Placement.” With certain important exceptions (e.g., VEOA) only career status employees may apply for positions that are to be filled under merit promotion procedures.

One who supervises or performs general messenger work (such as running errands, delivering messages, and answering call bells) or other light and simple manual or mechanical work, and incidentally performs miscellaneous tasks of a simple or routine nature.

Minimum Qualifications
Qualifications that an applicant must possess, at a minimum, to be eligible for hire or promotion under the competitive system. Minimum qualifications are typically expressed in terms of job-related years of experience or education, i.e., course credit hours or a combination of the two. Applicants who do not meet the minimum qualification requirements for the position receive no further consideration.

Multiple Certification
The concurrent referral of an applicant to more than one grade, specialty, and/or geographic location. Also known as “dual certification.” (See Chapter 6)

A person who was born in an outlying possession of the United States on or after the date of formal acquisition of such possession (including American Samoa, Swains Island, and the Northern Mariana Islands), or who is a child of nationals under certain circumstances, or who meets other requirements described in law at 8 U.S.C. § 1408.

Non-Competitive Action
An appointment to or placement in a position in the competitive service that is not made by selection from an open competitive examination, and that is usually based on current or prior Federal service. A noncompetitive action includes (1) all of the types of actions described under inservice placement; (2) appointments of non-Federal employees whose public or private enterprise positions are brought into the competitive service under title 5 CFR Part 316.701; and (3) appointments and conversions to career and career-conditional employment made under special authorities covered in 5 CFR Part 315.

Notice of Results
A letter that notifies an applicant of the status of his or her application.

An objection is an agency’s request to remove an eligible from consideration on a particular certificate.

Open Periods
The period during which applications may be submitted for consideration. The duration of the open period must be sufficient enough to provide adequate public notice of the vacancy, and must be clearly specified in the job announcement. OPM recommends that agencies prescribe an open period of no fewer than five (5) calendar days.

Outstanding Scholar
A hiring program created by the Luevano Consent Decree. This program permits the hiring of any individual with a baccalaureate degree who has at least a 3.5 grade point average on a 4.0 scale or is in the top 10 percent of his or her graduating class (or of a major subdivision, such as a College of Arts and Sciences).

Pass over Request
An objection filed against a preference eligible that if sustained, would result in the selection of a non-preference eligible.

Preference Eligible
A veteran, spouse, widow, or mother, who meets the definition provided in 5 U.S.C. § 2108. Preference eligibles are entitled to have 5 or 10 points added to their earned score on a civil service examination (See 5 U.S.C. § 3309). Preference does not apply, however, to in-service placement action such as promotions.

Pre-rated Competitor Inventory
A list of eligibles that have been rated and ranked and placed in the order in which they are certified, by option and grade. This type of listing has traditionally been called a register, and applications are referred to as being “pre-rated” or “front-end-rated”.

Priority Consideration
Special placement priority that is given to a candidate who was previously denied consideration due to erroneous or lost consideration. (See Chapter 6.)

Professional Activity
A professional activity is evidence of substantial contributions to a profession that is related to the competencies/KSAs needed to perform the job.

Professional Certification
A professional certification is an indicator of proficiency that takes into account the certification that is issued and recognized by a specific general professional community or industry that demonstrates a person’s proficiency in the competencies/KSAs needed to perform the job.

Public Notice
The process of disseminating job vacancy information in a manner that assures that persons seeking Federal employment will have the opportunity to apply for the vacancy. Public notice explains to jobseekers when, where and how to apply for a Federal job. Public notice is required whenever you are considering hiring candidates from outside the Federal workforce for competitive service positions.

Quality Categories
Groupings of individuals with similar levels of job-related knowledge, skills, abilities, or competencies.

Quality Level Rating Procedures
A rating procedure in which candidates are assigned ratings on qualifying experience and training according to a single quality level. Typically, three quality levels are used: “exceptional,” “good,” and “minimally qualified.” Also referred to as the “A-C-E” rating procedure. (See Chapter 5)

Quality Ranking Factors
Quality ranking factors are competencies/KSAs that are expected to enhance performance in a position. Unlike selective factors, quality ranking factors are not used as a “screen out” factor.

Rating Procedures
A single, comprehensive, documented process with specific criteria for making consistent and job-related determinations about the relative qualifications of applicants for a position.

Rating Schedules
“See Crediting Plan.”

Reemployment Priority List (RPL)
A list of employees within the local commuting area who have been separated from your agency due to reduction in force (RIF) or work-related injury. If an employee on the RPL is qualified for a vacancy that exists within his or her local commuting area, you must (with few exceptions) select that employee before hiring anyone from outside the agency. (See 5 CFR Part 330.)

Non-competitive appointment of a person formerly employed in the competitive service (i.e., who either had a competitive status or was serving probation when separated) into the competitive service as a career or career-conditional employee. (See 5 CFR Part 315)

Reinstatement Eligibility
The conditions under which a person may be reinstated into the competitive service. (See 5 CFR Part 315)

Rule of Three
When selecting from a certificate of eligibles, an appointing officer must, with sole reference to merit and fitness, make a selection for the first vacancy from the highest three eligibles available for appointment on the certificate.

Schedule A Appointment
A category of excepted service appointment that is applicable to positions that are not of a confidential or policy-determining character, and that are not in the Senior Executive Service, but for which it is impracticable to apply competitive examining requirements (e.g., qualification standards). Agencies must obtain authorization from OPM to make a Schedule A appointment. (See 5 CFR Part 213)

Schedule B Appointment
A category of excepted service appointment that is applicable to positions that are not of a confidential or policy-determining character, and that are not in the Senior Executive Service, but for which it is impracticable to hold open competition or to apply the usual competitive examining procedures. Candidates appointed under Schedule B authority must meet the basic qualification requirements established by OPM for the occupation and grade level. Agencies must obtain authorization from OPM to make a Schedule B appointment. (See 5 CFR Part 213)

Schedule C Appointment
A category of excepted service appointment that is applicable to positions that are of a confidential or policy-determining nature. Agencies must obtain authorization from OPM to make a Schedule C appointment. (See 5 CFR Part 213.)

A person selected for appointment to a position.

Selecting Official
See “Appointing Officer.”

Selective Factor
A KSA, competency, or special qualification without which a candidate could not perform the duties of a position in a satisfactory manner. Selective factors are applied in addition to minimum qualifications. Applicants who do not meet a selective factor are ineligible for further consideration.

Senior Executive Service (SES)
The employment system that applies to any positions that are classified above GS-15 and involve executive management and high policy-making responsibilities. SES positions are excluded from the competitive service, the system of rules and regulations that applies to most civil service positions. (See 5 CFR Part 214.)

Severe Shortage of Candidates
A severe shortage of candidates for a particular position or group of positions means that an agency is unable to identify candidates possessing the competencies required to perform the job requirements despite extensive recruitment, extended announcement periods, and the use, as applicable, of hiring flexibilities such as recruitment and relocation incentives.

An observable competence to perform a learned psychomotor act.

Standing Inventory
An inventory of eligible competitors who are assigned a numerical rating and certified in score order by occupation, grade, location, etc. Standing inventories are effective when many recurring vacancies are anticipated over time.

Status Applicant
An applicant who has satisfied requirements for competitive status.

Status Employee
A current Federal employee who has competitive status.

Structured Interview
An assessment method in which candidate’s job-related competencies/KSAs are evaluated using standard questions that are scored systematically using predetermined criteria or benchmarks for all interviews for a particular job. The benchmarks provide behaviorally-specific examples of what constitutes high, medium, and low levels of proficiency. In each structured interview, the applicant is asked the same questions in the same sequence, and his or her responses are scored according to the predetermined criteria or benchmarks.

Subject Matter Expert (SME)
A person with bona fide expert knowledge about what it takes to do a particular job. First-level supervisors are normally good SMEs. Superior incumbents in the same or very similar positions and other individuals can also be used as SMEs if they have current and thorough knowledge of the job's requirements.

Surplus Employee
A current agency employee serving under an appointment in the competitive service, in tenure group I or II, who has received a Certification of Expected Separation or other official certification issued by the agency indicating that the position is surplus. (See 5 CFR Part 330)

Temporary Appointment
A nonstatus appointment to a competitive service position for a specific time period not to exceed one year. (See 5 CFR Part 316)

Term Appointment
A nonstatus appointment to a position in the competitive service for a specific period of more than one year and lasting not more than four years. (See 5 CFR Part 316)

An evaluation of a candidate’s job-related competencies/KSAs using a series of questions (e.g., true-false, fill-in-the-blank, matching, and multiple choice) or exercises that are administered in a paper-and-pencil or computer format.

Test Administrator (TA)
A person trained and certified by OPM to administer OPM written tests. Only OPM-certified Test Administrators may administer OPM-developed written tests.

Test Security and Control Officer (TSCO)
A person who has been trained and certified in test security by OPM. A Test Security and Control Officer has overall responsibility for assuring that agency Test Administrators follow OPM guidance in administering OPM tests, and is also responsible for requesting, securing, and controlling test materials.

See “Rule of Three.”

Transmutation Table
A mathematical table that is used to convert raw scores obtained by applicants to ratings between 70 and 100. (See Appendix J)

A website that provides the public with comprehensive information regarding federal employment. Agencies must post their job vacancy announcements on USAJOBS as part of the public notice requirement.

USA Staffing
An automated examining system that was developed by OPM and is available to agencies on a reimbursable basis.

The degree that the assessment tool measures the competencies/KSAs important for job performance, i.e., people who score higher on the assessment will do better on the job.

Veterans’ Preference
A special privilege that entitles qualifying veterans to certain advantages in consideration for federal employment.

Well-qualified Employee
Under CTAP and ICTAP, an eligible employee whose competencies/KSAs clearly exceed the minimum qualification requirements for the position. (See 5 CFR Part 330)

Work Sample Assessment
An assessment method in which a candidate’s job-related competencies/KSAs are evaluated based on work-specific activity or simulation of a work activity. A writing sample is an example of a work sample assessment.

Merit System Principles
5 U.S.C. § 2301
Additional points in examining for preference eligibles
5 U.S.C. § 3309
Preference eligibles; examinations; guards, elevator operators, messengers, and custodians
5 U.S.C. § 3310
Order of certification
5 U.S.C. § 3313
Certification of names for appointment
5 U.S.C. § 3317
Competitive service; selection from certificates
5 U.S.C. § 3318
Employment (general), basic requirements
5 CFR Part 300
Temporary and term appointments
5 CFR Part 316
Positions restricted to preference eligibles
5 CFR Part 330 subpart D
Agency Career Transition Assistance Plans (CTAP) for local surplus and displaced employees
5 CFR Part 330 subpart F
Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for displaced employees
5 CFR Part 330 subpart G

Recruitment and selection through competitive examination
5 CFR 332

Order of selection from certificates
5 CFR 332

Three considerations for appointment
5 CFR Part 332

Processing medical eligibility determinations on certificate of eligibles
5 CFR Part 339

Error of the Commission
April 19,1917, 31 U.S. Op. Att. Gen. 110, 1917 WL 79 (U.S.A.G.)

OPM's Handbook of Occupational Groups and Series

Guide to Processing Personnel Actions

OPM delegated examining

OPM web page for forms

The Classifier’s Handbook

Sample interagency delegated examining agreement
Appendix A

Professional and scientific positions
Appendix K

Random referral instructions
Appendix L

Tied Ratings & Random Referral Instructions

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Why Are So Few Blockbuster Drugs Invented Today?

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